The straight loop is shown in the figure below. The loop is knitted through the previous loop by the needle.
Figure a shows the loop whose head is held by the needle. The end of the thread tied to the neighboring loops is held by the suppressor sinker in some types of machines. As in the figure, some structures are symmetrical. It is very difficult to identify the parts of the loop when it comes out of the machine. Even the direction of the fabric is difficult to see.
FULL NEEDLE AND LOOP FORMATION
a) old loop,
b) Needle rises, falls over loop cover,
c) The shuttle passes, that is, gives the thread to the needle mouth,
d)As the needle goes down, the old loop closes the needle cover, the needle guides the caught thread into the old loop.,
e) The new loop passes through the old one.,
f) the new loop is ready.
FRONT AND BACK FACES
As seen in the figure below, some weaves look different when viewed from the back.
Since it can be used as the front side on both sides, it is customary to accept the loops whose feet are visible on the front. On the reverse side, the curved tops of the loops are seen. If the needle pulls the loop towards the opposite side of the fabric. straight loop If it pulls in the opposite direction, this reverse loop it occurs.
FRONT AND BACK FACE
FLAT KNIT AND CURSE KNIT
The terms Plain and Reverse are technical references only and do not imply the front or back of the knit fabric.
FORMATION OF A NEW LOOP (RIB)
It is a vertical knitting row formed by knitting the same needle on top of each other. The density of the columns (the number of loops in 10 cm) is an important factor affecting the properties, appearance and operation of the fabric. This density is related to the thickness of the needles, as well as knitting conditions such as yarn parameters and loop settings. is also related to.
It is a horizontal row of loops and is formed by knitting needles side by side during a saddle movement. The row density affects the properties of the fabric and the production speed of the machine. With long loops, the fabric becomes loose, but the cost decreases because it will come out of the machine quickly.
It is the measurement of column and row density together in a square area. In many countries, the standard measurement is the measurement made at 100 square centimeters (1 square meter) as shown in the figure below. It is preferred to measure in a larger area in order to minimize the margin of error.
The loop structure of this type of knitting is shown in the figure below.
1-Nopen start work is done in the order indicated in black. The deformation of the bottom row is only after this process.
2- The stitch before the knot is the elongated stitch in the drawing. While the others are knitting, that needle is elongated because it stays in its mouth. However, it is no different from the others when it is knitted.
Nopen pressing can be done in every round of the machine. If nopen is pressed repeatedly with the same needle, the following image is obtained. Here;
1-When the stretched loops are freed from the needle, they will shrink and bubbles will occur in the fabric.
Repeating the 2-Nopen process on the same needle will increase both the tension in the held needle and the deformation in the same needles.
3- The number of nopenes that can be pressed on the same needle depends on both the capacity of the needle heads holding a new thread each time and the elasticity and strength of the thread.
4-Repetition of nope also affects the roller draw and may cause the side loops to rise with the needles and not get rid of them. This causes serious damage to the needles.
NOPEN (NEEDLE-BREAK ACCUMULATION)
NOPEN KNITTING STRUCTURE
As seen below;
1-The three needles in the drawing are in the resting position with the newly formed loop on their hooks. While two of them are inserted into the knitting, the third remains motionless.
2-Two knitting needles The loops are thrown over the tongue. While lowering, it also grabs the thread at the end of the shuttle. It hangs the loop on the needle hook that does not work.
3-Working needles form a new loop on the old ones. The thread is thrown over the column of the non-knit needles. The hanging loop on this needle lengthens because new meshes are formed in the other columns and the fabric is pulled by the roller.
It is possible to make consecutive jumps on the same needle. It is shown in the figure below.
The following should be noted here;
1- Overlapping creates pressure on the side needles that does not work and gradually increases.
2-Since the non-working needle does not catch new thread, the number of jumps that can be made on top of each other is limited only by the elasticity and durability of the elongated loop.
3-Repetition of the jump affects the pull applied by the roller to the side needles. The loops rise together with the needles, they cannot jump from the tongue and serious damage occurs to the knitting elements.
JUMP KNIT STRUCTURE
KNITTED STRUCTURES CREATED BY REPLACEMENT TECHNIQUE
Sweat changing technique can be defined as transferring the loop from one plate to another plate in double plate machines and taking it to the same plate in a different jacquard position. Different effects can be achieved with the displacement technique. The structures we define as openwork, execution (aran) and braiding are among them.
a.) The loop to be dropped is at the mouth of the needle.
b.) The needle rises to knit, but the system did not take the shuttle. The loop opens the cover of the needle.
c.) The rising needle starts to descend, the cover is closed by the needle.
d.) The loop is dropped.
DROP LOOP DESIGNS
Briefly, it can be defined as perforated knits. It is formed as a result of transferring one or more consecutive loops from one plate to the other plate, breaking the jacquard from one to the other to the left and transferring it back to the same plate.
1-The loop is transferred to the back plate.
2-Right or left jacquard is broken and the loop on the back plate is taken forward.
3-A needle is left empty with the transfer.
The most distinctive feature of openwork structures is the hole formed on the needle, which remains empty as a result of transfer.
EXECUTION ( ARAN )
Execution is defined as shifting the loops to the right and left along the knit as a bias in structure knits without holes.
Meanwhile, ( n ) stitches are transferred from the front plate to the back, while ( n-1 ) stitches are taken to the front plate by breaking 1 jacquard to the right or left. One stitch remaining on the back plate is transferred to the empty needle on the front plate by breaking the jacquard in the opposite direction ( n-1 ) and the process is completed. .( n ) is usually 3 or 4. That is, 2 or 3 loops are taken to the front plate by breaking a jacquard to the right and left, while the remaining loop is transferred to the empty needle by breaking 2 or 3 jacquards in the opposite direction and the hole is not opened as in the openwork.
It can be defined as the swapping of more than one stitch. As n=2k, n stitches are transferred from the front plate to the back plate, and k stitches are transferred to the front plate by breaking k jacquards to the right and left, and the other k stitches are broken to the front plate by breaking k jacquards in the opposite direction. As a result of transferring the loops into place, a simple braid is created.
Above is an example of a 2x2 braid. Here, each arm of the braid consists of two loops.
There are also braids with different number of loops on the arms. Such as 3x2,4x3. In this case, the braid consists of n loops, n=m+k. n loops are transferred to the back plate. m jacquard loops are broken and transferred to the front plate. m jacquard is broken and taken to the front plate and the hair throwing process is completed.
RELAXING TECHNIQUES IN HAIR BRAID
It is seen that sometimes no relaxation is used in 2x2 braiding. It is seen that the braiding arms consist of two loops and the jacquard is broken by two needle distances to the right and left while throwing the hair. This should not put us at ease in the use of tighter settings or lower strength yarns. This may force us to apply a hair technique.
The simplest relaxation technique is not to kill one arm of the hair, then the other during the last braid without throwing the hair, and to jump here.
As seen in the figure above, in the first half row before the transfer, the arm to be thrown is killed first, and in the second half, the arm to be thrown away is killed. Meanwhile, the other arms are kept waiting without knitting, that is, jumping is done here. Relief is achieved within the framework of these procedures.
Dropping is based on the principle that the jumping yarn in the relaxation phase of the braid is held by a needle on the empty plate and left as a result of operating (unloading) this needle by a system that does not take shuttle.
In the meantime, the jump left by being caught by an empty needle extends between 25% and 50%. Later, the excess jacquard here will flow into the loops that will form the braid during breaking. Therefore, an extra relief will be provided.
PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED IN THE PRODUCTION OF HAIR BRAIDED PRODUCTS
The most important part of the problems that occur in flat knitting occurs during the production of hair braided products.
The main problems encountered in braids are tears, bursts and loose ends that occur in the braid during jacquard breaking and transferring..These tears, cracks and loose ends are affected by many factors, from the type of braid to the density of the fabric.
In other words, the hair that can work in a certain fabric density setting may cause problems in a tighter fabric setting. Or a certain type of braiding, which can work without problems in acrylic and wool blended yarns, may cause tears, bursts or loose ends in the same settings in the use of cotton yarn.
Here, in order to minimize these problems, the techniques we call relaxation techniques are applied in braiding. These techniques aim to reduce the braiding errors to an optimum value by reducing the tensions on the yarn during the throwing of the hair, namely jacquard breaking and transferring. This optimum value means acceptable value. It should be noted that zero-waste production will never be possible in any sector, but it should not be overlooked that this will be possible in the coming years, perhaps not now, considering that the technological developments are endless.
In the study performed on 3x3 braids, it was seen that the braid is at the point where the loop meets the middle of the braid.
In addition, this tear occurs during the transfer of the second arm from the back plate to the front plate, if we work at appropriate settings, that is, at fabric density settings that will provide an acceptable fabric touch. In this study, which was carried out using any relaxation technique, the stage at which the tear occurred is seen in the loop diagram below.
A tear is generally referred to as a few stitch-wide holes opened in the fabric as a result of the breaking of the thread. A burst can be described as larger-sized tears. .This can be caused by the setting too tight or the yarn elasticity being low. Bursts are usually irreparable faults and repaired ones are usually considered defective.
The error that we call loose knitting occurs as a result of not transferring the loop from the back plate to the needle on the front plate and dropping it after jacquard breaking. There is no break in the yarn here. In cases where the slip occurs, the fabric setting is usually tight, the yarn strength is high and the yarn flexibility is low.
The high yarn strength and low flexibility cause the needle tips to bend a little during jacquard breaking. In this case, the needles on the front and back plate cannot meet each other during the transfer, and the needle goes up and down, causing a misalignment. In another case, when the jacquard is broken, the threads and loops in the tensioned state stick the needle's transfer spring to the needle even though the needles are facing each other. In this case, the raised needle is between the transfer spring. will not enter and the transfer will not take place, and leakage will occur.
Another reason for the slippage is that the loop setting is too open.
However, this type of leakage has nothing to do with braids. It is possible to prevent this leakage by tightening the adjustment or increasing the roller pull.
The needles in the transfer position can be seen above. Here, the needle that tries to pick up in the transfer does not enter the spring of the opposite needle, so it is loose.