Lining Fabrics
  • Lining Fabrics



    Consumers who become conscious and whose consumption habits change, give the importance and attention they give to the outer fabric, appearance and workmanship of a garment, to the materials covering the inner part of the garment.

     Lining fabrics, the importance of which is constantly increasing in the garment industry today, has a special importance among other auxiliary materials and accessories for the complete integrity of the garment. 

    Lining fabrics are fabrics that cover the seams by covering part or all of the inner side of the clothes, and have the appropriate weight, strength, color, touch and movement ability suitable for the type of upper fabric. 

    Lining fabrics are the first surfaces that come into contact with the human body.. With the movements of the human body, friction, stretching, etc. exposed to the effects. Strength is important in these fabrics in terms of clothing quality. The most important feature expected from lining fabrics; It is to make the appearance in the garment clearer without compromising the functionality and comfort of the garment during use. In addition, it is expected to have the same performance and strength properties as the outer fabric, not to show any dimensional changes due to the cleaning processes applied during use, and to complete its life at the same time as the outer fabric. The fact that pilling values, abrasion and tear strength, color and sweat fastnesses give good results in long-term use are some of the basic conditions that must be met in terms of consumer satisfaction. 

    Considering the characteristics of the fabric to be obtained, it is generally used in the production of lining fabric. viscose, flush acetate and triacetate, nylon and polyester fibers and blends of these fibers are used.





    Viscose Linings 

    Viscose linings have good water and sweat absorption properties. In addition, it has disadvantages such as quick wrinkling and excessive shrinkage. In addition, their wet strength is low. However, they show a slippery hand and drape similar to silk.

    Linings using modal fibers, which are modified viscose fibers, have good form holding, high wet strength and good static free properties.


    Flush Linings 

    Flush yarn is the form of viscose produced in continuous filament form. It has high brightness and static electricity-free properties. Despite its good water and sweat absorbing properties, its wet strength is very low. Therefore, it is sensitive to washing. Flush linings have high draping and heavy weight properties. It is especially preferred in summer clothes because it provides good thermal insulation. Because these linings are very slippery, tissue slippage may occur at the seams. For this reason, it is very important to choose the appropriate stitch type. Since it shows too much shrinkage, the shrinkage ratios should be determined first and the necessary allowance should be left in the cut.


    Acetate and Triacetate Linings 

    Acetate fibers have lower tensile strength than other fibers. They are flexible, slippery, shiny, draped and more resistant to wrinkling. In addition to their fast and good moisture absorption feature, they keep this moisture on its surface and provide easy drying. The fact that they do not show yellowing and shrinkage in washing, ironing and dry cleaning reduces the dimensional problem that may occur between the lining and outer garment.


    Nylon Linings 

    Nylon liners are quite durable and lightweight. These can be characterized as the strongest and lightest linings. Due to the properties of the fiber, they show good springiness, drape, elasticity, no wrinkling, quick drying, high breaking and friction strength. However, they are not heat resistant. Depending on the antistatic material it contains, its dirt attracting and holding properties can be changed. When used as a blend with other fibers, nylon gives resistance to the fabric.


    Polyester Linings 

    Polyester fiber is formed as filament and textured yarn. More glossy and normal strength primers are obtained than filamentary ones. Linings produced from textured polyester, on the other hand, show a flexible structure. Polyester linings are generally strong but less elastic, have satisfactory draping, and have fewer air spaces in the fabric structure. They have good form-holding ability due to their thinness, strength, non-crease and thermoplastic properties. However, the problem of static electricity and pilling is high. For this reason, it is used in mixture with other yarns.


    Woven Knits Used in Lining Fabrics 

    Lining fabrics are generally woven fabrics. But Knitted linings obtained from circular and warp knitting machines are also used in sportswear.. The most common types of weaving in woven linings are as follows;


    plain knit woven fabric





    It is the most used type of weaving in the weaving of light weight linings.

    Due to the maximum connection of the warp and weft threads, durable fabrics with high breaking and friction strength are obtained.

    Ancak Due to the high number of connections, the flexibility and draping of the fabric is low..

    It has a durable fabric structure that does not allow thread and seam slippage during sewing and subsequent uses.

    It is a frequently preferred lining weaving type because it is cheap and has a lot of usage area.



    twill weave woven fabric




    The biggest feature of the fabrics in which twill weave is used is the diagonal lines on the surface.

    For this reason, the flexibility of the fabrics increases and their hearing improves.

    They have higher tear strength than plain woven fabrics.

    Linings in which twill weave is used are more suitable and durable for cutting and processing.

    They do not show the dirt that sticks on them easily.

    They are mostly used in leather garments, coats and coat linings.



    Satin weave Woven fabric






    One of the most commonly used weaving types in the production of lining fabrics is satin weaving. The number of links in the unit knitting report is small. Linings produced with satin weave show a slippery, smooth surface, shiny appearance and drape. The reason for the shine is that the yarns reflect the light better because they float. A maximum of 5 satin weaving is used.

    It is preferred in clothes such as coats and coats due to its good draping.

    However, it has low friction resistance and wear resistance. Over time, breaking and beading occur in floating threads. Care should be taken during sewing due to slippage in threads. Optimum weft and warp densities should be applied as they create a structure that is highly inclined to seam slippage and tissue slippage.


    Characteristics of Lining Fabrics 

    A loose and slippery fabric structure is obtained due to the existing yarn and weaving properties in woven linings in weaving types consisting of smooth-surfaced artificial fiber filaments and other synthetic fibers and with long jump yarns such as satin. For this reason, negative consequences such as slippage of the seam and deterioration of the tissue structure of the fabric occur. To avoid this By reaching certain weft and warp densities in fabrics, thread slippage in the seams is reduced. If sufficient weft and warp density cannot be reached, slippage of the threads and deterioration of the texture occur even at the seamless points, which is known as “opening” in practice. Low weft and warp densities reduce the drape of the fabric. Therefore, one of the most important features expected from the lining, preventing the upper fabric from contacting the body, preventing interior details and unpleasant images, causes the function not to be fulfilled.

    Surface lubricity and brightness in primers, It plays an important role in the duration and durability, cleaning and durability of the fabric. In particular, slippery linings preserve the upper fabric form by spreading the movement in the joints such as knees and shoulders, and easy to put on and take off during use.

    The greatest difficulty of slipperiness is experienced during cutting. Non-slippery and rough surface linings, on the other hand, gather during use. The type, fineness, texture and finishing processes of the fibers that make up the yarn determine the brightness of the lining fabrics. Synthetic fibers have different grades such as matte, semi-matt and glossy depending on their chemical composition. The brightness of the fabric increases when satin weaving with fewer connection points is used. Trilobal polyester yarns with triangular cross-section are frequently used because they reflect light too much. During the finishing processes, especially in pre-setting and finishing, reaching the high temperatures possible increases the gloss.

    Color harmony in lining fabrics can be examined in terms of the compatibility of the lining with the outer fabric color and the color harmony within the lining itself. In the open-width dyeing process, in cases where less or no dye is taken towards the edges of the fabric, the color incompatibility within the lining itself appears. The most important reasons for color variations on the fabric are;


    • The structure of the fabric and the moisture it contains,
    • Variations in warp density, edge thickness and weight,
    • Insufficient pressure of the machine, voltage differences and temperature distribution,
    • Paint selection, temperature control and processing time,
    • Environmental conditions are changes in fixation and washing conditions.


    Color, washing, cleaning, rubbing, sweat and light fastness are other important points. Low fastness values ​​cause the color to run off during sweating and washing and dye the upper fabric..

    Lining fabrics are expected to age in accordance with the usage period of the garment. However, this depends on the type of lining chosen as well as the use and purpose of the garment. For example, chemicals suitable for the outer fabric of a garment that is dry cleaned frequently can damage the lining and lining seam. In addition, linings containing loosely woven and faulty yarns can be thickened and their properties improved by coating.

    The yarn properties, yarn density and weaving structure of the linings affect the linings' ability to maintain their characteristics during use. For example, a plain lining fabric is more durable than satin. Increasing yarn density in a polyester lining will adversely affect fabric strength after a point, as it increases crimp.

    It is very important that the amount of shrinkage and sagging that may occur as a result of washing and dry cleaning in lining fabrics is at acceptable rates. If the lining shrinks more than desired, shrinkage occurs in the outer fabric. In case of sagging of the lining, it is seen that the lining comes out from the hem and armholes. This situation reveals once again how important the harmony of the washing and cleaning properties of the outer fabric and the lining is. Generally, dimensional stability is tried to be achieved by reducing the tension in fixation and weaving in synthetic linings, and by reducing the water absorption feature in cellulose-based linings.

    Anti-crease is one of the most important features expected from a primer during use. It is important when using is the rate and amount of recovery of the wrinkled liner after the pressure has been removed.. It is known that cellulose-based fibers are more wrinkled.

    Anti-crease property also depends on yarn properties, finishing conditions and weaving structure.

    Flax fibers; If we list them as cotton, viscose, acetate, nylon, polyester and wool, the tendency to wrinkle will decrease from beginning to end. Long staple yarns used in lining fabrics reduce the tendency of lining to wrinkle. Increasing weaving frequency and twisting the yarn also reduces wrinkling. However, increasing the anti-crease feature brings some difficulties during planting. These problems are tried to be reduced by temperature and pressure during finishing processes.

    The optimum friction strength of a liner is the point at which it can withstand the maximum stress or stress it may encounter during use. Tensile forces and frictional strengths determined especially in loose linings must be complied with.

    Friction resistance is extremely important in terms of not spoiling the appearance of the garment. However, Roughness may occur due to friction on sleeves, hems and collars, depending on the yarn construction and texture of the lining fabric.. This situation is more likely to occur in satin weaving. A bad appearance arises as a result of pilling of worn fibers on the fabric surface and it is very difficult to clean them in synthetic fibers.

    When the fibers are listed as nylon, polyester, cotton, rayon, acetate, the abrasion resistance decreases from beginning to end. Therefore, in applications acetate and rayon are often used in the same lining fabrics with polyester, rarely nylon. This gives the fabric a double color effect.

    Static electrification depends on the amount of moisture on the fabric surface and friction.

    The low amount of moisture in synthetic fibers (except rayon and acetate) causes the electric charge in the air to be drawn more and therefore the linings made from these fibers become more electrified. This increased electrical charge causes the garment to stick to the wearer, bulk and hardness. This situation, especially seen in synthetic primers, causes the primer to attract dirt and dust, thus changing the color of the primer and reducing the brightness, making the user uncomfortable and not performing the desired functions from the primer.

    In order for the human body to be comfortable in hot and cold temperatures, moisture must come out of the body. For this reason, especially the lining that comes into contact with the body must absorb moisture and transmit it to the outside very well. Otherwise, it will give a feeling of discomfort.


    Moisture absorbing property of the lining 

    It is related to the type of weaving used during weaving, the fiber type and the finishing processes applied. The moisture wicking properties of viscose linings with staple fibers are better than linings made of filament yarns such as polyester.

    In addition, loose linings absorb and give off moisture more quickly than those that are woven frequently.

    In the finishing process, the fibers should be given a good moisture absorbing property.

    Linings are generally desired to be softer than the outer fabric. This is because it is in contact with the body. The threads used for this should not be excessively twisted and thick, generally thin threads should be preferred. In terms of the type of yarn used and its properties, acetate lining is more draped than polyester lining. Rayon linings, on the other hand, are generally heavier and thicker, although they have very good casting and softness. Since it has a high tendency to pilling, rayon must be mixed with polyester or nylon.


    The Features That Lining Brings to the Garment 

    Lining fabrics, depending on the compatibility with the properties of the upper fabric, can add some important properties to the whole product. The expected comfort, durability and ease of use from the garment are as follows;


    • It closes the open edges formed by the main fabric by covering the internal structure errors and details that may occur during manufacturing.
    • As it closes the details and seams, it eliminates cleaner working and therefore more labor costs, and provides a clean appearance to the garment.
    • During use, it provides easy wearing and taking off, especially on clothes made with a fabric with a high friction coefficient. In addition, problems such as the problem of catching on the edges of the garment or the rotation of the pockets are minimized.
    • It helps the garment to form a stable structure by preventing it from stretching and loosening too much with user movements.
    • It prevents direct contact of the outer fabric with the body.
    • It prolongs the service life of the product by eliminating the problems such as being affected by sweat by attaching the garment to the seams or touching the human skin.


    One of the important features that affect the consumer in linings is their draping. According to the desired features; Lining linings that have a loose, agile, hard, flowing or fragile structure should have features that create pleasant feelings when touched, create soft folds, feel the density, are flexible, can be easily sewn, and do not cause disturbing effects on the user. However, with the use of time and the methods applied in washing and cleaning the outer clothing fabric, the linings change, causing the fabric to gain a new chemical structure and change its physical appearance.



    Posted by %PM, 16% 651% 2020 17%:%Feb in Weaving

Lining Fabrics