In the world and the most widely used knitting machine structure in the knitting industry in Turkey is the knitting machines in which the knitting needles are moved one by one. These knitting machines perform the knitting process by providing loop formation with a single yarn system. "yarn feeding, knitting area (knitting needles, needle bed and needle bed carrier), slide and lock system, patterning systems, tissue pulling and winding systems, control equipment are the parts of flat knitting machines.
This section is where bobbins are placed in order to realize the yarn flux in the knitting area in a controlled manner. table and yarn control consists of the unit. The knitting process is started by passing the yarn from the bobbin, through the beads, knot catchers and tensioners, to the shuttles and from there to the needles. It provides high quality in machine operation with its side and top arbor system, light and sound warning system. The shuttles, which are the last element of the yarn feeding section, are located on four double-sided shuttle rails. Each shuttle is placed on plastic blocks that provide shuttle movement on the rail. The upper edges of the plastic blocks allow the shuttle to move on the rail by being selected by the latches on the slide.
Knitting needles are the main part that performs knitting. The needles provide fabric formation by giving one of the loops, hangers and skipping movements to the threads according to the movement they receive from the machine. Knitting needles consist of needle press (needle tongue and needle hook), needle foot and needle body. In weft flat knitting, four different types of needles are used: single-end hook-tongue needle, double-end hook-tongue needle (LL) needle, and sliding needle.
Needle bed and needle bed carrier
Needle bed carriers in knitwear (flat knitting) machines; They are machine parts that are placed flat and in one piece on the machine body, and have a suitable number of channels on which the needles can work and at certain intervals according to the thickness of the machine. needle bed carriers; It has basic tasks such as carrying the needles placed in the channels, helping the movement of the lock (steel-head) system, controlling the movement of the shuttles and the slide.
Slide and lock system
The slide (head-saddle) is a knitwear (flat knitting) machine element that is placed on the rails on the needle bed and makes the movement of the shuttle together with the lock mechanism as wide as the machine. There are two slides on the machine, one on the front and one on the back rail. These skids are connected to each other by a skid bridge. The slides control the locks across the entire width of the machine by scanning them parallel to the upper surfaces of the needle beds. There is a setting for adjusting the knitting frequency on the sled. The runners perform the knitting process by transferring the movements they receive from the control mechanism to the knitting sections. With the computer-controlled system, patterning and productivity are increased. The speed of the motor can be adjusted according to the yarn used and the fabric structure produced.
KNITTING MACHINE ELEMENTS IN WEFT KNITTING
The elements that enable the yarn to form loops in the weft knitting system are called knitting machine elements. These; needles, sinkers, locking systems (steels), thread guides (shuttles) and roller. These elements are the elements that have a direct effect on the knitting process.
Needles generally used in weft knitting are latch needles. It is the most widely used type of needle today. This needle, which can operate at high speeds and is less likely to cause problems, is more advantageous than the others. Needles can be in different shapes depending on the machine type and thickness. All lingual needles consist of beak (hook), tongue, neck, body and foot (heel). It is used in weft knitting machines with flexible needles, hooked needles at both ends, compound needles and compound needles.
Ever since mechanical knitting looms were invented, knitting needles have become the heart of the process. There are three types of needles that have emerged over the centuries.
The flexible tip needle is the oldest type of needle. Thanks to its simple structure and cheapness, it has managed to remain in use for four centuries. Although new machines using this type of needle are rarely produced today, many of them are still used in many businesses around the world. In order to open and close the hook during production, the flexible-tipped needle needs an auxiliary element, a press. This auxiliary element adversely affects the production rate and limits the use of this type of needle in modern knitting machines.
The most successful needle to date is the latch needle, invented 150 years ago by Townsend and Moulden. The tongue of the needle is fixed and rotates around a pin to open and close the hook. The invention of this needle was inspired by the breaking of a pocket knife, according to a legend.
The latest development is the sliding needle. Although this needle has revolutionized the warp knitting industry, it has not yet found a commercial place in the weft knitting industry. To unhook the needle, a closing member slides through a hole in the main part of the needle.
It is a knitting element that helps needles to form loops in weft knitting machines. There are a number of sinkers equal to the number of needles in the machine. They can be in different shapes depending on the machine construction and thinness, but their functions are the same even if the shape is different.
3-Lock Systems (Steel Plate)
Lock systems in weft knitting machines consist of steels that move the needle. Flat knitting machines can consist of several steel groups, while circular knitting machines can consist of a single block. Lock systems (steel table) in weft knitting machines consist of steels that determine the movement path of the needle.
Steels differ according to the work they do. The steels used;
A-Braid steels: Loop steel, Hanger steel, Jumper steel
4-Thread Guides (Shuttles)
The task of the thread guides (shuttles) on the knitting machine is to properly deliver the thread from the bobbins to the needles. The last point where the thread leads to the needles is the shuttles. The shuttles are of different shapes on flat and circular knitting machines.
In flat knitting machines, the shuttles are mobile in the knitting area. The saddle is carried with the head. In circular knitting machines, the shuttles are fixed. A shuttle is used for each system. Depending on the nature of the knitting, various types of shuttles can be selected (Normal knitting shuttle, Intersia shuttle, Split shuttle, Vanize shuttle….)
NORMAL KNITTING SHUTTLE
It is for general uses. The shuttles move on the rails on the machine. There are a total of 4 rails and a total of 16 shuttles on these rails (8 right, 8 left; 2 on each rail, 2 left and XNUMX right). Each shuttle carrier is moved by pins in the saddle.
It is designed to prevent the loss of time in interstitial knitting. In intesia knits made in normal shuttles, 2 row of knits is obtained for 3-1 head passes due to the shuttle transport events called “kick”, while when the intersia shuttle is used, 1 row is formed for each pass, which means 2-3 times the production.
It offers the possibility of feeding two different yarns from a single shuttle. These threads can be shown on the front and back if desired.
It prevents the formation of holes in openwork models.It turns into knitted fabric with the yarn-glass system passing through the shuttles. For continuous fabric formation, it is necessary to pull the formed knit from below. This is provided by the roller system.
5-Tissue Pulling and Wrapping Systems
In machines with weft knitting system, the knitted fabric has to be drawn by the drafting rollers in order for the knitting elements to form loops. While the drafting system used in flat knitting machines is generally made with a cylinder called roller, fabric wrapping is not required.
In circular knitting machines, on the other hand, due to long-length work and high production speed, the fabric drawn by the drafting rollers is wound on the winding spindle.
SYMBOLIC APPEARANCES OF KNITTING ELEMENTS IN WEFT KNITTING
Since the drawings of knitting elements as knitting surfaces are difficult and complex, the basic and derivative knitting drawings are drawn with these symbols by expressing the knit elements to symbols. is symbolized. The symbolic expression of the needle, which is one of the knitting elements, is a point as a top view and a line as a side view. The symbolic representation of loop, hanger, skip and needle is shown below.