Woven (96)

Denim fabric was first produced in France and Italy in the 19th century for the use of workers. It got its name from the south of France where it first touched. De Nimes from the city.

Later, when the United States of America made this product first a workwear and then a cultural item, it was adopted by the masses and became an important fashion product by gaining its real reputation. Denim has started to reflect a clothing philosophy on its own. There is no other type of clothing in the world that is accepted by people of all nations and age groups. The yarn used in denim fabric production has a very important place in terms of wide product range and meeting the expected quality.

The most important feature of denim is that it is a tough and durable fabric obtained by frequent weaving with high twisted strong threads. In the classical sense, a denim fabric warp is dyed with indigo dyestuff, the weft is undyed (ecru) and produced using cotton fibers 2/1 Z (2 top 1 bottom or 2 full 1 empty right-handed) or 3/1 Z (3 upper 1 lower or It is produced in a 3 full empty right-handed twill weaving construction with warp density. It is a fabric structure with low rubbing fastness, which is dominated by the color of the warp thread in the appearance of the fabric, because the warp threads are dense on the surface of the fabric, both in terms of texture and density.

Denim fabrics, whose general features can be listed in this way, have started to come out of the framework of known production methods or conventional dye chemical application processes, thanks to the developing and growing fashion trend and innovative processes. They can now be produced not only from cotton fibers, but also with many different synthetic fiber blends. In addition, dyeing the wefts with various dyestuffs besides the warps completely changes the general appearance of the classic denim fabric. It is possible to multiply the examples that can be given in this way. This shows that denim fabrics also change their physical properties and go beyond the known denim fabric draft.

In denim fabric production, the yarns produced by one of the various spinning systems to be used to form the weft of the fabric are sent directly to the weaving preparation room, and the warp yarns are sent to the warp dyeing department to form the warp. Threads to be used as warp threads in denim fabric production are dyed with indigo dyestuffs, which give denim its characteristic feature, unlike weft threads. Warp threads used in denim fabric production today can be dyed not only with indigo dyestuff, but also combined with sulfur and some cube dyestuffs. It can be in the form of "top" and "bottom" painting, which comes from the words "top" and "bottom" in English. For example, it can be in the form of bottom sulfur-top indigo, that is, indigo on sulfur first, or bottom indigo-top sulfur, that is, sulfur dyeing on indigo at the bottom. Today, warp dyeing can be performed in two different forms with three different techniques. In the open width dyeing and loop dyeing methods, the warp threads are dyed wrapped around the warp beam, while in the rope dyeing method, the dyeing process takes place after the thread bobbins are transferred to the rope winding machine and the rope form is given.

Rope Dyeing Method

In the rope dyeing technique, 300-400 warp threads are drawn from the creel and wound in the form of ropes in lengths of 10.000 - 15.000 m with the help of rope winding machines.

This process is the first step of the rope dyeing method. Then, 12-36 of these ropes are exposed to 5 or even 6 passages of indigo dye in sequence. each passage; It consists of the immersion part where the material can take the dyestuff while passing, followed by the squeezing process and then the air passage to ensure the oxidation of the dyestuff. The warp yarns absorb most of the indigo dyestuff that they can take in the first dye bath. In subsequent dye baths, only a small amount of dyestuff penetrates the yarn. Darker colors can be obtained by increasing the number of boats and the concentration in the boats. The oxidation time is usually 1 minute. If it is taken below 1 minute, the dyestuff cannot be oxidized, if the oxidation time is kept long, the color may be very dark. After the last air passage, dyestuff and chemical residues are washed in washing trays. Neutralization with citric acid and then drying is done in the last vessel. After the rope winding and rope dyeing processes, the warp yarns are prepared for sizing. The sizing process is done after it is brought from the rope form to a single warp beam form. For this reason, the ropes prepared before the sizing process come to the rope opening section to be wound on the warp beam. Rope ends are placed exactly on the combs in front of the machine with a system called cross. The ropes in the buckets are passed through the rollers at a certain distance from the machine. The purpose of this process is to ensure the parallelism of the yarns that have passed through too many rollers and mixed with each other in the dyeing process. In the rope opening section, broken and missing ends are completed and a smooth warp beam is prepared. The indigo dyeing technique, which has the highest dyeing quality, is expressed as the rope dyeing technique.

Open Width Painting Method

In this dyeing method, beams coming from serial warping are first dyed and then sized in a machine called "slasher". Slasher machine is an alternative machine to rope dyeing, which aims to minimize the number of processes to be applied for the denim dyeing process, in which the warp threads wound on the beams in the serial warp machine are dyed and sized. In this system, 350-400 threads of 50.000 m length are wound on the warp beams and 12-16 of these warp beams are placed in front of the line. Then, all of the yarns in the warp beams are subjected to dyeing, drying, sizing and re-drying processes, respectively. All these process steps are carried out on the same machine line and the process is completed by wrapping all the warp threads on a single warp beam at the end. Since the dyeing process is not in the form of a rope, the warp yarns are made ready for weaving in a single operation by wrapping the warp yarns on the weaving beam by sizing in the last part of the machine, without the need for rope winding and unwinding processes.

Loop Painting Method

This dyeing method is also carried out in an open width form. Open-width warp threads are held by the inlet roller and transferred to the prewash bath. After the prewash, the yarns proceed to the dyeing trough. After the yarns reaching the dyeing vat are treated with indigo, they reach the warp beams over the indigo trough instead of the afterwash trough. Just after this part, it passes under the beams and reaches the indigo dyeing trough again. The dyeing method is called loop dyeing because this path it has covered reminds of a loop. In this dyeing, there is a single bath instead of many dye baths. The desired color is to dip the threads 4-10 times into the impregnation vessel called "Twin Pad" in this technique and oxidize with air while passing under the beams after each boat dive. However, since it is a single boat, it is not possible to dye the yarn with a wide variety of dyestuffs. Therefore, it is not a very flexible method. After the yarns are sufficiently dyed, they are wrapped in warp beams after being subjected to post-washing and drying processes. Then sizing is carried out.

With the methods mentioned above, the warp threads are made ready for weaving and the weaving process is started. Denim fabrics can be produced in hook, shuttle and air jet weaving machines. Generally, warp density twill textures such as 2/1 or 3/1 Z weaving construction are preferred. The weight of denim fabrics is usually us is expressed as. 1 ounce is 28,35 g. In this case, the equivalent of 1 oz/yd2 is approximately 33,91 g/m2. They are produced in sufficient density and weight with the necessary yarns in accordance with the area where the fabrics will be used (shirts, skirts, trousers, jackets, men's/women's clothing or summer/winter etc.). Since it is a type of fabric with a tight structure, the preferred weaving machines should be suitable for heavy working conditions.

Finishing Processes in Denim Fabric Production

Some finishing processes are applied to make the raw fabrics ready for sale. A classic denim fabric finishing is no different from any woven fabric finishing. Respectively brushing, burning, washing, finishing, drying and sanforization are processed. In the brushing process, the fabric passes between the cylindrical brushes. Meanwhile, dust, fly, foreign matter and threads on the fabric are cleaned by suction with air suction. Then, the hairs on the fabric surface, which are lifted into the air after brushing, are quickly passed under the flame used in the burning machine, and the fibers on the surface are removed. Thus, the pre-treatment processes that give the denim fabric a smooth and shiny appearance are completed.

The fabric is washed in this process by passing it through a water trough. After the incineration process, pre-treatment processes such as mercerization and bleaching can optionally be continued. Then, the fabrics are taken to stenters with a finishing trough in front of them. In the stenter machine, firstly, the fabrics are processed in the finishing vat according to the desired properties. softness, fullness, waterproofing, resin coating etc. substances that provide properties can be given. After removing the excess finishing on the fabric with the printing rollers, the curvatures in the fabric wefts are corrected with the mahlo device at the entrance of the stenter machine by the right-to-left movements of the tension rollers. When the denim fabric is sewn, the weft slope is adjusted in this way so that the legs of the jeans do not turn after washing. Since the fabric texture is in twill, this process is an important process and if the slope is not given properly, a trotting error may occur. mahlo After the assembly, the fabric comes to the section where the drying drums of the machine are located. During drying, steam is given out from inside the drum cylinder. This given steam passes through the fabric. The purpose here is to adjust the desired moisture content in the fabric. If the fabric is transported by the needle chain system at the machine entrance, the longitudinal shrinkage can also be positively affected by giving an advance, that is, pre-feeding.

The stenter is an important finishing machine in which the fabrics are both dried and provided with aspect-length dimensional stability. After the stenter machine, the fabrics are made to be non-shrinkable. to the sanforization process is taken. In the sanforizing machine, the tension that will be suffered in the next stages due to the tensions and fiber properties in the fabric is taken to the maximum. In this way, the fabric is put into the size it will take after many washings. In fact, in the sanforizing process, weft yarns are brought closer together by mechanical means. At the entrance of the machine, the fabric is passed through the opening roller to prevent folded and wrinkled entry into the machine. According to the quality of the fabric, water or steam is sprayed to moisten the fabric, soften the cracks and shrink from the width. With the help of the leg rotation adjustment cylinder, the desired leg rotation is given to the fabric and the weft slopes are corrected. The fabric is passed over the surface between the heated steel roller and the rubber band, and at a certain temperature and pressure, shrinkage is given in the warp direction. Then, the fabric is dried with the help of a felted roller, the ironing effect is applied to the fabric and the given shrinkage is stabilized. After the felt, the fabric passes through the cooling drums and is wrapped in the dock.

Finishing Processes Applied to the Finished Denim Fabric Today, the use of finished fabrics in this form is very low. Only when a durable and hard fabric such as workwear is desired, they can be converted into clothing in this way. In order to make denim products different and to remove the hard attitude on the fabric, they started to undergo dry and wet finishing processes after the garments and sewing processes were completed and turned into clothes or as finished fabrics.

While the dry-applied finishing processes are various abrasion methods applied by mechanical means, the wet-applied finishing processes are the processes that are applied using various chemicals and give different effects. Dry applied processes; scraping, sandblasting, manual damage, tagging, laser burning (laser), resin (resin), ironing-creases and flat press), printing (print) can be sorted.

Processes applied as age; desizing – pre-washing (desizing), grinding (stonewash), enzyme wash (enzyme wash), bleaching (bleaching), dyeing (tinting – overdyeing), softening (softening), rinsing (rinse), washing with plastic balls (rubber balls) can be sorted.

It is possible to multiply the given examples. These processes can also be used in combination.

Enzyme and stone washing processes, which are widely used in these processes, come to the fore. Before processes such as enzyme and stone washing, the sizing agents that form a slippery film layer on the warp threads must be removed. Sizing agents, which contribute to strength while reducing friction, increase efficiency in weaving. However, the film layer formed can cause problems in terms of washing processes. Therefore, it must be removed. The process, which takes about 20 minutes, is a process that does not discolor the fabric itself, using wetting-based or softening chemicals. The structure of the sizing material used determines how the process will be applied. Generally, when using water-soluble sizing agent, it is washed by adding wetting agent. For water-insoluble sizing agents, the sizing is first rendered water-soluble by enzymes.

Stone Washing

Stonewashing is the process of dyeing fabrics in an aqueous medium by utilizing the low rubbing fastness of indigo dyestuff. pumice stone It is processed in industrial washing machines for periods ranging from 30 minutes to 1,5 hours with natural stones called natural stones. Denim products are washed with pumice stones until the desired color is obtained. Pumice stone has an abrasive effect on the fabric and prevents the paint from sticking to the fabric again. At the end of this washing, the fabric gets old and used air. In addition, the effects gained are particularly effective on puckers and seams. With grinding, the handle of denim products becomes softer. While the colors of denim products change with the processing time, the color becomes lighter as the time increases. However, the use of stone; This can cause problems such as excessive wear of the machines, blockages in the drainage lines, excessive wear of the washed products and the appearance of broken traces, the need for new areas for the storage of stones, the need for a lot of labor to clean the waste water and remove the dust from the finished pants.

Enzyme Wash

The enzymes most commonly used in denim washing are amylase, lactase and cellulase enzymes. While amylase enzymes are used for desizing, laccase and cellulase enzymes are used instead of pumice stone to lighten the color of denim fabrics and give them a different look. However, cellulase enzymes are mostly used because of the back-staining problems of laccase enzymes. In fact, most of the enzymatic treatments with cellulase are used to remove heavy chemicals from cellulosic fibers or to achieve new finishing effects. There are two types of cellulase enzymes on the market. These are acidic cellulase and neutral cellulase. Biopolishing is carried out with acidic cellulases to remove the fiber ends protruding from the fabric surface. Effects on the surface of the product after the biopolishing process; reduction in pilling tendency, minimum hairiness on the product surface, a soft handle and drape.

Neutral cellulase enzymes are used to give denim products a surface effect and a new finishing effect. Neutral enzymes are preferred because of less back dyeing and less strength loss in the denim industry. Since it is more sensitive to pH, a safer washing is achieved. Since acidic cellulases are more aggressive, they negatively affect tear strength. The purpose of enzyme washing is to obtain clothes with the desired color effect but with less wear. Thus, the life of the denim product can be longer than washing with stones. With the enzyme washing method, the amount of pumice stone used in denim grinding, which has a long history, has decreased. Today, there are three ways to achieve the grinding effect. The first classical way is washing with pumice stones. The second is washing with neutral cellulase enzymes only. The third is the washing method in which pumice stone and enzymes are used together.. Achieving the desired etching effect; It can be done by adjusting the machine type, liquor ratio, fabric amount, stone amount and enzyme amount. Processing time can be reduced by using more cellulase enzymes


Last Edited Tuesday, 10 January 2023 14:03


1-Make sure that the size of the wrench corresponds with the size of the nut/bolt.

2-Do not use screwdrivers instead of chisels or crowbars.

3-Make sure that the size and type of the screwdriver and the size and type of the screw match each other.

4-Use the control pen as intended, do not use it as a general purpose screwdriver.

5-Do not use products such as pliers-side chisels-T Allen as a hammer, and do not hit the handle and jaw parts.

6-Do not cut hard steel wires with pliers or thin scissors.

7-Do not use the hammer on materials harder than its own hardness and do not work with the corner parts of the hammer.

8-Do not attach an extension arm to any hand tool to gain more force.

9- Pay attention to the direction of rotation of the wrench, especially in wrenches and pipe wrenches. In such products, the movable jaw should not be loaded.

10-Do not use pipe wrenches with worn threads.

11-Use a pipe wrench suitable for the diameter of the material.

12-Do not use socket wrenches with air gun. Prefer sockets specially produced for air guns.

13-Be careful not to wear out the ends of the ring collets.

14-Use hand tools for their intended purpose.

15-Do not apply chemical processes, sharpening and welding processes to hand tools. Do not modify the shape of the instruments.

16-Do not use worn and faulty hand tools.

17- When moving the wheeled repair cabinets from one place to another, make sure that the drawers are closed and that the cabinet is locked.

18- During operation, make sure that all the drawers of the wheeled repair cabinets are not open at the same time. Otherwise, the balance distribution of the cabinet will be disturbed and it may be overturned.

19-After using hand tools, make sure to keep them clean and well maintained.

20- Be sure to use personal protection equipment suitable for your working conditions.




1. Make sure that the hand tool you will use is suitable for the work you are going to do.

2. Hand tools; If it has a stem, make sure it is from a knotless tree, with rounded edges, without splinters, straight, and of the appropriate size.

3. If the handles of the hand tools are loose, tighten them before use.

4. Use the appropriate wrench for tightening or loosening the nut. Do not use pliers or similar tools.

5. Do not extend normal lever wrenches by threading tubing or the like.

6. Do not use keys as hammers.

7. Secure the work being worked on to the table.

8. Do not carry hand tools in pockets, use a tool bag.

9. Do not apply excessive pressure or force to any tool.

10. When working with hand tools, use protective materials such as glasses, apron and gloves when necessary.

11. Be careful not to get your fingers, hands or clothes caught when using portable tools whose cutting edge rotates at high speed.

12. Do not leave tools without taking necessary precautions against falls from overhead.

13. Follow special instructions when using electric, hydraulic, pneumatic and all other hand tools.

14. Keep hand tools such as axes, cutters, and cleavers always sharp, make sure that their handles are inserted into the tool tightly and securely, and keep them in suitable sheaths, hangers and guards in case of wear.

15. In the case of pens, chisels (handled chisels), punches and similar tools, pencil tips, chisel blades and punch noses will always be sharp and appropriate for the job to be done, and have suitable shields, screens or similar guards when using them.

16. When you are not using levers and similar tools, do not leave them on the floor or on the bench and leave them upright, leave them lying down.

17. Files and rasps should have sturdy handles with metal collars or some other kind of handle. Do not use these tools without a handle.

18. Do not use files and rasps for chest opening, removing nails or hitting a hard object, do not hit them with hammers or similar tools, do not make tools such as chisels, pencils and staples from old files.

19. On the handles of the knives, if necessary, make hilt guards made of fiber, leather or stainless steel, put finger grips or shields.

20. Round the ends of the blades used for cutting rubber properly. 21. Place the jacks firmly and upright on the ground while the load is being lifted. After the loads are lifted to the desired height, do not work under or above these loads unless the jacks are fed with durable and suitable wedges and take the necessary precautions for lowering the loads with a jack.

22. When cutting taut wire, springs, and similar wires with pliers, wire shears and grippers, properly locate one of the cut ends of the wire.

23. Hand tools to be used in places where sparks will be dangerous should be made of materials that will not cause sparks. Do not use non-qualified tools in these locations.

24. Hammers, sledgehammers, pencils, chisels, staples and similar tools should be made of high quality steel in accordance with the standards. Correct their broken or burr head by grinding or filing.

25. Quenching or sharpening of hand tools, printing and repair work should be done by qualified workers. Properly protect their pointed or sharp ends when not in use.

26. Do not keep hand tools in the middle of floors, stairs, passages or any place where workers can use them as passages, and make suitable cabinets, hanging tables or shelves with skirts at least 2 centimeters high.

Last Edited Thursday, 08 December 2022 11:29

Upholstery fabricsAs in all product groups in the textile sector, it has changed and developed over time depending on customer requests/demands and fashion trends.

For this reason, the use of fancy yarns has become widespread over time and chenille yarns have had an important share in the production of upholstery fabrics due to many different reasons such as having a velvet-like appearance when woven and being produced economically.

Upholstery fabrics; Considering the place of use, they are textile products with low draping, more thickness compared to other textile products, higher weight and high fastness values.

As with all textile products, upholstery fabrics are expected to preserve their initial state as much as possible against the external effects it is exposed to. Because; It is desired that upholstery fabrics have high abrasion resistance and accordingly, no color changes in the washed or wiped parts (having high friction fastness value).

In addition to all these, since upholstery fabrics are used in the furniture industry, they are required to have a low cast, that is, a full handle, as they need to be easily shaped and retain their form.

Upholstery fabrics are widely used in the furniture and automotive industry. 

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In addition to its high wear resistance, of upholstery fabrics It is desired that it has a high staining resistance and an easy-care feature. During the use of upholstery fabrics, staining is usually caused by water. For this reason, staining resistance is increased by fabric production using hydrophobic fibers in upholstery fabrics and by creating hydrophobic surfaces with different finishing techniques (water, dirt, oil repellent finishes).

It is desired that the fabrics used in the upholstery industry have high abrasion resistance. One of the factors affecting the abrasion resistance of fabrics is the property of the yarn used in production.

Upholstery fabrics should be woven in a certain warp and weft density, taking into account the weaving limit. Since low weft and warp density will adversely affect the sewing shear strength of the fabric, the weft and warp density values ​​should be high in upholstery fabrics, which is related to yarn count, type, yarn twist, etc.

Upholstery fabrics are classified in 11818 groups in the standard TS 14465 EN 7;

1- Plain Textured Fabric: The fabrics produced in different patterns by the different movements of the frames in the weaving machines with the weft and warp threads intersecting with each other at an angle of 90° are called plain textured fabrics.

2-Knitted Fabric: It is obtained by connecting the yarns fed from the creel with the help of circular or flat knitting machines, forming a loop structure.

3-Full Fabric: In addition to the weft and warp ground yarns in the plain textured fabric, the fabrics that contain a third yarn called pile yarn are called pile fabric. Pile fabrics can be produced in special 3-thread weaving machines, as well as in classical weaving machines with yarns that have pile structure in the yarn structure, such as chenille yarn.

 4-Non-Woven Fabric: Textile surfaces produced by binding together the fibers that are too short and thin to be included in the yarn structure with known yarn production methods, by mechanical, thermal or chemical methods are called nonwoven fabric/surface.

5-Tufting Fabric: They are textile products created by giving a pile surface with the help of a needle to the surface fed in the form of cheesecloth. The appearance of tufted surfaces is likened to grass. Tufted fabrics are divided into two as velor and loop surface.

 6-Flocked Fabric: The textile surfaces created using flocked yarn weaving or knitting technique are called flocked fabrics. It is known that the abrasion resistance properties of flock yarns are better than the abrasion resistance properties of chenille yarn. Textile surfaces created with flocked yarn are widely used in automotive and seat upholstery.

7- Raised Fabric: Raised fabrics are textile surfaces obtained by subjecting the raising process, which is the mechanical finishing process of flat woven textile products. With the raising process, a pile layer is formed by pulling the fibers onto the fabric surface. The raising process; It occurs when the fabric comes into contact with the rotating layer with the needles on a cylinder and the needles bring the fibers in the fabric structure to the fabric surface.

Upholstery fabrics; It is produced in classical and modern weaving machines and velvet weaving machines. Velvet fabrics are produced with 2 yarns, different from the classical 3-thread weaving. Two of these yarns are weft and warp yarns, as in classical weaving, and the third yarn is the pile yarn that forms the pile structure of the velvet fabric.

Velvet fabrics; It can be classified under two main headings in terms of production technique: weft velvets, which are formed by connecting the pile yarn with the fabric in the direction of the weft yarn, and warp velvets, which are formed by connecting the pile yarn with the fabric in the warp direction.

Velvet fabrics are also produced using jacquard velvet weaving machines and different colored pile yarns.

Upholstery fabrics produced from chenille yarn; Chenille yarn is called false velvet because of its appearance resulting from its pile structure..

Upholstery fabrics produced from chenille yarn, instead of using an extra pile yarn as in velvet fabrics; It is produced by incorporating chenille yarn, which is used as weft yarn, into the fabric structure. Since the use of chenille yarn as a warp yarn is not suitable, pile yarns cannot be placed in the warp direction, as in velvet fabric. The most preferred weaving machines for weaving chenille yarns; They are machines with shuttles and hooks. The most preferred of these two machine types is hook weaving machines. Weaving of chenille yarns is done with an auxiliary weft yarn. The raw material of chenille yarns, which is generally preferred in the upholstery sector; cotton, polyester, acrylic, viscose, polypropylene and mixtures of these raw materials.

Last Edited Thursday, 01 December 2022 11:08



 Carding machines are machines that can draw in lamellas, forces and card at the same time.






Strength section: The process of passing the warp threads in the warp beam on the weaving loom or in a separate place from the strengths in accordance with the drawing-in report is called drawing-in.






This process is not done for fabric types whose draw-in pattern will not change, because the yarns of the other warp are tied one by one before the warp ends. If the drawing-in report is to be changed, the warp threads are usually drawn in a separate place on the weaving loom. The important thing here is to do the drawing in very carefully by adhering to the order specified in the drawing plan. Otherwise, since a row skip will disrupt the knitting structure, it will cause fabric defect, which is very difficult to compensate. The aim of drawing-in in weaving circles is to pass the warp threads through the strengths one by one according to the drawing-in plan. This process is done according to the drawing-in plan according to the weave of the fabric to be woven.






Powers are grouped in two magazine paths. After the powers are transferred onto the conveyor belt, the separation device separates the powers one by one. This then brings the forces into the starting position. Before drawing in, the comb and its strength are centered by optical centering. Developed forces are taken to the desired strength frame or power bearing bar, depending on the situation. The thrusters push the forces towards the frame or the power rods according to the drive report.






Yarn section: The yarns are separated from the warp layer stretched on the frame one by one using a separation unit and presented to the drawing-in hook. This hook returns after taking the yarn through the comb, the power and the lamella eye. After drawing-in through the lamella, power and comb, the yarn is released from the hook and held by the absorbent nozzle, the yarn sensor checks whether the yarn is drawn in correctly.

Lamel section: After the warp is attached to the weaving machine, lamellar stringing is performed in order to control the ends of the warp threads one by one during the weaving process. Lamellar is a wire or metal narrow and short warp element that is hung on each warp wire during warp preparation or weaving. The warp tension must be well adjusted in order for the lamella assembly to function well. Lamels have open or closed types. Closed lamellas are mostly used in warps drawn with automatic drawing-in machine. The open lamellas are stacked after they are placed on the warp weaving machine. The lamellae are arranged side by side in 4-12 rows. 4–6–8 row lamellas are the most commonly used in businesses. The ordinal numbers above this are used in silk weaving. If a warp thread breaks, the lamella attached to it falls down onto the lamella bars and stops the machine. When the lamellas fall down, they prevent the movement of the bars, also called lamella saws, and cause the machine to stop. Automatic lamella setting machines are generally used after warp drawing-in, that is, for open lamellas. There is a condition that the warp must be taken 1 to 1 diagonally. There are batteries that can be easily changed according to various lamella widths.






When the lamella is missing or the thread is not separated, the machine stops automatically and the signal lamp indicates the error. These machines can lay lamella on 8000 threads per hour. The coverslip group is prepared in the coverslip magazine. The coverslip separator separates the coverslips which are then held by the coverslip turner and brought into the drawing position. After the yarns are drawn, the lamellas are taken to the lamella slides. The desired lamella is pushed into the saw and lined up.






Reed section: Removal from the card is made according to the signs showing how many warp threads will pass through a tooth specified in the drawing-in report. The card is mounted on the card transport unit, which transports the card during carding. Optical comb monitoring and control controls the carding in accordance with the card thickness and the desired number of teeth. The comb blade enters between the teeth, opening the teeth quite wide, thus allowing the drawing hook and thread to pass unhindered.

It is the process of passing the warp threads passed through the reed teeth in the numbers specified in the drawing plan. The number of warp threads passed through each reed tooth depends on the width of the fabric and the warp density. The number of threads that will pass through the reed tooth and the reed number, that is, the tooth density in the reed, are selected depending on the warp density. This process is done by a single person with a small crochet-like tool, as well as in automatic or semi-automatic drawing-in machines.

Control cabinet: This cabinet houses the electrical control of the system and the central power supply that provides all the voltage necessary for operation. The control system, which has a hierarchical structure, communicates with motors and progressive digitizers through processor modules. It also communicates with solenoid valves and sensors through distribution circuits.






Operator console: The drawing-in machine is controlled and programmed with a keyboard located on the operator console. The screen shows the requested information in the language of that country in text and partly in graphic form. The status of the machine and the stages of the drawing-in process can be seen at any time. Programming the drawing report and its parameters is also performed on the operator console. The operator console also provides statistical data on machine operation and maintenance information. If necessary, the machine can be stopped immediately with the emergency stop button. There is a host computer and a floppy drive located under the console's cover.






Classic cardboard drawing-in machines are also used in enterprises as drawing-in machines. For this type of drawing-in machines, there are dobby cardboards used in shedding systems in weaving machines. The task of these cardboards is to determine which frame will have the warp thread on the drawing-in machine by processing the knitting of the fabric to be woven on the endless cardboard.






The drawing-in cardboard to be prepared according to the weave of the fabric to be woven is mounted in the cardboard slot of the mechanical drawing-in machine. With the action taken in line with this report, the force passed through the warp thread is added to the appropriate frame with the help of needles. There is no computer-aided work in the drawing-in process to be performed on mechanical drawing-in machines. Generally, the majority of transactions are carried out by working personnel. The mechanical nature of the drawing-in machine causes a loss of time compared to modern drawing-in machines.






Drawing in a Drawing Machine

Modern drawing-in machines are manufactured in such a way that they can draw in lamellas, forces and card at the same time. The warp remains in the drawing-in carriage throughout the drawing-in process. It is fixed from above and below with the help of clamps. After the process is completed, the drawing-in car is driven into the workbench and connected to the drawing-in machine. There is an electronic screen on the machine where all processes are followed during the drawing-in process. As a normal drawing-in principle in the machine, a warp wire is passed through each power eye. However, if a different number of warp wires will be passed through the power eye on the edges, this instruction must be entered into the machine by the worker.






A flexible awl is used for the process of passing the lamellar and strength eyes of the warps. Yarns, lamellas and power are taken by the holders one by one, they are made ready for the process and their drawing is done. The drawing plans can be given to the machine electronically by transfer diskettes or by the central transfer network. This information is scheduled and maintained by the control terminal. After the drawing-in process is completed, the drawing-in machine leaves the system and the warps remain in the drawing-in car to be placed on the weaving machine.

After the drawing-in process is completed, the warp beam, frames, reed and lamellas are transported by the drawing-in car and placed in the weaving machine. This system can also be used for disassembly and transportation of weaving machines.

Points to be Considered During the Operation of the Drawing Machine

Undesirable errors may occur due to various reasons during the drawing process. These are the errors such as cross error, lamellar misalignment skipping error, drawing-in error, card-in-drawn error and comb scar. These errors are generally encountered in the manual drawing-in process. Considering these errors in the drawing-in process with the machine, it will be ensured that quality products can be produced as a result of more precise work. In mechanical drawing-in machines, it is imperative that the drawing-in element constantly monitors the power of the drawing-in and the card drawing-in process and solves the errors instantly. The main controls to be made on the fully automatic drawing-in machine are listed below:

1- Buttonhole perception adjustment control,

2-Control of the lamellas,

3-Power control,

4-Control of the drawing needle

5-Control of the weaving reed,

6-Warp ends draft control,

7-Report repeat control


Last Edited Thursday, 01 December 2022 11:19



It is described as passing the warp threads on the warp beam coming from the drawing-in warp circle in a certain plan (according to the drawing-in plan) through their eyes and the teeth of the weaving reed. This process is done manually or by machine.

The fact that the rate of errors is high and the process takes more time in the manual drawing-in process has developed the enterprises.

 led to the use of electronically equipped machines and systems. Common mistakes in manual drawing-in processes in small weaving enterprises that have not been automated are as follows;

1-Cross error

2- Lamellar syntax error

3- Power drawing error

4- Carding error

5- Comb trace.

Drawing errors are usually easily corrected when they are noticed outside of the power draw. However, it causes loss of time, which is more important for businesses than reaching financial resources.

Materials Used in Making Extraction

In the drawing-in process, the warp beams taken in the warp circle and adapted to the characteristics of the fabric to be produced are processed. Since the previous operation will be continued on the correctness of the previous process in the drawing-in and other preparation processes, the warp thread to be used in the drawing-in should be transferred from the warp circle as the necessary information and warnings are specified, without any damage in the drawing-in room. In order to work easily and comfortably in the manual drawing-in process, auxiliary parts such as drawing-in table, frames, power rods, lamellas, weaving reed, comb and power needle are used.






Manual drawing-in is done by two workers in a controlled manner. In the manual drawing-in process, all the frames are hung on the drawing-in table. According to the plan, the worker behind the stand, called the drawing backer, hands the threads one by one to the worker, who is standing in front of the table, one by one, called the drawing-in leader. The draw-in pioneer examines the strength of the warp threads given by the power crochet and the draw-in backer one by one. The power board is started from the left side of the first frame. What needs to be considered in this process is to act in accordance with the drawing-in report. The second process is to pass the warp threads taken from the power through the reed teeth.






Drawing Table

These are the tables that provide a simple working environment consisting of metal parts on which the drawing process is done. It is a system in which two elements called pioneer and backer can work in order to carry out the drawing-in process.







They are the most important parts used in weaving machines to make the desired up-and-down movement (suitable for the weave of the fabric to be produced) of the forces on it in the opening of the shed and the warp threads passed through the eyes of these forces. The strength of the fabric to be woven varies according to the knitting report. The number of forces to be loaded on the frames may vary according to the frame width and the type of weaving machine.







They are metal parts that enable the warp threads to be attached to the frames in groups or are free in the jacquard system. They are metal wires or plates on which the warp threads are passed through the hole called the power eye. In order for the warp threads to form the shed, they must be oriented up and down according to the knitting movement. It is a drawing element that has a high importance in the formation of the shed, which ensures that this movement is delivered to the warp through the frames.




1 lamella



Lamels are part of the warp control system. Lamel throwing is also done by the collectors. Lamel is thrown on all warps, one for each warp wire. Lamel throwing is done after the warps are taken to the machine and tied. In order to control the breaks of the warp threads, they work in combination with a mechanical or electrical system and ensure that the weaving machine is stopped as soon as the warp thread breaks. Lamellar structure is produced as open or closed bottom part. They perform their duties on metal sheets called saws. It is possible to attach the types with open bottom to the machine after the drawing-in process is finished. Closed types should be done before starting the drawing-in process, before the warp threads are passed through the lamellar eyes.

Weaving Reed






It is the part of the weaving machine that ensures the uniform and homogeneous distribution of the warp threads to the fabric to be woven. It provides the adjustment of the width and density of the fabric. They are made of thin metal plates attached at their ends to various metals and plastics. The space between the two metal plates is called the comb tooth. The number of this space in 10 cm is expressed as the comb number. It helps to define the combs according to the frequency. The increase in the frequency of the comb means that the ratio of the density of the fabric to be produced is higher. The comb is a mobile auxiliary part for the weaving machine, which is made with interchangeable frequencies. While choosing the reed number, the width of the fabric, the warp density, the knitting pattern, the warp color pattern, the thickness of the warp threads and the thickness of the knots should be taken into account.

Comb and Strength Crochet






It is an auxiliary drawing-in element made of metal, which is used in the weaving machine to pass the warp threads through the reeds and strengths in the weaving preparation for breaks that may occur during production and while drawing-in. They are called comb pull and pull power. They are hand tools that each drawing-in and weaving element should have with them during work.






Manual Lamella Assembly

It is the process of passing warp threads through lamellas arranged on metal sheets called saws. In the open bottom of the lamellas, the warp thread is passed through the hole of the lamella and left in its slot on the saw. The lamellas with a closed bottom are first passed through the saws and the warp thread is passed through the lamella eye while the lamellas are on the saw.

Manual Power Drain






When drawing power manually, there is a need for the cooperation of two elements. In the task distribution, the first element is the process in which the first element complies with the order of strength (including the frames) according to the knitting report, passes the power in his hand through the eye of the crochet, and pulls the warp thread to be given by the second element. Although the procedure is simple, it requires great care. Resolving possible mistakes will cause a waste of time. In addition, non-compensation will cause the image of the fabric to be woven to be produced in a structure other than the desired weave.




1 scallops



The comb, which ensures that the warp threads are compressed onto the fabric surface after they are passed through the mouthpiece opened according to the knitting report, is located on the mechanism called the tee. One or more warp threads to be passed through the reed to be used are at the beginning of the important processes that should be considered after the necessary calculations. In addition, the comb should have sufficient capacity considering the position that the total number of warp wires passes through one or more. If there will be excess in the width of the comb on the comb, this part is not left on one side of the comb, this gap is calculated and left equally on both sides. The width used on the reed for warp threads is called the useful reed width. After the necessary calculations for the card, the card drawing-in is carried out by starting the warp threads from the left or right side by using the reed drawer.





Last Edited Tuesday, 08 February 2022 17:47



In weaving, the process of passing the warp threads through the eyes of the frames and between the reed teeth according to certain rules is called drawing-in. The first stage of the drawing-in process is the drawing-in power, and the second stage is the carding-in. Both of these processes need to be shown in a plan system. The drawing plan represents the power and the comb plan.





 The drawing-in plan shows at least how many frames a weave can be woven and which warp should take place in which frame. It is located at the top or bottom of the knitting on the pattern paper.





The drawing plan is drawn on the basis of the report of the knitting to be woven. The basic rule in drawing-in plan is to determine the warps that make the same movement (same connection type or same warp thread movement) in the knitting pattern and to indicate that these warps belong to the same frame.

The dots indicated by the solid on the pattern paper indicate that the warp thread passes over the weft thread. Empty dots indicate that the weft thread passes under the warp thread.

For example; The odd-numbered ( warp threads that make up the plain weave are gathered in the same frame as they make the same movement, that is, the same connection. Similarly, even numbered ( warp threads form groups and take place in a separate frame. Since there are two different warp movements in the plain weave pattern, the plain weave is woven with at least two frames. In this case, the number of frames required for any weave to be woven is equal to the number of different warp movements in the weave pattern. The method generally used in drawing the drawing-in plan on the pattern paper is to place the drawing-in plan on the knitting pattern and leave a line for each frame. The square at the intersection point of the column showing the warp thread and the row showing the frame it belongs to is filled in. The same process is repeated for all warps in the knitting pattern and drawing-in plan is drawn.

While drawing the drawing-in plan, the numbering of the frames can be done in two ways, depending on how the weaving machine or sample loom works.

When the numbering is done starting from the frame furthest from the fabric, on the pattern paper, each row from top to bottom represents a frame. The square at the intersection point of the column showing the warp thread and the row showing the frame it belongs to is filled in.





When the numbering is done starting from the frame closest to the fabric, each row from bottom to top represents a frame on the pattern paper. The square at the intersection point of the column showing the warp thread and the row showing the frame it belongs to is filled in.  






The warps that make the same movement while creating the drawing-in plan can be distributed to more than one frame in order to reduce the load on the frame. In other words, if we divide the total number of warp threads by the number of frames to be used, we will have determined the warp threads per frame. In this case, the number of frames should be a multiple of the number of warps in the knitting pattern. For example, the plain weave can be woven with 2, 4, 6... frames instead of 8 frames. However, warps with different connection types cannot be gathered in the same frame.







The reed plan shows how many warp threads the reed must pass through a tooth space. The carding plan is located between the drawing plan and the knitting report on the pattern paper. In the reed plan, each square of the pattern paper in the horizontal direction represents a warp thread. The squares are filled side by side as much as the number of wires that will pass through a tooth cavity. Two lines are used throughout the knitting pattern so that the two adjacent tooth spaces do not mix.






If two squares side by side are shown as filled; During the carding process, two warp wires will be taken from each tooth space.

If one square is shown as full; It was stated that one warp wire should be taken from each tooth cavity while the carding is being done.

The number of wires passing through the tooth cavity is usually selected in accordance with the knitting pattern. For example; for a plain weave fabric, this number might be 2, for a 1/2 twill weave fabric, and 3,5 for a 5-ply satin weave fabric. Apart from this, criteria such as warp density, desired fabric feature and yarn feature are also taken into consideration. For example; For the proper distribution of warp threads in tulle and organza type fabrics, it is appropriate to take one wire from each tooth cavity. In some fabrics, it may be necessary to create different warp densities in different areas of the fabric width. In this case, the number of wires passing through the tooth cavity does not remain constant while the card is drawing in. It changes to produce a repetitive carding report.








Last Edited Monday, 07 February 2022 21:03

In weft weaving, it defines the two yarn systems that make up the fabric, which are located towards the width of the fabric. The weft threads are at right angles to the warp threads.
In shuttle looms; to the winding process of the weft bobbin placed in the shuttle. weft preparation It called. What are impacted teeth? When one or more teeth fails to grow in the correct position and is therefore held below the normal gum line, it is called an impaction. This can be complete, such as completely unerrupted (buried) third molars (wisdom teeth) or partial when just part of the tooth is visible in the mouth. Why are impactions important? For best function and appearance the teeth should grow in a healthy alignment. When one or more teeth is impacted, this can affect the function of that tooth but also the function and appearance of other teeth. Whether all impactions should be treated is still controversial and your dentist and oral and maxillofacial team can explain the advantages and disadvantages or treatment for you, which is usually surgical.
On looms without shuttle; Since the wefts are fed directly from the bobbin, there is no need for the weft preparation section.
Weft winding:  bobbin weft winding ve jumpsuit type scarf wrap done on machines. 
Roller weft winding machines: It is used for winding thin yarns. In this system, weft yarn is wound on wooden, plastic or cardboard bobbins. As the bobbin rotates and winds the yarn, a traverse (forward-backward) movement is given to make the winding smooth. As the thread is wound on the bobbin, the thread guide slides forward. When the bobbin length reaches the desired length, the spindle rotation is stopped because the thread guide touches the mechanism that stops the spindle rotation.
Overalls weft wrapping machines: It is generally used for winding thick yarns. The yarn is wound on a spindle on the machine. There is a conical guide to give the wound yarn a taper. Spindle rotates and performs the winding operation. As the spindle rotates, the traverse bar moves back and forth, ensuring that the winding is smooth. As the bobbin is wound, the coiled part shifts to the right under the pressure of the conical element and when the bobbin reaches the desired length, the idler lowering stops the winding.
The system is different in modern weaving machines. Weft thread is thrown into the nozzle by shuttle (projectile), rapier, airjet, waterjet systems. The weft insertion amount has reached up to 600 beats per minute with these methods. The weft is unwound from the bobbin onto the cylinder. It is taken into the mouthpiece from the cylinder without impact and at a constant speed. The brake device releases or brakes the weft thread in accordance with the rhythm of the weaving machine.
Last Edited Monday, 07 February 2022 16:57

In weaving machines, the triangular cross-section tunnel formed by dividing the warp threads into two layers before the weft is thrown is called the shed. Various systems have been developed to determine the warp threads that should be above or below the weft thread recorded through each opened shed. Each of these systems constitutes the shedding systems.






Shedding systems determine the tactile quality of the fabric and the degree of usability of the machine. In this respect, whether the weaving weave is simple or complex, the width and height of the knitting pattern primarily depend on the shedding system.
In weaving machines, the warps must be passed through the power wires in order to form a shed. The warps, whose power is passed through the wires, are moved up or down in groups before each insertion of the weft thread. The weft thread is thrown from this gap formed by this movement given to the warps and the fabric is formed. At least two frames are needed to form the mouthpiece.
The mouthpiece is named in two parts.
Front mouthpiece: It is the name given to the section from the comb to the woven fabric in the weaving machine. This section should be in such dimensions that the weft carrier can pass easily.
Rear nozzle: It is the name given to the part from the power to the reed in the weaving machine.
is divided into three:
1-Upper mouthpiece: In dobby looms, if some warp threads are lifted up from the horizontal stop point and the remaining warp threads are left at the level of the horizontal stopping point, this opening is called the upper shed.
2-Lower nozzle: The shed form, which is formed by lowering some of the warp threads from the horizontal stance point and leaving the remaining warp threads at the horizontal stance point, is called the lower shed.
3-Full mouthpiece: The shed shape created by raising some of the warp threads above the horizontal stance and lowering the remaining warp threads below the horizontal stance is called full shed.
is divided into three:
1-Open mouthpiece: It is the system in which only the frames that will move in the weaving machines move. That is, the frames that move up or down in the first weft will stay in place if they will do the same movement in the second weft. In this case, when the tambourine tightens the weft, the mouthpiece remains open. It is preferred to weave fabrics with low weft density in this type of shedding machines.
2-Semi-open mouthpiece: Two types of applications are carried out in this system. One is systems where the lower frames remain stationary, while the others, including the upper muzzle frames, move. It is a more common application in top shedding systems. Another method is the application where the frames forming the upper shed wait before they go all the way down, that is, to the zero point, and the other frames move normally.
3-Closed mouthpiece: It is the application in the machine where all warp threads are aligned after weft insertion. In other words, after the weft is completed when the drum is at its back point, the frames return to their normal stopping point (zero point) and the shed is closed. The weft thread stuck between the lower and upper warps is compressed by the stencil pushing the weft towards the fabric. Cloths with high weft density are woven in closed shed weaving looms.
Proper opening of the sheds during the weaving process is extremely important for weaving productivity. A properly opened shed will not allow breaks caused by the weft carrier element by attaching to the warp threads. In addition, excessive stretching of the warp threads will be prevented.
The ideal frame setting for muzzle formation is to give more movement to the first frame. If we adjust all the frames equally at the opening of the mouthpiece, we cannot obtain a good mouthpiece shape. Because the up and down threads move equally up and down, they will not be aligned in the nozzle. If the yarns in the opened shed are not aligned, it will make it difficult for the weft carrier to pass and warp breaks will occur due to friction. This type of mouthpiece is shown below.
As in the figure, by removing the small numbered frames more from the first frame, a smooth nozzle is formed through which the shuttle will pass. As can be seen, the threads that make up the upper and lower shed stand as a single thread on the front shed. In this case, warp breaks are prevented. Because the warp threads have gained integrity, there are no irregularities that will cause sets.
The direction of movement to be given to the frames is important for the fabric to be produced in the machines working with the eccentric and dobby shedding system. Especially in terms of replacing the old frames, the movement given to the frames is in two ways.
Mouth formation occurs by applying force to the frames. Most of the energy used in weaving machines is used to move the frames to create the shed. In systems that form mouthpieces with positive frame movement, movement is given from the mouthpiece forming device not only for forming the frames but also for closing them. In these systems, although the energy consumption increases, the continuity and speed of the movement is in harmony with the cycle of the machine. The position of the frames in the muzzle formed by the positive shed opening system in the figure; Frame a is pulled up and frame b is pulled down by the shedding device. The shed is formed by the rise of some warp threads and the descending of others. As all warp threads are moving, breaks may occur due to friction.
In such systems, the movement of the frames is usually applied in one direction. In systems with negative frame movement, the preferred application is for the shedding device to move the frames upwards. The return of the upper shed frames is by means of springs or weights attached to the frames. The shedding system does not consume energy for the backward movement of the frames. It is a preferred system in modern weaving looms as it is suitable for use at high speeds. The figure shows the system in which the return springs are placed horizontally.
In the figure, the negative frame movement with the levers is shown schematically. In both devices, the retraction function is performed by mechanisms that are tensioned by opening the mouthpiece.
In the figure, the position of the forces created by the negative shedding system, (a) frame lifted up, (b) frame remained fixed. Jacquard shedding assemblies open the negative shedding. The weights suspended below the forces allow the forces to return to their original position when released. The negative shedding system is particularly well suited for high speed weaving machines. In modern weaving machines, negative shed movement is used by oscillating with an eccentric or dobby in weaving light and medium weight flat fabrics. The friction in the warp threads is minimal. Therefore, it allows it to reach high speeds. 
Eccentric Shed Opening Systems:
Eccentric is the name given to parts that are not the same distance from the center and have different offsets. Also called cam.

Eccentric shedding systems are divided into two according to their mounting positions on weaving machines. In eccentric weaving machines, the eccentrics to control the frames are prepared according to the dobby plan of the knitting. It is conveniently placed on the camshaft. Eccentric Shed Openers;


is divided into two. They are metal plates that are mounted on a rotating shaft in mechanical weaving machines and transmit the movement to the frames when opening the shed.









Eccentrics, which are usually placed on a rotating shaft (cabinet shaft), are used to move the frames. The frames are in contact with the eccentric. When the off-center nose of the eccentric comes into contact with the frame legs, the mouthpiece is opened by applying a pushing force.
Eccentrics can be disassembled and assembled as a group according to the braids to be used. There is a separate eccentric group for each knitting. This means; When it is desired to change the weave to be applied in the machine, the eccentric group must be changed. Eccentric groups can be run in the opposite direction to find the right shed in accordance with the knitting pattern according to the movement of the machine to the warps.
Internal Eccentric Shed Opening Systems:
In this type of weaving machines, eccentrics are placed between the two side walls of the weaving machine. It takes up less space. It is easier to transmit motion to frames. The number of frames is less than machines with external eccentric.
The lengths of the eccentrics in these machines are different from each other. The eccentric that moves the 1st frame is larger than the eccentric that moves the 2nd frame. The eccentrics are fixed to the knock camshaft, which is located below the crankshaft, while the knitted rag. Although it works up to 6 to 8 frames on these machines, it usually does not exceed 6 frames. It is the small diameter of the eccentric that lifts the frame in internal eccentric benches. What brings the frame down is the large diameter of the eccentric. When we want to change the fabric weave, the cam pack is usually changed. However, in some cases, it is possible to change the angular position of the cams relative to each other, thus changing the weave. While the weaving process takes place in the machines with internal eccentric, the pulley system is used to bring the frames to their initial positions in the negative system.
External Eccentric Shed Opening Systems
In this type of weaving machines, the eccentrics are located outside the side walls of the weaving machine frame. It occupies more space than internal eccentric shedding systems. Although external eccentric weaving machines take up more space, they are more preferred because they allow more frame and weft repeat lengths, and are easy to change and maintain the eccentric.
In order to increase the number of frames, the way of operating the eccentrics outside the machine is considered in opening the eccentric shedding. Although there is a possibility to run more frames this way than with internal camshaft machines, this is also limited. In other words, it can be removed up to 8-12 feet.
The camshaft positively controls the power to the frames with double-sided camshafts. The movements of the eccentrics are transmitted to the power frames by means of roller arms, transmitting arms and feet. Camshafts have a muzzle lift. With this, the roller arms are kept separate from the eccentrics and all the power frames are brought to the same height.
Last Edited Sunday, 06 February 2022 22:00


Shedding in 3 ways on weaving machines

can be opened:
1- Opening the mouthpiece with the eccentric
2- Shedding with dobby device
3- Shedding with jacquard device
Shedding with contraaj, which is one of the above mentioned shedding systems, is used in hand weaving machines. Today, it is used in bed-quilt face, towel and tulle weaving in many parts of Anatolia. It is a simple and less costly weaving form. Other systems should be examined more broadly. 

 1. Eccentric Shed Opening Systems
Two types of machines are encountered in the eccentric shedding system. 


a) Internal Eccentric Weaving Machines

The lengths of the eccentrics in these machines are different from each other. The length of the eccentric that moves the 1st frame is larger than the size of the eccentric that moves the 2nd frame. The eccentrics are fixed to the knock camshaft, which is located below the crankshaft, while the knitted rag. Although these machines work up to 6 to 8 frames, it usually does not exceed 6 frames. It is the small diameter of the eccentric that lifts the frame in internal eccentric workbenches. What brings the frame down is the large diameter of the eccentric. 


b) External Eccentric Weaving Machines

In order to increase the number of frames, it has been thought to operate the eccentrics outside the workbench in opening the eccentrically. Although it is possible to operate more frames this way than with internal camshaft machines, this is also limited. So it can be removed up to 8-12 feet.
If we examine the arrangement; The eccentrics on the cabinet shaft are lined up for a certain weave. Eccentrics are in contact with the feet by means of relays. The feet move on their own axis. A rod fixed to the feet from the end is connected to the arms and the nozzle is adjusted by means of a bolt. The arms pass on the square shafts. These four corner spindles will be as many as the number of frames that extend along the bench and can move within two beds. 

2 - Dobby Shedding Systems
The opening of the mouthpiece in benches operating up to 18 frames efficiently is done by dobby systems. Patterning possibilities are more compared to the eccentric shedding system.

A dobby system consists of different methods and elements in some machines, but in each these basic elements exists ;
a) Frame
b) Frame dobby legs
c) log
d) Pattern cardboard
e) Pattern reader elements
f) Knives
g) Dobby foot sinkers 

There are three important movements in the dobby system. :
a) Movement of the blades
b) Movement of sinkers
c) Movement of drum and carton 

Dobby Features 
1- It is a closed mouthpiece. (The mouthpiece is closed when the tambourine tightens the scarf.)
2- It opens a double mouthpiece.
3- If a frame is up and the same frame should stay up in the second movement, that frame goes up after it goes down.
4- Frame movement is positive.
5- It is the role that lifts the frame up. It's the empty pipe that goes down.
6- The log makes 1/6 revolution in each weft.

3- Jacquard Shedding System
Jacquard system shows a different structure compared to other systems. In the eccentric dobby system, the warp threads are moved by the frame groups for the formation of the shed. In the jacquard system, the warp threads are controlled one by one for the formation of the shed. For this reason, the jacquard system is more convenient than the eccentric and dobby systems in terms of patterning possibilities. Jacquard machines are examined in two systems as single log and double log.
It is a shedding apparatus installed vertically on the loom. In addition, the machine has given us the opportunity to make very different patterned fabrics with its perfect mechanical properties. The jacquard machine is a system consisting of a series of needles (reading the pattern and programming the machine) and a series of platinum (which allows opening the mouthpiece through the swivels). Any loom with a set of holes can be turned into a jacquard loom by attaching a jacquard machine to it.

Since the jacquard machine is an apparatus installed in addition to the loom, they are related to each other in two ways;
1- The loom moves the jacquard machine.
2- The jacquard machine works and opens the shed on the loom by means of the leotards.



Last Edited Sunday, 06 February 2022 21:04



Jacquard shedding machines represent the highest level among shedding systems. On these machines we can weave the most intricate patterns, paintings or landscapes. This wide patterning possibility is due to the fact that the system can move a large number of warp threads separately. Jacquard system shows a different structure compared to other systems. For the formation of the shed in the eccentric dobby system, the warp threads are moved by the frame groups. In the jacquard system, the formation of the mouthpiece is controlled by malion groups attached to the sinkers. For this reason, the jacquard system enables the weaving of very large pattern groups compared to the eccentric and dobby systems in terms of pattern making possibilities.



Jacquard machines are examined in two systems as single log and double log.
It is a shedding apparatus installed vertically on the weaving loom. In addition, the machine has given us the opportunity to make very different patterned fabrics with its perfect mechanical properties. The jacquard machine is a system consisting of a series of needles (which reads the pattern and programs the machine) and a series of platinum (which enables the opening of the mouthpiece through the swivels). Any loom can be converted into a jacquard loom by attaching a jacquard machine to it, with some modifications.
The jacquard mechanism is an apparatus installed in addition to the weaving machine. If the jacquard system is canceled in the machine, the machine can be operated in the eccentric or dobby system. There is the following relationship between the jacquard system and the weaving machine.
  • 1-Weaving loom moves the jacquard machine.
  • 2-The jacquard machine works and opens the shed on the loom by means of the leotards..
The biggest difference of the jacquard system, which enables shedding by controlling the warp threads in groups and obtaining various motifs and shapes, compared to other shed opening systems is the movement for each group of warp threads (malions attached to a sinker). In dobby and eccentric shedding systems, the warp threads act dependent on the frame they are on.
Different warp movement, which is limited to the number of frames in other shedding systems, is limited to the number of sinkers in the jacquard system. In other words, the size of the weave in the jacquard weaving machine is as much as the number of sinkers in the jacquard machine. In addition, there are possibilities to enlarge the knitting pattern by making the mallion sequences in different ways.

JThere are two basic movements in the flow mouth opening system.:


1-Right and left movement of the log:


It moves the cardboard by turning a little with each thrown weft. In addition, it allows the paper to be read by pushing the east cartons to the log pins.


2-Blades up and down movement:


It transmits the movement it receives from needles and sinkers to the mallion threads and thus to the powers, thus opening the weight. Below are the main elements of the jacquard machine.







  • It is a rectangular, hexagonal or round (cylinder) shaped piece with as many holes as the number of needles or sinkers on it. Its task is to make the cardboards punched according to the jacquard pattern ready for the next reading for each weft.
2-Jacquard cartons
  • Jacquard cardboard is plastic or paper suitable for work, which moves the needles and punches holes according to the pattern in order to move the warp threads in the desired way. There are two types in terms of general characteristics. These are segmented and endless cartons.
Partial Cardboard:
  • There is a separate cardboard for each scarf and these pieces are used by sewing them together and making them endless. It creates many problems during use and during drilling.
Endless Cardboard (Verdol)
  • All the scarves used in the pattern are used by punching on the same cardboard. This cardboard is easy to use both in the punching phase and in the working phase. Plastic or paper material is used for endless cardboard.
  • They are the parts that move the sinkers according to the filled and empty points on the cardboard. While there was only one group of needles in old jacquards, three types of needles are used in today's mechanical jacquards, namely steel needle, pointed needle and long needle. Behind the long needles are springs that push them back into place when the pressure is released when they are pushed back. These springs are collected in the spring box. The needles are located vertically relative to the sinkers and horizontally relative to the jacquard machine.
  • It is the basic element of the jacquard machine. With the help of needles, the upper parts can be moved left and right. If the weave is full (warp up), its blades stay in the domain, or if the weave is empty (warp down), it is pushed out of the domain. It is a double hook model for new machines with single hook in old types. The number of sinkers on the jacquard indicates the jacquard capacity.
  • The warp threads must be lifted up so that the net can be opened. As mentioned before, the sinkers and the associated mallion threads do the lifting of the warp threads. Briefly, the right of the pen, with the lifting of the sinkers. The jacquard element that provides the upward movement of the sinkers is called the blade. The jacquard machine had as many blades as a row of sinkers. These blades are gathered together in the form of a frame in order to give movement from a single place and to provide movement integrity. This is called a knife table. The blade table raises and lowers the sinkers by moving from the bottom up in the jacquard skeleton with the movement it takes from the blade eccentric. There may be single-knife table jacquard machines according to their usage areas, or there are also jacquard machines that move at different times from each other, that is, two knife tables, one working from the bottom up and the other working from the top down. Single hook sinkers are used in machines with a single blade table. The hook of the sinkers is facing the blade and is within its range of motion. In addition, jacquard machines with double blade tables are more efficient than the other.
6-mortar board
  • Also called upper mortar. It is the wood that carries the platinums and has earring holes on it. The mortar board supports the sinkers and provides their balance. In some jacquards it is mobile, in others it is fixed. It provides a smooth opening of the mouthpiece by going down during the opening of the mouthpiece in mobile ones.
7-Million grids
  • They are grids made of glass rods for comfortable working of mallions and earrings. Malyon threads are oriented in these grids. Another task of these is to protect the mallion threads and prevent wear.
8-Mallion board
  • Also called lower mortar or ramming board. Malyon board determines the width and density of the fabric. It has more holes than the number of mallion threads. A mallion thread passes through each hole. It determines the warp density and how many repeats the pattern is on the fabric, with the coin arrays made.
  • It connects the mallion threads with the sinkers. It is difficult for mallions to be directly attached to sinkers in string changes and wear situations. In this case, earrings provide great convenience. They are made of metal or plastic.







10-Million threads
  • They are jacquard elements that systematically keep some of the warp threads up and some down and take action from the sinkers. There are power wires at the bottom. It is also called linen yarn.
  • It is prepared as nylon, fishing line or knitting yarn.
  • It is resistant to friction.
Malyon power connection protector
  • The threads running through the mallion board are tied from the top of the power wires. These connections rub against each other due to the density. In order to reduce these frictions and prevent snagging, hoses are passed over the connections to ensure that the mallion threads are connected to the power wires in an easy and healthy way.
  • Its strength wires are the wire through which the warps are passed through the middle strength eyes that enable the warp threads to open the shed. It is attached to weights, springs or tires from the lower part and to the mallion threads from the upper part.
strength malyon retraction elements
  • It is the jacquard piece that is used to pull the power wires and mallions down again according to the knitting. These parts are changed according to the thickness of the warp threads and the type of weaving. There are three types of retracting elements.
These are: iron bars (weights), tires and springs.
11-Malyon power connection protector
  • The threads running through the mallion board are tied from the top of the power wires. These connections rub against each other due to the density. In order to reduce these frictions and prevent snagging, hoses are passed over the connections to ensure that the mallion threads are connected to the power wires in an easy and healthy way.
  • Its strength wires are the wire through which the warps are passed through the middle strength eyes that enable the warp threads to open the shed. It is attached to weights, springs or tires from the lower part and to the mallion threads from the upper part.









13-Strength malyon retraction elements
  • It is the jacquard piece that is used to pull the power wires and mallions down again according to the knitting. These parts are changed according to the thickness of the warp threads and the type of weaving.
There are three types of retracting elements.
  • These are: iron bars (weights), tires and springs.







  •  In the mechanical jacquard system, the pattern is written by making holes on the warp wire jacquard cardboard for each weft.
  • A hole is made on the cardboard for the warp thread that should remain above.
  • Jacquard cardboard is located on the log.
  • The log rotates one turn each time the weft is thrown.
  • With each turn of the log, it moves towards the needles, allowing the cardboard to be read by the needles.
  • The needles that come into contact with the non-hole areas are pushed by the movement of the cardboard.
  • The needles that do not reach the holes in the cardboard slide to the right and push the sinkers attached to them to the right.
  • This moves the blades out of the range of motion.
  • The return of the sinkers pushed to the right when the cardboard pressure is removed is achieved by the flexibility of the sinkers and the springs at the rear ends of the needles.
  • Since the needles coming into the holes in the cardboards and the connected sinkers do not move from their places, they remain within the movement area of ​​the blades and are positioned to form a mouthpiece.








Normally, since the sinkers are within the movement range of the blades, the blades also lift the sinkers in their upward movement.
  • For this, holes are made in the pattern cardboard for the sinkers and needles of the warps that are desired to rise.
  • Likewise, the relevant part of the cardboard is not pierced for the warp wires that are required to remain under the weft.
As the sinkers rise, the earrings and mallion threads attached to their lower ends also move upwards, pulling the forces up.
  • This is how the opening of the shed is carried out on jacquard weaving machines.
  • The return of the warp threads, which are lifted up, to their lower positions is carried out by the retracting elements.
Single Stroke Jacquard
  • In this type of jacquard machines, one weft is inserted in each revolution of the machine.
  • The use of this type of jacquard machines is negligible due to their low speed and high power requirement.
  • In this type of jacquard, there is a needle and a sinker for each warp thread.
  • Each needle controls a sinker and is pushed towards the pattern cylinder by a spring in the spring box.
This coarse pitch (the distance between the needles) is the simplest of the jacquards.
  • These machines have a needle and a hook for each warp thread in the report.
  • As seen in the figure, each needle controls a hook and is pushed towards the pattern cylinder by a spring in the spring box.
  • To lift a string of hooks it is necessary to have one blade and for example 600 blades in a 12 jacquard.
  • The individual movement of the blades is driven by the crank or by the chain from the crankshaft. The knives and the system they are connected to move vertically up and down once for each weft.
Pattern cartons are prepared by using a card for each scarf on the rap.
  • The cards are tied together by sewing.
  • The element that enables the rotation of the pattern card called log is seen as four corners.
  • In addition, logs are produced in cylindrical, rectangular or hexagonal shapes.
  • When the pattern cardboard is pushed towards the needles by the log, the needle with the hole against it will not be pressed since it will enter here, and the hook attached to it will not change its position, so it will be attached to the blade and lifted up.
  • The warp threads controlled by the hook will also be raised for the weft to be thrown.
  • If the hole corresponding to the needle is pierced, when the log comes to the left, this needle will be pressed, and by pushing the relevant hook to the left, it will remove it from the blade path.
  • This hook and the warp threads it controls will stay down, as the knife does not get caught on the hook while it is moving up.
After this process is completed, the log moves to the right and moves away from the needles, and when it reaches a sufficient distance for it to turn, the pattern card required for the next weft is applied to the needles and starts to approach the needles again.
  • Single stroke jacquard machines usually have a closed muzzle at the bottom.
Therefore, there is a loss of movement. In addition, the system is shaken when it is operated intensively. The log cylinder moves for each weft, the blade frame goes up and down. These are the reasons that cause the speed of the machine to decrease.
Double Stroke Jacquard
  • Two wefts are thrown in each revolution of the machine.
  • It is the most used jacquard shed opening type in weaving machines.
  • There are two knife groups, each mounted on a separate chassis.
  • The two frames move up and down in the opposite direction and within the course of two wefts.
  • Since each needle controls two hooks on these machines, there are 600 hooks in a 1200 jacquard.
  • The wasted energy in single stroke jacquard is less on these machines. The speed of the machine is higher.

  • Jacquard cartons move the needles, causing the warp threads to move up and down according to the desired knitting pattern and provides the opening of the shed. Jacquard cardboards are punched according to the pattern in machines so that they can perform this function. Cartons are punched in two ways, mechanically and electronically.
Last Edited Friday, 14 January 2022 21:28
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