Upholstery fabricsAs in all product groups in the textile sector, it has changed and developed over time depending on customer requests/demands and fashion trends.
For this reason, the use of fancy yarns has become widespread over time and chenille yarns have had an important share in the production of upholstery fabrics due to many different reasons such as having a velvet-like appearance when woven and being produced economically.
Upholstery fabrics; Considering the place of use, they are textile products with low draping, more thickness compared to other textile products, higher weight and high fastness values.
As with all textile products, upholstery fabrics are expected to preserve their initial state as much as possible against the external effects it is exposed to. Because; It is desired that upholstery fabrics have high abrasion resistance and accordingly, no color changes in the washed or wiped parts (having high friction fastness value).
In addition to all these, since upholstery fabrics are used in the furniture industry, they are required to have a low cast, that is, a full handle, as they need to be easily shaped and retain their form.
Upholstery fabrics are widely used in the furniture and automotive industry.
In addition to its high wear resistance, of upholstery fabrics It is desired that it has a high staining resistance and an easy-care feature. During the use of upholstery fabrics, staining is usually caused by water. For this reason, staining resistance is increased by fabric production using hydrophobic fibers in upholstery fabrics and by creating hydrophobic surfaces with different finishing techniques (water, dirt, oil repellent finishes).
It is desired that the fabrics used in the upholstery industry have high abrasion resistance. One of the factors affecting the abrasion resistance of fabrics is the property of the yarn used in production.
Upholstery fabrics should be woven in a certain warp and weft density, taking into account the weaving limit. Since low weft and warp density will adversely affect the sewing shear strength of the fabric, the weft and warp density values should be high in upholstery fabrics, which is related to yarn count, type, yarn twist, etc.
Upholstery fabrics are classified in 11818 groups in the standard TS 14465 EN 7;
1- Plain Textured Fabric: The fabrics produced in different patterns by the different movements of the frames in the weaving machines with the weft and warp threads intersecting with each other at an angle of 90° are called plain textured fabrics.
2-Knitted Fabric: It is obtained by connecting the yarns fed from the creel with the help of circular or flat knitting machines, forming a loop structure.
3-Full Fabric: In addition to the weft and warp ground yarns in the plain textured fabric, the fabrics that contain a third yarn called pile yarn are called pile fabric. Pile fabrics can be produced in special 3-thread weaving machines, as well as in classical weaving machines with yarns that have pile structure in the yarn structure, such as chenille yarn.
4-Non-Woven Fabric: Textile surfaces produced by binding together the fibers that are too short and thin to be included in the yarn structure with known yarn production methods, by mechanical, thermal or chemical methods are called nonwoven fabric/surface.
5-Tufting Fabric: They are textile products created by giving a pile surface with the help of a needle to the surface fed in the form of cheesecloth. The appearance of tufted surfaces is likened to grass. Tufted fabrics are divided into two as velor and loop surface.
6-Flocked Fabric: The textile surfaces created using flocked yarn weaving or knitting technique are called flocked fabrics. It is known that the abrasion resistance properties of flock yarns are better than the abrasion resistance properties of chenille yarn. Textile surfaces created with flocked yarn are widely used in automotive and seat upholstery.
7- Raised Fabric: Raised fabrics are textile surfaces obtained by subjecting the raising process, which is the mechanical finishing process of flat woven textile products. With the raising process, a pile layer is formed by pulling the fibers onto the fabric surface. The raising process; It occurs when the fabric comes into contact with the rotating layer with the needles on a cylinder and the needles bring the fibers in the fabric structure to the fabric surface.
Upholstery fabrics; It is produced in classical and modern weaving machines and velvet weaving machines. Velvet fabrics are produced with 2 yarns, different from the classical 3-thread weaving. Two of these yarns are weft and warp yarns, as in classical weaving, and the third yarn is the pile yarn that forms the pile structure of the velvet fabric.
Velvet fabrics; It can be classified under two main headings in terms of production technique: weft velvets, which are formed by connecting the pile yarn with the fabric in the direction of the weft yarn, and warp velvets, which are formed by connecting the pile yarn with the fabric in the warp direction.
Velvet fabrics are also produced using jacquard velvet weaving machines and different colored pile yarns.
Upholstery fabrics produced from chenille yarn; Chenille yarn is called false velvet because of its appearance resulting from its pile structure..
Upholstery fabrics produced from chenille yarn, instead of using an extra pile yarn as in velvet fabrics; It is produced by incorporating chenille yarn, which is used as weft yarn, into the fabric structure. Since the use of chenille yarn as a warp yarn is not suitable, pile yarns cannot be placed in the warp direction, as in velvet fabric. The most preferred weaving machines for weaving chenille yarns; They are machines with shuttles and hooks. The most preferred of these two machine types is hook weaving machines. Weaving of chenille yarns is done with an auxiliary weft yarn. The raw material of chenille yarns, which is generally preferred in the upholstery sector; cotton, polyester, acrylic, viscose, polypropylene and mixtures of these raw materials.