It has been used as a pack and riding animal since ancient times. that fine fabrics can be made from the lower fine fibers of camels. It was first noticed by one of the British army officers, Thomas Hutton.
There are two breeds of camels in the world. Arabian and Syrian dromedary camels dromedary; Humpedo camels whose homeland is China and Mongolia bactrian They are called camels. In mountainous regions, they are double humped. bactrian The camel is used as both a pack and a riding animal.
Bactrian bactrian While African camels are resistant to cold and harsh climates, dromedary African camels are better adapted to hot climates and desert conditions. It is stated that camel types suitable for Anatolian conditions are obtained by crossing these two camel types in Anatolia, which shows various climatic characteristics.
Camels produce two different fibers, the outer protective coarse hairs and the lower fine fibers that provide insulation. Because dromedary camels live in hot desert regions, the soft lower fine fibers in these camels are scarce. Camels are mostly found in Mongolia, Turkestan, China, India (especially in desert regions), Afghanistan, Iran, various Arab countries, Anatolia and some in the Balkans. Although there is a significant amount of camels in Turkey, it is not common to use camel wool. Coarse products such as sacks, saddlebags, ropes and tent cloth are made from the coarse fibers of camels. Fine fibers are used in the production of products such as socks, sweaters and scarves.
LAMB TYPE FIBERS
South American llamas include 4 different species: llamas, alpacas, guanacos, and vicunas]. Alpaca and Llama are domestic, while Vicuna and Guanaco are wild.
Wild llama (guanaco) fibers
Guanaco (Lama Guanicoe), It has a larger population than Vicuna, with more than 90% of the world's Guanaco population in Argentina and the rest in Chile and Peru. Guanacos number 550.000 in Argentina, and they are in the southern part of the country. It is stated that the fiber diameter in adult animals is between 16-22 microns. These fibers are generally used by mixing with wool fiber.
Lama (llama glam) It is a domesticated, herd-dwelling ungulate species of the camel family found in South America. Llamas were widely used as pack animals by the Incas and other natives of the South American Andes.
Most South American llamas are found in Bolivia and Peru. Argentina ranks third in terms of the number of llamas. The ratio of fibers without medulla among the llama fibers is less than 10%, and it is stated that the fibers have light and good thermal insulation properties thanks to the air spaces they contain. Since flat fibers are hard, slippery and less crimped, yarn production from these fibers is difficult and requires special techniques.
Due to the very low elasticity of the lamella fibers, their use is not recommended in the production of products where high elasticity is desired, such as socks. Since llama fiber liners contain two different fiber types and are coarser than alpaca fiber liners, alpaca fibers are used more broadly in the textile industry.
Vicuna, constituting a small part of the llamas, live in the high plateaus of Peru at an altitude of more than 5300 m. Their body weight is 35-45 kg, and their height is 85-90 cm. In order to benefit from the valuable fibers of vicuna, they need to be hunted. Yarns and fabrics produced from vicuna fibers, whose fiber diameters vary between 10-15 microns, are the most expensive textile products in the market among special animal fibers. However, due to the short fiber length and the manual separation of the dead fibers from the thin lower fibers, their production is quite laborious.