Weaving Operator Questions
  • Weaving Operator Questions

     

     

    S.1. What does sizing and sizing mean, why and after which process, explain why?

     

     

    C.1. It is aimed to obtain a smooth warp thread body in terms of providing strength to the warp threads to withstand the impact and tension work in weaving, to ensure the ease of working in weaving so that the threads moving side by side during the weaving work do not tangle with each other.sizing It called. What are impacted teeth? When one or more teeth fails to grow in the correct position and is therefore held below the normal gum line, it is called an impaction. This can be complete, such as completely unerrupted (buried) third molars (wisdom teeth) or partial when just part of the tooth is visible in the mouth. Why are impactions important? For best function and appearance the teeth should grow in a healthy alignment. When one or more teeth is impacted, this can affect the function of that tooth but also the function and appearance of other teeth. Whether all impactions should be treated is still controversial and your dentist and oral and maxillofacial team can explain the advantages and disadvantages or treatment for you, which is usually surgical.

     

    It is made to increase the strength of the warp threads to be used in weaving. Sizing process; It is to increase the resistance of single-ply warp yarns and centerless untwisted filament yarns against mechanical frictions that will be affected during weaving.

    It is a liquid that provides a smooth warp yarn body in terms of providing strength to the warp yarns to withstand the impact and tension work in weaving, ensuring the ease of working in weaving so that the yarns moving side by side during the weaving work do not tangle with each other. sizecalled

     

    It is the process of coating the warp threads with a protective polymeric film in order to improve or protect their physical and chemical properties by passing them through a viscous liquid with adhesive properties.

     

    The sizing process is done in sizing machines after the warp preparation process. Beams prepared in serial warping machines are subjected to sizing and joining processes at the same time in sizing machines. The sizing process also helps to preserve the chemical properties of the yarns. It also reduces fiber debris by causing the fiber ends on the yarns to remain on the yarn.

    The sizing process, which is carried out with the aim of providing strength to the friction and tension forces of the warp yarns during the weaving process, is based on the fact that the yarn surface is covered with a substance called size, minimizing the friction and not affecting the yarn physically and structurally. weaving is the preparatory process.

     

     

    Q.2. What are the purposes of the sizing process, write down the 5 items that you consider the most important?

     

     

    C.2.    

    Adding strength to A-Warp yarn

     

    To add elasticity to the B-warp yarn

     

    Adding lubricity to the C-Warp yarn

     

    D-To prevent static electricity

     

    Adhering the fibers on the surface of the D-Warp yarn to the yarn body 

     

    Creating a smooth and flexible film layer on the E-Warp yarn 

     

    F-To bring the required moisture to the yarn according to the warp yarn type.

     

    To prevent the threads from rubbing against each other during the G-reading 

     

    H-To combine the warp beams, which are warped in the warping machine, according to the type of fabric to be manufactured, and turn them into a single beam.

     

    Winding the I-Warp yarns to the weaving beam with optimum and equal tension

     

    To improve the properties of the warp yarn to increase the efficiency of the i-weaving machine and the fabric quality

     

    The main purpose of J-Sizing is to eliminate or minimize warp breaks during the weaving process.

     

     

    Q.3.What is warping machine?

     

     

    C.3. The weaving preparation machines used in the process of transferring the warp threads to large reels called beams according to the desired properties are called warping machines.

     

     

    Q.4. How many warping machines are they divided into, what are their names?

     

     

    C.4.These machines are divided into two as conical warp and straight (serial) warping machines.

     

     

    Q.5. What is the most obvious difference between conical and serial warping machines?

     

     

    C.5.The most obvious difference between conical and serial warping machines is that in serial warping machines, warp threads are wound directly on the beam. In conical warp machines, on the other hand, the yarns are first wound on the drum (cylinder) in warp groups called calba, and then transferred to the beam.

     

     

    Q.6. What is the function of the creel in warping machines?

     

     

    C.6.Creel is the metal stand on which the bobbins are arranged in warping machines. The creel is the most important element that ensures that the yarn ends coming from the bobbins are transferred to the beam with equal tension, parallel to each other and smoothly. Conical bobbins are used in creels used today. This causes it to have more yarn on it and makes it easier to milk.

     

     

    Q.7.How are the bobbins placed on the creel in the warping machine?

     

     

    C.7. According to the work order received from the production planning in the warping machine, the bobbins will be placed on the creel first in line with the information concerning the warp circle. This alignment process should be done starting from the lower and upper corners of the creel, if it was started from the top, downwards, and if it was tied from the bottom, it should be done upwards. An error to be made during the sewing will cause faulty fabric to come out. In order for the warping machine to run smoothly, the control systems must work without errors.

     

     

    Q.8. What are the features that a proper creel should have?

     

     

    C.8.

    A- The machine should be stopped in case of warp yarn breaks and bobbin emptying.

     

    B- There should be an equal amount of net in the yarn stoppers,

     

    C- The places where the thread passes should be made of low friction and smooth material,

     

    The cleaning of the D-Creel part should be done continuously with robot cleaners,

     

    E-Control system and warning signals of the system should be at a high level

     

    It should be manufactured in a way that will facilitate the assembly of the F-Coils.

     

     

    Q9. What are the creel types used in the Warping Machine?

     

     

    C.9.A-Parallel creel B-( V ) type creel

     

     

    Q.10.The lower end of the bobbins lined up on the creel according to the work order is connected to the upper end of the spare bobbin?

     

     

    C.10. In machines where the same warp thread will continue in the creel, the bobbins can be prepared with redundancy. The lower end of the spare coil is tied to the upper end of the other coil. Thus, when the warp thread on the first bobbin runs out, the process continues with the other bobbin being activated without stopping the machine. Since the spindles on which the bobbins are attached are movable, the finished bobbin spindle can be turned and replaced with a bobbin.

     

     

    Q.11. What are the points to be considered in the bobbins that are attached to the creel according to the work order?

     

     

    C.11.A-The dimensions of the coils should be chosen well. If they are large, they may cause breakage during contact with the coils next to them.

     

    The bosses used for B-Coils must not be broken.

     

    C-Coil winding must be well done.

     

     

    Q.12. How many sections are there on the creel that ensure that the warp threads can be fed properly and what are their names?

     

     

    C.12.A-Brake Assembly B-Thread Checker C-Spindles

     

     

    Q.13. What is the function of the brake system in the creel?

     

     

    C.13.Brake device: It ensures that the warp threads are unwound from the bobbins under constant tension. The mechanisms used for this are systems similar to tensioning devices in spinning machines. It is the section that ensures that the warp threads are unwound from the bobbins with equal tension and that the tension of the threads remains constant during the stop of the machine. The yarn ends taken from each bobbin are passed through the brakes. The winding of the warp threads on the beam at the same tension directly affects the quality of the fabric to be woven. The setting of the brake device on the creel must be under constant control.

     

     

    Q.14. What is the function of the brake system in the creel?

     

     

    C.14. Yarn probe: The warp yarns passed through the brake system are passed through ceramic holders and yarn probes, respectively. Thread holders ensure that the threads are delivered properly. When there is a break in the warp threads, the thread probe drops and the machine is stopped. There should be no waste of time for the machine to stop. Missing warp on the beam causes the fabric to be woven to become a faulty product. This leads to time and economic loss. Yarn probes automatically stop the machine when the warp yarn breaks or the yarn runs out on the bobbin. When the machine stops due to yarn breakage, the lamp in the section where the probes are located turns on and the hook over which the yarn passes is lifted to determine the location of the broken yarn. 

     

     

    Q.15. What is the function of spindles in creel?

     

     

    C.15. Spindles: They are the parts on which the coils are arranged in the creel. It helps to keep the bobbins stable for smooth unwinding of the threads over the bobbins.

     

     

    Q.16. How is the maintenance of the creel in the warping machine, please explain in items?

     

     

    C.16.

    A- The metal parts are checked and the broken and deformed parts are corrected.

     

    B-Braking, thread probe and thread holders are checked and the defective ones are replaced and their settings are made.

     

    C-Defective control lamps and cable systems are overhauled.

     

     

    S.17. What should be considered during the maintenance of the creel in the warping machine?

     

     

    C.17.All necessary adjustments must be made for the creel to prepare the desired warp. During the maintenance of the creel, the following should be considered;

     

    A- Needles should be checked for broken or cracks.

     

    B- It should be checked whether the yarn stoppers are of the same weight.

     

    C-Thread probes sensitivity should be checked.

     

    Broken, cracked and rough parts in D-Guides should be checked.

     

     

    Q.18.How is the total warp threads obtained in the Conical Warp machine?

     

     

    C.18. It is the process of winding the warp threads coming from the creel in the conical warp machine in the form of bands (bands) of the specified width on the drum with conical plates in the desired number and length, and then transferring them to the weaving beam. The reason why it is called conical warp is that there is a conical section on the drum (cupboard) edge.

     

     

    Q.19. What are the processes to be done to prepare the warp in the conical warp machine, write in articles?

     

     

    C.19.

    Arranging the A-Warp bobbins on the creel,

     

    B- Passing the yarn through the brake device, yarn probe and guides,

     

    Passing the C-Warp yarns through the cross and collection comb,

     

    D-Taper adjustment,

     

    E-How many meters of warp to be prepared,

     

    F-Detection of the number of hearts according to the number of warps,

     

    G-Connecting the warp in the form of a heart to the drum,

     

    H- Crossing the heart,

     

    Attaching the i-Leven to the machine,

     

    It is an error-free winding of I-Warp yarns on the beam.

     

     

    Q.20.What are the parts in the Conical Warping Machine?

     

     

    C.20.

    A-Creeler

     

    B-Cross comb

     

    C-Sport

     

    D-Collection comb

     

    E-Conical drum

     

    F-Levende receiving part

     

     

    Q.21. Explain Creeling in Conical Warping Machine?

     

     

    C.21. It is the metal stand on which the bobbins are arranged in the conical warping machine. The creel is the most important element that ensures that the yarn ends coming from the bobbins are transferred to the drum at the same tension, parallel to each other and smoothly. After the drum, the transfer takes place on the beam.

     

     

    Q.22. Describe the Cross Comb in Conical Warping Machine?

     

     

    C.22. It is to cross the warp threads in the cross comb by crossing method so that they do not get mixed up. The cross comb is a comb with one tooth open all the way through, and the other tooth with a short opening in the middle. The task of the cross reed is to separate the warp threads from each other by crossing them. The cross comb is a specially manufactured comb. For crossover, a thread is passed through each tooth of the cross comb. At the beginning of each heart, the cross comb is lifted up and the first cross thread is passed through the mouthpiece, then it is lowered to pass the second cross thread.

     

     

    Q.23. Tell us about Support in Conical Warping Machine?

     

     

    C.23.Conical warping machine carries components such as cross reed, collecting reed (V-comb), caliper, sled fixing and sliding apparatus, crossing arm, apparatus and ruler that can be adjusted according to the conicity of the collecting reed. The support is the part that allows the core to be shifted towards the conical part while the warp threads are wound on the drum in coils.      

    It is an element that can be adjusted with a collapsible system in the width of the collecting reed in the conical warping machine. It ensures that the warp threads coming from the cross reed are wound on the drum by determining the width of the heart and the density in cm. The number of the picking reed is equal to the reed density.

     

     

    Q.24. Which parts are on the support in the conical warping machine, write in items?

     

     

    C.24. In the conical warping machine, it carries components such as cross reed, collecting reed (V-comb), caliper, sled fixing and sliding apparatus, crossing arm, apparatus and ruler that can be adjusted according to the conicity of the collecting reed.

     

     

    Q.25. Tell us about the Support slide in the Conical Warping Machine?

     

     

    C.25.In conical warping machines, the task of the sled is to slide the support device towards the conical part of the drum while winding the core on the drum. The collection comb on the sled is slid to the width of the heart at the end of each heart. The width of the heart is found by dividing the number of warp wires in the heart by the number of reeds.

     

    Q.26. Explain Conical Drum in Conical Warping Machine?

     

     

    C.26. In conical warping machines, a hollow cylinder with a length of 4-5 meters on which there are conical plates or a conical part and on which the warp threads are wound in coils is called a conical drum. There are nails on the drum that enable the ends of the heart to be wrapped, and the part to which the cross ropes will be attached.

     

     

    P.27. Tell us about the Levende taking part in the Conical Warping Machine?

     

     

    C.27. After the total number of warp threads requested on the drum is completed, all warps are transferred to the warp beam attached to the back of the drum at the same tension.

     

     

    S.28. What are the factors affecting the settings of the conical warp machine (to prepare the warp), please explain?

     

     

    C.28.The settings of the conical warp machine are related to the warp thread to be prepared. During the warp preparation, the settings made for the molds to be formed especially in the drum part of the conical warp machine are of great importance. The warp thread to be wound on the beam is taken from the creel and the support and metering are adjusted, then the taper adjustment is made during the winding on the drum as the heart, and finally the adjustment is made during the take-up beam. By making these settings, the necessary parts of the conical warping machine are adjusted.

     

     

    P.29. What are the points to be considered while maintaining and adjusting the conical warping machine?

     

     

    C.29. While maintaining and adjusting the conical warping machine, it is indispensable for all machines to comply with the instructions of the machine manufacturers. If there is warp thread on the machine, it is imperative to take precautions to prevent the thread from being damaged. The maintenance should only cover the relevant part.

    Care should be taken to ensure that the thin, grease and hydraulic oils to be used in the lubrication process are appropriate and used at the required rate, and they should be used only in the relevant part of the machine, and should be kept away from the environment, that is, the floor in the apartment and the parts of the machine that should not be lubricated.

     

     

    P.30. What are the calculations to be made for the preparation of the desired warp in the conical warp machine??

     

     

    C.30. In order to prepare the desired warp in the conical warp machine, it is necessary to calculate the number of cores to be wound on the drum, the width of the tape, the number of wires passing through the tooth in the collecting comb, and the number of reports in the creel.

     

     

    Q.31. What is the formula used to calculate the number of reports in the Creeper in the Conical Warp Machine?

     

     

    C.31. Number of reports in the creel = number of coils in the creel / Number of wires in a report

     

    Or calculated by proportion.

     

     

    P.32. 500 bobbins are placed on the creel in the Conical Warping Machine. If the number of warp threads in a report is 50, what is the number of reports in the creel?

     

     

    C.32. 50 If the number of bobbins or warp wires is 1 report

               500 bobbin, that is, the number of warp wires becomes X report.

               X = 500 / 50 = 10 Reports.

     

     

    P.33. What is the formula used to calculate the number of bobbins in the Creel in the Conical Warping Machine?

     

     

    C.33. Number of coils in the creel = Repetition of the report in the heart x Number of report wires or calculated by proportion.

     

     

    P.34. What is the formula used to calculate the number of Bands (Head) in Conical Warping Machine?

     

     

    C.34.

    Number of tapes = Total number of warp wires / Number of bobbins on the creel

     

     

    P.35. What is the formula used to calculate the width of the Band (Head) in Conical Warping Machine?

     

     

    C.35.

    Band width = Warp width in beam x Number of tape wires / Total number of warp wires

     

    Or Band width = Band wire count / Comb number.

     

     

    P.36. What is the formula used to calculate the number of wires passing through the tooth in the Conical Warping Machine?

     

     

    C.36.

    Number of wires passing through the tooth of the pick comb = Number of band wires / Width of the band x Number of teeth per 1 centimeter of the pick comb

     

     

    P.37. What are the points to be considered in the coil arrangement to the creel in the Conical Warping Machine?

     

     

    C.37. In order to prepare the creel for a new job during the use of the conical warping machine, the creel must be cleaned first, that is, no bobbins (from the previous job) should be left on it.

    Checking the creel is essential. All necessary parts such as metal parts, spindles, brake device, tensioning device, electronic control device, electrical components on the creel should be checked.

    The warp threads should be wound on the bobbin without friction or with the least friction in the bobbin arrangement. In addition, in warping machines where the same work will continue, bobbins should be prepared as redundant. Thus, the machine will not need to be stopped for bobbin change.

     

     

    P.38. Explain the conicity setting in the Drum in the Conical Warping Machine?

     

     

    C.38. The warp to be prepared in the conical warp machine should be wrapped in the drum by gaining a certain height. This height is possible with the adjustment of the blades of the drum. Conic angle adjustment of the machine is determined by the properties such as yarn number and type of the warp to be prepared.

     

     

    Q.39. Tell us how to tie the warp threads taken from the creel to the drum?

     

     

    C.39. In the Conical Warp Machine, the warp threads taken from the creel are passed through the collecting comb and knotted and attached to the hooks (nails) on the conical battalion.

     

     

    P.40. Tell me about the metering and support setting?

     

     

    C.40.The length of the warp thread to be prepared must be entered into the machine as data. The length value of the warp to be wound on the beam is entered into the mechanical counter manually depending on the machine type, or by entering it digitally in machines with electronic equipment, the machine is automatically stopped when the desired warp length is reached. If it is support, the scrolling of the drum is adjusted according to the warp thickness.

     

     

    Q.41. Tell us about crossing the warp threads and adjusting the tension in the Conical Warp Machine?

     

     

    C.41. The purpose of crisscrossing in the warp unwinding process made with conical warp is to protect the color pattern, especially in weavings with colored warp patterns, and to easily find and separate the broken warp yarn. The criss-crossing process is the process of forming the warp threads, which ensures that the warp threads remain in a regular order during the weaving preparation process and weaving. By opening the first nozzle on the cross comb, this

    the mouthpiece is connected to the drum by passing the cross rope between it. The second mouthpiece is opened, taken crosswise. The same process is done in this mouthpiece. Thus, the crossover process is completed.

     

     

    Q.42. Explain the wrapping of the warp on the drum in conical warping machine as coils (bands) (hanks)?

     

     

    C.42.In the conical warp machine, the yarn tensions must be kept under control during the process of winding the warp yarns in coils to the drum. The reason why one side of the drum is conical is to prevent slippage in the warp layer. The winding process of the yarns in the first section of the drum is achieved by moving the section from side to side with a significant speed. When the winding process is completed in the first heart, the collecting comb is pulled to the winding point with a caliper and tied on the diagonal, and this process is repeated for each heart, and the winding process is completed. The warp threads to be wound on the drum must keep their states the same at two points. These are equal tension and the creation of warp hearts of the same length.

     

     

    Q.43.. Tell us how to make the adjustments of the Levende taking part in the Conical Warping Machine?

     

     

    C.43.After the total number of warp wires is completed on the drum, the weaving machine is placed in the beam slot. The ends taken from the drum are knotted in small hearts and attached to the holes in the beam. Warps are transferred on the beam with equal tension over the drum. The width of the weaving beam should be adjusted from the drums according to the width of the wrapped warp. Otherwise, winding errors will occur on the beam.

     

     

    S.44. Explain the transfer of the warp threads on the drum to the warp beam in the Conical Warp Machine?

     

     

    C.44.It is the process of transferring the warp threads wrapped in the drum onto the weaving beam in conical warping machines. As the warp threads are wound on the beam from the drum, the inner diameter of the beam grows. On the other hand, the beam peripheral speed remains constant to adjust the winding of the yarns with the same tension. Thus, the time it takes to wind the yarns from the drum to the weaving beam is directly proportional to the warp length since the beam winding speed is constant. The warp threads are drawn as a whole by turning the beam and winding is performed. The rotational speed of the drum is kept under proper tension.

     

     

    Q.45.What does the number of bobbins lined up on the creel in the Serial Warping machine tell us?

     

     

    C.45. The bobbins lined up on the creel in the serial warping machine are also the total number of warp wires wound on the warp beam.

     

     

    Q.46.What is the feature of serial warping preparation?

     

     

    C.46. It is the process of winding the warp threads coming from the creel, passing through the collecting reed, on the beam, parallel to each other and with equal tension.

     

     

    Q.47. There are 500 bobbins in the creel in the serial warping machine. The threads from these bobbins were wound on the warp beam in parallel. The work order given to us should have a total of 5000 warp threads. Here's how we get the number of 5000 warp threads ?

     

     

    C.47. Ten (10) beams are prepared, consisting of 500 warps in each beam. The yarns coming from these ten (10) beams are combined and transferred in a single beam and wrapped. Thus, our warp consisting of 5000 pieces is obtained.

     

     

    Q.48. How to get the total warp wire count if sizing is to be done?

     

     

    C.48. If sizing is to be done, the beams are loaded directly into the sizing machine and combined during the sizing process.

     

     

    Q.49. For which warps is the serial warp unwinding machine (serial warp machine) usually used?

     

     

    C.49.This warp wrapping system is generally used for warps to be sized.

     

     

    Q.50.Serial warping machine (Parallel warping machine) How many parts does it consist of, what are their names?

     

     

    C.50. A-Creeler B-Creel C-Level Receiving Section

     

     

    P.51. Explain the creel in the serial warping machine?

     

     

    It is the section where the bobbins are arranged as many times as desired on the C.51.Serial warping machine. With the device on the creel, it ensures that the warp threads are unwound from the bobbins with equal tension. V creel is generally used in serial warping machine. Caglik part; It is the part where the bobbins are attached and the yarn is unwound. The maximum number of coils to be placed in this section is the capacity of the creel.

     

     

    P.52. Can you describe spindles in serial warping machine?

     

     

    C.52. It is one of the most important parts of the creel on which the bobbins are arranged. It helps to keep the bobbins stable for smooth unwinding of the threads over the bobbins.

     

     

    P.53. Can you explain the tension device in the serial warping machine?

     

     

    C.53.It ensures that the yarns on the bobbins lined up on the creel are unwinded at the desired tension. The yarn ends taken from each bobbin are passed through the brakes.

     

     

    P.54. Can you explain the tension device in the serial warping machine?

     

     

    C.54.In the creel, the yarn is attached to the hook while it is running, and in case of yarn breaks, the hook falls and stops the machine automatically.

     

     

    P.55. Tell us about the thread cutting knife in the serial warping machine?

     

     

    C.55.When the thread on the bobbins runs out, the thread cutting knife provides cutting of the warp threads. The knife is pulled from the beginning to the end of the creel and ensures that the warp threads are cut in bulk.

     

     

    P.56. Explain the Levende winding part in the serial warping machine?

     

     

    C.56.It is the part that enables the yarns coming from the creel over the bobbins to be wound on the beam with parallel and equal tension. The warp threads coming from the comb pass through the delivery cylinder and are knotted in small groups and attached to the beam. With the rotation of the lever, the warp is wound. The printing cylinder adjusts the compression of the warp threads wound on the beam and the rotation speed of the beam. Thus, it is ensured that the warp wraps properly.

     

     

    Q.57.Warp Threads are the transverse or longitudinal threads of the fabric?

     

     

    C.57. Warp threads are the longitudinal threads of the fabric.

     

     

    Q.58. What does warp preparation mean?

     

     

    C.58. The process of winding the yarns on the weaving beam parallel to each other and with the same tension, according to the characteristics of the fabric to be woven (warp wire number, warp color pattern, warp length), is called warp preparation. 

     

     

    Q.59.Why is sizing done on warp yarns? 

     

     

    C.59. The sizing process, which is carried out with the aim of providing strength to the friction and tension forces of the warp threads during the weaving process, is a weaving preparation process based on the fact that the yarn surface is covered with a substance called sizing, thus minimizing the friction and not affecting the possible yarn physically and structurally.

     

     

    Q.60. What does sizing warp yarns mean?

     

     

    C.60. It is called sizing to obtain a smooth warp yarn body in order to give strength to the warp yarns to withstand the impact and tension work in weaving, to ensure the ease of working in weaving so that the yarns moving side by side during the weaving work do not tangle with each other. It is the process of coating the warp threads with a protective polymeric film in order to improve or protect their physical and chemical properties by passing them through a viscous liquid with adhesive properties.

     

     

    S.61.Sizing is done to increase the strength of warp yarns in weaving. What is the name of the liquid that provides this property?

     

     

    C.61. It is called the size.

     

     

    Q.62.When is the sizing process done on the warp yarns?

     

     

    C.62.The sizing process is done in sizing machines after the warp preparation process. The warp beams prepared in serial warping machines are simultaneously sizing and joining processes in sizing machines.

     

     

    Q.63. What is the benefit of the sizing process on the chemical properties of the warp yarn?

     

     

    C.63. The sizing process helps to preserve the chemical properties of the warp yarns. It also reduces fiber debris by causing the fiber ends on the yarns to remain on the yarn.

     

     

    Q.64.What are the purposes of sizing warp yarns?

     

     

    C.64.

    To give strength to A-Warp yarn.

     

    To give elasticity to the B-warp yarn.

     

    To add lubricity to the C-Warp yarn.

     

    D- To prevent static electricity.

     

    Adhering the fibers on the surface of the E-Warp yarn to the yarn body.

     

    Forming a smooth and flexible film layer on the F-Warp yarn.

     

    Gaining the required moisture to the yarn according to the G-Warp yarn type

     

    To prevent the threads from rubbing against each other during H-reading 

     

    Winding the I-Warp yarns to the weaving beam with optimum and equal tension.

     

    To improve the properties of the warp yarn in order to increase the efficiency of the i-weaving machine and the quality of the fabric.

     

    The main purpose of J-Sizing is to eliminate or minimize warp breaks during the weaving process.

     

    K-To combine the warp beams, which are warped in the warping machine, according to the type of fabric to be manufactured, and turn them into a single beam.

     

     

    Q.65. In how many classes are the substances required to prepare the sizing liquor generally collected and what are their names?

     

     

    C.65.

    A-Adhesive materials

     

    B-Softener 

     

    D-Lubricants are substances added to size (auxiliaries) for special reasons.

     

     

    Q.66. What is the first basic ingredient in sizing?

     

     

    C.66. The first basic substance to be used for sizing is normal water. While preparing the sizing liquor, firstly, water is added to the sizing boiler in accordance with the sizing recipe.

     

     

    Q.67. What is the function of sizing adhesives?

     

     

    C.67.Adhesive ingredients: It is of great importance in terms of the amount and functions used in sizing. These substances increase the yarn strength by enabling the fiber ends to cling to each other.

     

     

    Q.68. What are the adhesives used in sizing?

     

     

    C.68.

     

    A-Natural starches

     

    Starches with the B-Motif (water-soluble)-Glues

     

     

    P.69. What are the natural starches used in the sizing process?

     

     

    C.69.Natural starches: It is the most important substance used in sizing. They are divided into groups such as wheat, potato, corn starch, rice starch.

     

     

    S.70. used in sizing gums What?

     

     

    C.70. Glues: These substances, which have high adhesive power, are added to the size mixture when short fiber is used. They cause difficulties in desizing because they coat the starch molecules. Therefore, it is appropriate to use them sparingly.

     

     

    Q.71. What is the basic sizing agent?

     

     

    C.71. Basic sizing agents are natural or artificial substances that can form a macromolecule film and have a specific structure and ability to adhere to fibers.

     

     

    Q.72. What are the functions of softeners and lubricants in the sizing process?

     

     

    C.72.Softening and lubricating substances: They reduce friction on the loom by giving lubricity to the warp threads.

     

     

    S.73. What are the softening and lubricating substances in the sizing process, please explain by writing them down.?

     

     

    C.73.

     

    A-Tall: Obtained from animal fat. It acts as both a lubricant and a softener.

     

    B-Soap: It is used as a softener. It reduces the friction of the yarns.

     

    C-Olive Oil: It has lubricating and softening properties.

     

    D-Paraffin wax: It gives slipperiness to the yarn.

     

     

    S.74. In the sizing process, what are the substances added to the boil for special reasons, please explain by writing.

     

     

    C.74.

     

    A- Defoamers: They are used to prevent foaming that may occur in the sizing mixture. Acetic acid, calcium, zinc chloride and similar chemicals.

     

    B-Anti-corrosion agents: These substances prevent the ashing and deterioration of the sized and sized warps.

     

    C-Water absorbers: These substances absorb water and prevent the tile from drying out completely. Salts such as zinc chloride, calcium chloride.

     

    Substances that accelerate the melting and mixing of D-Sizing agents: These are substances such as vinegar acid, sulfuric acid, sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate.

     

     

    P.75. In the sizing process, waxes are the most commonly used auxiliary sizing agents. What are the benefits of these waxes to warp yarns, please explain?

     

     

    C.75. Waxes are substances applied to prevent static electricity from sizing yarn coming out of dryers. As a result of the waxing process, the slippery properties of the yarns also increase. As a result of waxing, undesirable situations such as pilling behind the coverslip, cottoning behind the comb and not opening a clean nozzle are prevented. After the weaving process is finished, the sizing should be easily removable, otherwise it may cause problems in the next finishing processes.

     

     

    Q.76. Write down the properties that must be present in the sizing mixture, in terms of items?

     

     

    C.76.

     

    A-Adhesiveness

     

    B-Elasticity

     

    C-Slippery

     

    D-Dehumidifying

     

    E- Resistance to deterioration and rancidity

     

     

    P.77. Explain the stickiness feature that should be present in the sizing mixture?

     

     

    C.77. Stickiness: The most important factor expected from the sizing mixture is that it is sticky. Usually this effect is provided by starch. When very strong sizing is required, some glue is added into the sizing.

     

     

    P.78. Explain the elasticity feature that should be present in the sizing mixture?

     

     

    C.78.Elasticity: SizingşThe warp threads passed through the yarn are dried. In order to prevent the dry size layer on the warp yarn from falling during the winding of the sized warp yarns to the weaving beams, substances are added to the sizing mixture that will give flexibility and prevent brittleness.

     

     

     S.79. Explain the slippery property that should be present in the sizing mixture?

     

     

    C.79.Slippery: Some soap, paraffin, etc. should be added to the sizing mixture to provide lubricity against friction forces while working with woven yarns. items are added. The soap also facilitates the washing process to remove the desizing after the fabric is touched.

     

     

    S.80. Explain the dehumidification feature that should be present in the sizing mixture?

     

     

    C.80. Dehumidification: It is necessary to have a certain humidity in order to increase the efficiency of working with textile raw materials. Moisture increases the flexibility and strength of the yarn. The film layer on the sized yarns prevents the moisture in the environment from penetrating the yarn. For this, some chemicals are added to the size mixture, so that the warp threads benefit from the humidity in the working environment. Substances such as glycerin, roasted salt, magnesium chloride are used for this purpose. The substance generally used for dehumidification is glycerin. Because glycerin also gives softness and flexibility to the yarns.

     

     

    S.81. Explain the property of resistance to deterioration and rancidity that should be present in the sizing mixture?

     

     

    C.81. Resistance to deterioration and rancidity: It can deteriorate quickly due to the sizing mixture. In order to protect the size from deterioration for a long time, substances such as zinc chloride, formelin and phenol are generally mixed into the size.

     

     

    Q.82. What are the important points in the preparation of the size recipe?

     

     

    C.82.

     

    A- Yarn raw material (cotton, polyester, rayon, wool or their blends) 

     

    B- Yarn hairiness 

     

    C-Thread structure (ring, open-end etc.) 

     

    D-Type of water used (fresh or reclaimed) 

     

    E-Weaving machine type and speed 

     

    F-% of additives 

     

    Density of G-Warp yarn 

     

    H-Sizing operations 

     

    I-Sizing recovery and enzyme use 

     

    The design of the i-sizing machine and the number of boats 

     

    J-Environmental limitations 

     

    K-Number of warp and weft yarn 

     

    Condition of L-Warp yarn (raw, dyed, wet, dry etc.) 

     

    M-Warp and weft density N-It is prepared by considering parameters such as the type and speed of the weaving machine.

     

     

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Weaving Operator Questions