Historical Development of Nonwovens
  • Historical Development of Nonwovens




    In the last quarter century, the discoveries of the early periods of Turkish art provided a lot of information about the sources of Turkish art. The oldest examples of painting, sculpture, felt and decorative arts from the Turkish kurgans found in the lands from today's Mongolia to the east of southern Siberia and the Altai have been unearthed.

    Looking at the past, it is seen that the basis of the rapidly developing sector, which is called non-woven surfaces, is based on handmade recoil felts. Central Asian Turks Şibe, Katanda, Başadar, Berel, Esik, Tüekta, Pazirik and Noin-Ula from important kurgans such as; In addition to clothing types such as saddles, harnesses, under-saddle covers, dresses, socks, headgear produced with the rebound felt technique, many artifacts used in daily life have come to light. The first felt samples unearthed were the felt saddle covers belonging to the Huns and the appliqué technique made with colored woolen threads on various covers. Appliqué technique applied with colored thin leathers on felts is one of the most important features of Hun art.

    In addition to the felt samples from the kurgans belonging to the Huns, who founded the first Turkish empire, hundreds of thousands of other artifacts give us information about the art and culture of the communities that lived at that time, the items they used in daily life, and the characteristics of these items. When the development of felt art in Central Asia starting from the Huns is examined; There were no great differences in terms of construction techniques, usage areas, colors and decorations. It is learned that the Göktürks and Uyghurs continued to produce felts with the characteristics of the period and the opportunities provided by the region.

    From past to present, felt has been used in many areas from the tent used by the Turks to clothing. Felt, which we encounter in our folk culture and literature, sometimes in rhymes and numbers, and sometimes in our novels and poems, is the origin of the Göktürks. deaf It has also found a place in beliefs such as being buried with felt dolls. At the same time, the tradition of the Göktürks to raise the khan on white felt at the throne ceremony continued until the end of the middle ages as a Turkish state tradition.

    IV. After the century, the Uyghurs, who moved from a nomadic equestrian lifestyle to a settled order, lived in the cities of Hoço, Bezeklik, Sorçuk and Turfan. It is seen that the hats, which are widely used in Turkish tribes, continued to be used in the Uyghurs period, albeit in different forms. It is understood that the white felt hats found in the felt mats and frescoes took form according to the position of the individuals.

    Felts patterned with applique technique were used in the tents used in the Seljuk period after the Uighurs; It is seen that the art of felt was used in the production of saddles, börk, boots and other clothing pieces. Established in this period, the Ahi organization gave way to guilds during the Ottoman period and felt making had a special place.

    Felt making, which continued in the Ottoman period after the Seljuks, became an art in Istanbul during the reign of Abdulhamid I. Felt shops, which have 20 in the horse market and 10 in Yenibahçe, produced the wool and fleece they bought and the felts they cooked in the baths allocated to them at a price of miri to Cebehane, Mehterhane, Tophane, Has Ahur, Buzhane and Shipyard, and offered them for sale.

    Headgears made of felt were also used in the Ottoman period, and they were usually a guide that showed the class or rank of the person wearing it. These caps were generally used in different forms by wrapping fabrics on a felt cone.

    In this period, the headdresses used by high-ranking people, public and religious groups were different from each other. Janissary soldiers of the Ottoman period also used headdresses called “üsküf” or “börk” made of white felt. These interesting headdresses worn by the Janissaries were featured in the miniatures of the Ottoman period. Apart from these special headdresses worn by the Janissaries, another headpiece made of felt and becoming the symbol of the Ottoman period was the fez.

    Felt making, which continued to be produced and used in various provinces in the period of the Republic of Turkey after the Ottoman Empire, is still being produced today, although it has decreased compared to the past in line with the new opportunities and developments offered by technology.

    If the development of nonwovens abroad is examined, it is seen that the modern nonwoven industry was born with cotton felt, which is defined as products filled and developed with wadding under the British patent number 1854, produced by August Belford in 114.. The nonwoven industry, which started to develop in Europe and America in the 1920s and 1930s, accelerated the development of nonwoven surface products in the 1960s, with the availability and suitability of synthetic fibers as an alternative to traditional textile products with low prices. Binding of fibers with the needling technique was the first developed technique. The beginning date of the nonwoven industry in Japan is accepted as the transformation of the fibers obtained from mulberry into textile fabric by using wet processing technique by the Japanese years ago. As a result, 3 countries hold the majority of the production and consumption of nonwoven fabrics today.

    The production of textile surfaces other than weaving and knitting accelerated in the 2s after the end of World War II. Two factors played a role in this. First; the increase in the production of synthetic fiber, the second is; It is the revival of the post-war construction industry.

    The production of nonwovens in our country was first started in the 1960s with the production of needle felt type floor carpets. Today, the production in this field is mostly carried out in the fields of carpet and flooring, nonwoven wadding, interlining, hygienic products and home textiles, especially needle felt and tufting techniques. The nonwoven sector, which started in Bursa, has been concentrated in the Marmara Region, especially in Istanbul and Thrace, and has tended to spread to other textile producing cities, especially Gaziantep, in recent years. 

    It is possible to classify nonwoven surfaces in the past and in the present production, raw material properties, technical properties and usage characteristics.



    1-Traditional Nonwovens (Felts)

     2-Industrial Nonwovens


    It is collected in 2 groups as ,




    1-According to its raw material; 

    A-Natural (Cotton, Wool)

    B-Artificial (Polyurethane, Polypropylene, Polyester, Viscose)

    C-Harmonic (Artificial, Natural)


    2-According to the Base Feature  ( Network type structures, Complex structures ) 

    3-According to its Technical Specification; (Tufting surfaces, Adhesive surfaces, Surfaces produced with Mali technique, fixed gauze (Nonwoven) surfaces) 


    4-According to the Usage Feature; 

    A-Disposable (Diaper, Female hygiene, Cleaning cloth, Medical surgery, Disposable Clothes, Wet wipes) 

    B-Long Life (Carpet, Automotive, Construction, Furniture, Geotextile) 



    Posted by %PM, 25% 776% 2017 20%:%Oct in Non Woven Surfaces

Historical Development of Nonwovens