The machines are equipped with a microprocessor controlled by the keyboard on the machine and a memory where the programs of 8 different sizes of 8 kinds of socks can be loaded and stored. In these programs, product and production information such as advance of the control drum, number of rows in each part of the sock and speed control for each part can be found. Today, with the access to fully electronic machines, there is no need for a control drum. With the help of the keyboard, the desired program information can be entered from the microprocessor, the existing information can be called, or this information can be changed. As a result, the machine can knit the socks with this information.
The commands for knitting socks to the microprocessor on the machine are loaded separately from floppy disks created with the help of computer aided pattern preparation systems. Compared to the mechanical sock knitting method, the most important advantage of electronic selection is the working speed. It works with the air system. A pattern drum can make a new selection after one revolution of the roller. In this way, individual needle control can be achieved. The size of the pattern report depends on the memory of the microprocessor in the machine. Whatever electronic system is used, the drive that determines whether a needle works or not is given mechanically. This mechanical relationship between the actuator and the needle is evaluated differently by different machine manufacturers. This is done by means of oscillating selectors, push selectors or oscillating push rods. In all cases, the number of piano tips (arms) in the piano group (activator) is equal to the number of selectors used.
All pattern information loaded into the machine's memory must be numerical (in 0 and 1). In addition, the microprocessor of the machine must have a starting point from which to start counting. An electronic sensor at this point sends a signal to the microprocessor at each revolution of the cylinder. The needles that will knit are given a value of 1, and the needles that will not knit are given a value of 0. The widest patterning possibilities can be achieved in single-cylinder machines operating according to the vanize method with one knitting system and three or more patterning systems.
When the pattern is created on double cylinder machines or on any rib ground, the number of pattern yarns first depends on the number of knitting system. The main color is always knitted in its own knitting system. In the two- or three-color jacquard system, colors cannot be knitted in the same order, except in a complete pattern sequence. This occurs during two and three braids, respectively.
Today, in fully electronic machines, the patterning and the pinometric air assembly of the machine are also controlled electronically. These include the operating conditions of the moving steels (such as loop steels…), the roller (sleeve) movement type (rotation and swing) and speed, and the change of the shuttles.
Air System in Electronic Sock Knitting Machines
There is an air system transferred to the machine with the help of a compressor. In cases where there is not enough air from the compressor, AIR PRESSURE appears on the screen of the machine and warns that the air is not enough. The engine of the machine is double stroke. It is connected to the machine with two hoses. One performs the suction by vacuuming and the other the blowing operation.
1-Parts where the air system is used Pinometric valve; It is a system that opens and closes the air where there is a 12 volt electric current. It is used in shuttles and pressure steels.
2- It pulls the knitted socks down from the cylinder and performs the suction process.
3- It prevents the cut yarns from damaging the needles by absorbing the cut pattern yarns during the knitting process.
4- After the knitting process is finished, the socks are emptied from the cylinder and then sucked and thrown into the basket.
Physical Structure of Electronic Sock Knitting Machines
Electronic sock knitting machines, like mechanical sock knitting machines, consist of three parts.
1-The arbor part
3-The lower part
It is the part that carries the yarn bobbins and spare yarn bobbins on it in a fixed and regular manner. It is the part used to prevent the bobbins used in the knitting process from mixing with each other.
Yarns, which are the main knitting material, are prepared in bobbins and delivered either circularly over the machine or from the back of the machine to the knitting parts.
It is the part where the machine does the knitting process. The body part is divided into two as the upper table and the middle table.
The prints and automatics on the upper table are shown in the figure above.
Prints on the left
2nd decline domestic platinum
2nd drop ½ towel press
2nd drop full towel print
Left needle automatic
Prints on the right
1.Fall full towel press rear automatic
secret circle automatic
1st drop ½ towel print reverse towel print
At the bottom of the machine, there is the engine turning handle, the hobnail storage and the sock throwing basket. When the bottom cover of the machine is opened, there is an electronic card system, air system and lubrication system.
In this section, there is a coil mounting place, that is, coil holders. In the installation of bobbins, it should be placed close to which bobbin will send yarn to which bobbin. There is a separate apparatus for the tire. After the tire is placed in the bobbin holder, it must be attached to the tire apparatus. The threads must be passed through the thread pores correctly.
It is the part that provides the control of the yarns coming from the arbor and their clean delivery to the knitting area at a certain tension. It controls yarn breaks and prevents foreign materials from entering the knitting area. It consists of yarn control device, yarn reserve and yarn control apparatus.
The yarns unwound from the bobbin in the arbor are shipped from the following parts until they reach the knitting needles:
Yarn probing and control elements
There are different thread insertion holes depending on the thread count. Each yarn should be passed through beads suitable for its number, so that the wrong yarn is checked before the thick and faulty parts pass to the knitting needles, and knitting errors are prevented.
Tension control and signal lamps (Tension strain)
It is used to prevent faults on the knitting surface of yarns with high tension and difficult to pass through the thickness probe part. When the yarn is under tension, the control lamp lights up and the machine is stopped by making a short circuit.
Yarn delivery systems
After passing the above-mentioned preliminary controls, it is transmitted to the knitting needles with a certain delivery speed and tension in accordance with various adjustment conditions according to the yarn requirement of the knitting.
It is the part where the bobbins are placed and ensures that the bobbin is fixed properly and without turning in the yarn delivery. According to its shape and size, it is in the form of a flat iron rod or a plastic and threaded conical.
It is located between the iron bars in the gazebo. In order to prevent the thread from deforming and breaking during shipment, the beads inside are made of porcelain. These pores are placed on the arbor in proportion to the coils on which the coils are attached.
Half of the needles around the cylinder are short-footed and half are long-footed needles. Short toe needles work under the sole in the heel-toe knitting process. The scales prevent threading from other needles by transferring thread to the short foot needles and pulling the thread from the long foot needles that knit the heel and toe.
Tire Tension System
The placement method differs according to the yarn tension system. The reason for this is that the tension system is located in the arbor part. Thanks to the small gear in the tire tensioning system, the frequency adjustment is provided. If the adjustment control is not done, the elastic will be loose or tight, which will reduce the knitting quality.
The body part is examined under two main headings as the lower part and the upper part. There is a cylinder at the top. Based on the cylinder, the parts connected to the cylinder and the parts not connected to the cylinder can be examined under two main headings.
Parts attached to the cylinder
Jeksler (intermediate sinker)
Parts not attached to the cylinder
Diamond Tire pliers
Parts Attached to the Cylinder
The parts on the cylinder in sock knitting machines are also the main elements for the sock knitting process.
It is an auxiliary part placed in electronic sock knitting machines to ensure that the loops between the needles are knitted more easily. Two types of sinkers are used in single-cylinder electronic sock knitting machines. These:
It is effective in flat knitting and knitting patterned socks. In terms of shape, it has a single beak. Its single beak takes the thread and transfers it to the needle tip.
It is used in sock knitting process in electronic sock knitting machines. It has a double beak. The process of the towel sinker takes the yarn with a beak, forms a loop and pulls it under the weave. It takes the yarn with its other beak and gives it to the needle and ensures the formation of knitting. Due to the repetition of this event, towel knitting takes place on the lower surface of the knitting.
It is the auxiliary part that is placed next to the flat sinker in double-cylinder machines and facilitates the knitting process. It is thinner in thickness than other sinkers. It is used only in double cylinder machines.
It is the main piece that performs the knitting. Two types of needles are used in electronic sock knitting machines.
A. Needle with hook on one end
B. Needle with hooks on both ends
The hooked needle got its name from the hook-shaped curve of its head. The hook tongue relation knitting process in the head part; feet, heights and shapes provide patterning. Hooked needles knit both by moving up and down on their own and by moving collectively during work. Needles with hooks on one end are used in single-cylinder electronic sock knitting machines.
Needles with hooks on both ends are used in double-cylinder electronic sock knitting machines that can knit Links-Links (relief).
Working stages of needles in socks knitting machines:
1-When the needle is in the non-working position, the movement of the needles is moved by the card system.
2-When the needle is in the working position, the needle tongue is opened and the thread is fed into the needle tongue.
3- By closing the needle tongue, the loop in the body of the needle takes the position of going up from the needle tongue by pulling the needle down.
4-The loop comes out of the needle and creates a new tissue.
5-The needle that completes the process comes to its old position and becomes ready for the formation of a new tissue surface.
Jeksler (Intermediate Platinum)
In electronic sock knitting machines, the jerks that work between the selectors and the needles can also be called intermediate sinkers. Jeks transmit the movement they receive from the selectors to the needles.
With the command of the pattern ball, the pattern ball touches the selector foot of the piano and embosses the relief. Embossing, jerk, jerk raises the needle and allows the needle to knit a pattern or ground. Selectors are arranged as a set in their channels in the cylinder from 1 to 8. After 8, it is placed according to the diameter of the cylinder or according to the machine feature, starting from the number 1 again.
Parts Not Attached To The Cylinder
Although these parts are not the main knitting element, they are the parts that help to perform some operations in knitting socks.
It is the most important part on the cover of electronic sock knitting machines, on which there is a saw, which is used to fold the lining part of the sock, and which is located at the top of the cylinder. It is only found in electronic single cylinder hosiery knitting machines. Unchines are of two types. These are called long feet and short feet. On the machine, where we will put the long foot and where the short foot will be placed on the flour, as the beginning and the end, are indicated on the flours.
The working principle of the flour:
1-Unçine comes out of its bed and enters between two needles. It takes the knitting yarn and makes the curling process.
2- At the same time, it helps the knitting process of the first row of the crotch part while rolling.
The task of the shuttles is to feed the threads coming from the thread control device into the mouth of the needles. Some electronic sock knitting machines have floor shuttles on the back, side feed and tire shuttle, and pattern shuttles on the front. According to the number of falls and machine differences, the number of shuttles varies. With the help of air valves, it falls on the cylinder and performs the process of giving the threads to the needle mouth.
For example, the floor shuttle group in a single cylinder and single drop electronic sock knitting machine model is listed below.
Ground shuttle group: These
1 nylon shuttle
2 Second color shuttle (cotton or nylon)
3 Heel-to-nose shuttle
4 Towel press shuttle
5 Rolling nylon shuttle
6 Second ground shuttle
7 is the main ground shuttle.
Pattern shuttle Group
It is the shuttle group in which the pattern shuttle colors move in order to color the pattern in the pattern drawing program.
There is an independent tire apparatus on the machine. This apparatus takes the abundance of the tire yarn before it reaches the shuttle and ensures that it passes through the shuttles properly. The density of the tire thread can also be adjusted via this apparatus. The tire shuttle is mounted in a different location from the floor assembly.
It is a piece on the flour that is used to cut the pattern threads. Available only in Electronic single cylinder hosiery knitting machines. The pores of the saw bring the threads to the mouth of the diamond and perform the cutting process. The saw must be placed in its correct and proper place after the unchin is disassembled and reassembled, since it is on the unchin.
It is the part that cuts the threads. The diamond should be removed periodically and sanded with a special paste. Saw and diamond work together.
It is the part that ensures that the tire does not escape from the shuttle after the tire shuttle enters the mission and completes its operation.
Parts Located at the Bottom of the Cylinder
They are the parts that move according to the commands given to the knitting elements in the hosiery machines.
The pattern ball in electronic sock knitting machines and connected to the card system with a cable is the part that activates the pattern shuttle groups and shuttles. It has pianos on it. These pianos create patterns by hitting the selectors.
It provides heel formation by raising or lowering the needles by getting into the heel construction. The number of nails varies according to machine types and models. Nails are of two types.
While performing the widening process in the formation of the heel toe, it activates the short foot needles by raising them one by one. 2 pieces.
Lowering nails: While the narrowing (reducing) part of the heel-toe operation is performed, it turns the short-footed needles into the passive position two by one. It is a single piece.
Nussa (Amulet) Steels
It is the part that makes the density adjustment of the weave. It is located under the lifting nails. It works separately in the form of right and left on the heel and toe. A nussa (amulet) steel is used in the knitting process of the hoop and base parts.
1 By pulling the needles down, it allows the loops to expand, thus opening the knitting.
2-When it raises the needles, it makes the loops tighter and the knitting is tighter.
Needle Tongue Opener
It is the part that opens the needle tongues and makes the needles ready for knitting. Since the tongues of the needles do not open, an error will occur in the knitting process. Or it will cause the needle to break as there will be loop accumulation on the needle tongue.
It is the part that is close to the periphery of the cylinder, hits the automatic needle when the needle is broken or deformed, and causes the machine to stop by short-circuiting it.
It is the part that pushes the needles and steels. It takes its movements from the socks program prepared on the computer.