Electronic Flat Knitting Machine
  • Electronic Flat Knitting Machine










    Electronic flat knitting machines are examined as skeleton, knitting elements and knitting aids..


    In knitwear machines, the main body is the part that creates the general appearance of the machines. It is the main element that carries all the working machine elements of the machine on it, with the same fixed and general structure, but showing differences.


    The features of the machine skeleton can be listed as follows:
    • 1-It should not transmit the vibrations during the work to the knitting elements.
    • 2- It should be in a design that will provide convenience to the employee during the removal of the fabric from under the machine.
    • 3-The height of the machine should be designed in such a way that the working elements can see the knitting movements.
    • 4- The design of the skeleton should be made in such a way that it does not hinder the movement of the moving and transmitting elements.
    • 5-It should be designed in such a way that it does not affect worker and work safety.
    The feeding parts of the machine are as follows.
    It is the machine element that enables the yarns coming from the bobbins lined up on the bobbin stand to be transferred to the shuttle by passing them through the upper and side arbor (side tensioner) in a controlled manner. It consists of three parts.
    Coil Stand
    The bobbin stand is the upper part where the yarn bobbins are arranged on the machine. It serves to place the threads properly during the delivery process to the upper arbor.
    Upper Gazebo
    It helps the yarns coming from the bobbin stand to pass through the guiding and control devices properly.
    064 straightening
    Side Tensioner (Side Tensioner)
    It is a device that maintains the tension of the yarn during the knitting of the yarns coming from the upper arbor by the movement of the head and the return of the shuttle. In addition, with the help of this device, the yarns are passed through the guides and transferred to the shuttles properly.
    066 straightening
    The auxiliary elements in the knitting process are:
    Needle Bed (Plate)
    It is a machine element made of hardened steel, which has channels on it according to the thickness of the machine and allows the needle and sinkers to move within these channels. There are two needle beds in electronic knitwear machines, as well as machines with four needle beds. It is preferred because it provides convenience and reduces the output time of the part.
    Needle –Platinum
    The basic knitting elements that perform the formation of loops and the joining of loops are called needles. Platinum is the element that transmits the movement from steel to the needles in electronic machines. The sinkers are divided into needle sinker and selective sinker. As can be understood from their names, the sinker needle sinker, which transmits movement to the needles; The platinum, which enables needle selection according to the movement to be made, is also called selective platinum.
    Saddle (Head)
    The saddle is fixed to the pallets. With the motion taken from the stepper motors, the pallets carry the saddle along the plate. The stepper motors provide the return of the saddle from the desired point (without the need to complete its tour). It is the machine element that contains the shuttle pumps, the steel plate (table), the adjustment motors, the needle stop, the brushes, the spring suppressors and carries the shuttles throughout the knitting area during operation.
    Electronic knitwear machines 
    It is divided into two as single and double saddle machines. Saddles can work separately as well as work together. Saddles can be operated separately in order to knit two separate pieces at the same time in order to produce more on long machines. The operation of the saddles separately from each other is called “tandem”. Saddles are combined with an iron piece called belt in order to knit flat wide width pieces. The combined operation of the saddles is called "combined head". Thus, it can work like a single saddle.
    Double saddle machines 1+1 = 2 systems
    2+2 = 4 systems
    3+3 = 6 system machines.
    Steels (Lock Assembly)
    They are machine elements made of hard steel, which are mounted on a steel plate (plate) in flat knitting machines, can move up and down one by one, apply pressure to the needles in order to select the needles in accordance with the knitting type and to give the loop density.
    Duties of steels
    • 1-Allows selection of needles.
    • 2-Moves the selected pins.
    • >> Forms a loop with the full movement of the needles.
    • >>It creates a hanger with half movement of the needles.
    • >>It creates a jump with the needle not moving at all.
    • 3- It allows the needle to be drawn according to the loop frequency.
     Steels according to their treatment
    • 1- Knitting steels
    • 2-Selective steels
    • 3-Setting steels
    • 4-Transfer steels
    • 5-Special purpose steels that vary according to the machine feature and weave type
    Shuttles and Shuttle Rails
    The machine elements that feed the thread coming from the arbor to the needle mouth are called shuttle. Four types of shuttles are used in electronic flat knitting machines.
    >>> Normal (flat) shuttle
     It is a type of shuttle used for knitting flat knitted fabrics. 
    >>>Vanize shuttle
    It is the shuttle used to see different colors on the front and back of the piece knitted on the machine. There are two holes at the tip of the shuttle. One of the holes is round in the middle, and the other is the hole that surrounds this hole in a semicircle. The hole in the middle creates the color of the front surface of the fabric. The yarn, which is in the form of a semicircle and fed to the section, creates the color appearance of the back surface.
    >>>Intersia shuttle
     It is a shuttle that can be bent to the right and left after the knitting process is finished, which is used during the knitting of the fabrics. 
     >>>Split shuttle
    Although they are not used with all machines, they are shuttles that are used to perform knitting at the same time in transfer processes. The difference with the normal shuttle is that the space in the shuttle wedge is wider.
    shuttle rails
    The shuttles are moved by the saddle on the shuttle rail along the knitting area. Flat knitting machines have four shuttle rails. There are two shuttles on each rail, one on the right and one on the left. These shuttles are called 1A and 1B shuttles.
    There are two channels on a rail, one in front and one behind the rail. The shuttles attached to the shuttle rails are numbered by counting them away from the rail closest to the mechanic. There are shuttles one and two on the first rail, shuttles three and four on the second rail, shuttles five and six on the third rail, and shuttles seven and eight on the fourth rail.
    Due to the arrangement of the shuttles, the distance to the needle bed changes. In order to eliminate this distance, the shuttles are given different angles towards the needle bed. 
    shuttle 1 and shuttle 8,
    shuttle 2 and shuttle 7,
    shuttle 3 and shuttle 6,
    The landing angle of the shuttle number 4 and the shuttle number 5 to the needle bed is the same.
    The shuttle selection should be made considering the inclination of the shuttles. Setting differences can be observed. The shuttle to be used most frequently should be selected from the shuttles perpendicular to the needle bed.
    Shuttle Pumps
     The mechanisms in the bridge part of the saddle that provide the selection and transportation of the shuttles with the movement of the saddle are called shuttle pumps. It consists of sixteen electronic selective pumps. It allows the shuttle to be transported by falling into the gap in the wedge of the shuttle to be operated.
    There are two brushes in each system to interfere with the front and back plate needles on the saddle. It is the machine element that helps to open the needle tongues of the knitting needles and prepares the needles for knitting.
    Patterning Assembly
    In electronic flat knitting machines, the pattern process is carried out with computer software. Each manufacturer company has its own patterning software. In order to apply these pattern software on the machine, there are the following devices on the machine.
    • >>> Needle selection device:
    • It is the device that performs the selection process so that the needles can optionally pattern the pattern with knitting movements.
    • >>> Steel movement gear
    • It is the device that ensures the formation of tissue by providing the movement of the selected needles according to the knitting.
    • >>> Shuttle selection device
    • It is the device that selects the shuttle specified in the pattern program in patterns made with colored threads and enables it to be transported.
    • >>> Plate movement device: It is the device that allows the front and rear needle plate to move left and right.
    In knitting machines, there must be drafting in order for the knitting texture to be formed. The yarn is pulled until it is knitted. It is knitted until pulled. This form of attraction is called positive attraction. In electronic flat knitting machines, the drafting process is carried out with the help of the main roller, the auxiliary roller reinforced and the comb reinforced roller. With the drafting process, the loop density is adjusted, a comfortable loop is formed, and the fabric is provided to descend comfortably from the knitting area. The main roller is present in all machines. It pulls the fabric down and provides loop formation. The auxiliary roller and comb are used in addition to the main roller. The auxiliary roller is just below the gap between the needle bearings. It provides partial traction between the needle plate and the main roller. The purpose of its use is to provide the comfort at the beginning of the piece and the smoothness of the stitch lengths due to the drawing of the piece in the products with increment and decrease. The task ends when the part reaches the main roller.
    Motor operation on flat knitting machines It is the part of the brain that supervises all knitting processes, keeps them under control and ensures that they work in harmony with each other. The tasks of the control equipment are:
    • 1-Selecting and changing shuttles
    • 2-To direct the movements of the patterning equipment
    • 3-Selecting and moving the knitting elements
    • 4- Pulling the tissue
    • 5-Adjusting the speed of the machine
    Control and safety systems in flat knitting machines are complementary systems for the machine and the employees.
    Control systems are systems that ensure the safety of itself and the product. In order to ensure human and environmental health, a safety system has been created with the parts added to the machine. These; top, side, rear protective covers and dust absorbing systems.
    • 1-Top protective cover: It is a transparent movable cover used to prevent anything from falling on the plate during operation.
    • 2-Side protective cover: These are the covers that have a side gazebo on them and are used to prevent possible accidents.
    • 3-Back protective cover: It is the cover used to prevent any work accident that may occur during the movement of the motor and pallet belts located at the back of the machine.
    • 4-Dust absorbing system: It is the system that collects the yarn flies in a certain chamber with the vacuum system from the knitting area, thus keeping the machine and the product clean.
    Control and security systems ensure the safety of the worker and the machine by warning with light and sound.
    In electronic flat knitting machines, the motion is transmitted to the motion transmission elements by means of servo (step) motors. The motion received from the motor is transmitted to the fruit through belts, pulleys and pallets, which are motion transmission elements.










    The maintenance techniques applied in knitwear machines not only extend the life of the machine, but also play an important role in obtaining error-free, quality and fast products. It is possible for the machines to give the desired results with the maintenance done to the machines at the recommended time, in the manner and with the material (oil, cleaning cloth, compressor, etc.).

    Maintenance on knitwear machines; daily, weekly, monthly, semi-annual and annual. It should not be neglected because the failure to perform the maintenance on time and as required causes results such as faulty product, machine malfunctions and increased costs. It is more suitable to use compressor vacuum system with conditioner in machine maintenance.

    Thin oil, thick oil and grease are used in flat knitting machines. The thin oil ensures that the needle channels on the plate are cleaned and the needles move easily in the channels. It is also used for cleaning shuttle rails, needles and sinkers.

    Thick grease is applied to the moving parts of the machine (gears, bearings …). Thick oil is applied to needle and sinker heels to prevent abrasions arising from friction during operation.

    If there are no corrosion resistant additives in the environment, chemical corrosion will occur. Rust preventive additives prevent any part of the system from rusting, that is, damage to the metal by any contact of air with the metal surface. will prevent you from seeing it.





    It is used to keep the needle channels constantly clean, to minimize the vibration and noise in the machine, to increase the usage time of the needle and sinkers, to reduce the heat caused by friction in the machine, to be resistant to rust, to provide less wear on the machine parts.

    If there are no corrosion resistant additives in the environment, chemical corrosion will occur. Rust preventive additives prevent any part of the system from rusting, that is, damage to the metal by any contact of air with the metal surface. will prevent you from seeing it.



    iIt is used to keep the needle channels constantly clean, to minimize the vibration and noise in the machine, to increase the lifetime of needles and sinkers, to reduce the heat caused by friction in the machine, to be resistant to rust, and to provide less wear on the machine parts.


    In flat knitting machines, needle bearings, jacquard shaft and shuttle rails are lubricated. Two types of oil are used. Thin oils are used for cleaning, and thick oils are used to prevent wear caused by friction.

    Lubrication is done in two ways:

    Manual lubrication Needle bearings, shuttle rails, slides are lubricated with thin oil with an oiler. The lubricators are the same as the lubricators used in hand machines.

    oil pump The steel plate under the head is lubricated with Lubrication is carried out by the mechanic by pulling the handle of the oil pump. This process is done at regular intervals. It differs according to the machine.

    While maintaining flat knitting machines, the hand tools seen in the field common course are used. In addition, a tool called wedge is used to remove the needle blades on the plate of knitting machines.




    In electronic knitwear machines, the blades must be opened in order to remove and attach needles and sinkers from the needle plate. A wedge is a hand tool used for opening or removing blades. It is used for the same work even if there are differences in their shapes.

    In flat knitting machines, maintenance is done to increase the service life of the machines, to minimize malfunctions and to increase production efficiency. Minor faults on the machine are checked beforehand and problems are resolved before a major fault occurs. These checks are carried out with the following maintenance:



    daily care



    Daily maintenance should be done by the person who takes over the shift in the enterprises. Daily maintenance should be done at the beginning of the workshop lesson on the machines used for training purposes. The purpose of the daily maintenance is to check the needles and sinkers of the machine and to clear the thread fly from the work.

    • 1- With the compressor with conditioner, air is kept on the arbor, bobbin stand and protective cover to purify dust and yarn fly. During the air holding process, care is taken not to remove the threads attached to the arbor and not to disturb the arbor settings. The compressor with the conditioner can be adjusted according to the humidity in the air. Due to the simultaneous spraying of water and moisture in the air by other compressors, corrosion occurs on the metal parts of the machine.
    • 2- After the air cleaning process is finished, it is wiped with a clean cotton cloth. This process is called rough cleaning. Cotton cloths are absorbent. It can also be used instead of cotton cloth.
    • 3- With the help of an absorbent cloth, the shuttles, shuttle rails, saddles, saddle slides, may suppressors, bearings, needle bearings should be wiped. During this cleaning, dust, lint and oil residues mixed with them are removed from the parts that perform the knitting function of the machine.
    • 4-In order to clean the needle head (hook), the needles should be lifted upwards and air must be sprayed. With this process, residual oil and lint residues that may be on other parts of the needle are cleaned.
    • 5- After wiping the dirty oil on the shuttle rails and plates with a clean cloth, they should be lubricated with the oil recommended according to the machine brand. This lubrication process can be done with a brush or pump oiler. The needles, which are raised during cleaning, are lowered to the level of the plate while lubricating. In some knitting machines, a small amount of white grease is applied to the areas exposed to friction on needle, sinker, selector and steel needle paths.
    • 6-The inside and outside of the protective covers are wiped and the covers are closed.
    • 7- The filter of the vacuum cleaning device, if any, is emptied.
    • 8-Tangled threads on the roller and roller pressure screws should also be cleaned. This is not just cleaning, it is a process that should always be paid attention to.



    Weekly Maintenance



    The machines should be serviced every weekend. In the weekly maintenance, different operations are performed apart from the cleaning performed in the daily maintenance.

    • 1-The arbor, bobbin stand, protective cover is wiped with a cloth after air is blown.
    • 2- Needles are cleaned by lifting up and holding air.
    • 3-The saddle is pulled to the left side of the machine and the bottom of the saddle can be seen. Air is kept on the steel table mounted under the saddle. With this process, the fluff and oil residues that enter the needle paths of the knitting steels are cleaned.
    • 4-The dirty oil on the shuttle rails and plates is cleaned and lubricated.
    • 5-The oil channels through which excess oil is filtered are cleaned with the help of oakum.
    • 6-Selective eye rail is cleaned with compressed air.  The inside and outside of the protective covers are wiped, the covers are closed.
    • 7-The tangled threads on the roller and roller pressure screws are cleaned.
    • 8-The parts basket is cleaned by wiping.
    • 9-Machine cabinets are disassembled and cleaned.
    • 10- The filter of the vacuum cleaning device, if any, is emptied.



    Monthly Maintenance



    The following operations are performed in monthly maintenance:

    • 1-Air is kept on the arbor, bobbin stand, protective cover, then wiped with a cloth.
    • 2-Needles are cleaned by lifting up and holding air.
    • 3-The head (saddle) is cleaned by removing it.
    • 4-Shuttles and shuttle stops are removed and cleaned.
    • 5-The dirty oil on the shuttle rails and plates is cleaned and lubricated.
    • 6-The oil channels through which excess oil is filtered are cleaned with the help of oakum.
    • 7-Selective eye rail is cleaned by blowing air.
    • 8-The inside and outside of the protective covers are wiped, the covers are closed.
    • 9-The tangled threads on the roller and roller pressure screws should be cleaned.
    • 10-The parts basket is cleaned by wiping.
    • 11-Machine cabinets are disassembled and cleaned.
    • 12-The card board of the machine is cleaned by holding air without damaging it. It is appropriate to perform this operation by the technical service.
    • 13- The filter of the vacuum cleaning device, if any, is emptied.
    • 14-The suction device and compressor of the machine are checked.
    • 15-The scale of the machine should be checked.



    Annual Maintenance



    The worker foreman and technical service personnel working on the machine should perform the annual maintenance together.

    Annual maintenance can be done at the end of 12 months or at the end of six months. Configure in recommended six-month intervals. This maintenance is done without any relation to other maintenance.

    • 1-Needles and all sinkers are removed from the needle bed and cleaned one by one. This cleaning process is done with kerosene or chemicals recommended by the manufacturer. The suitable one is the one made with oil. Because other cleaners harden the steel, oil has no such effect.
    • 2-Since the parts on the needle plate are removed, the plate is cleaned. The plate can be cleaned on the machine as well as by removing it.

    During the cleaning process, first of all, a degreaser is used to remove the dirt combined with the oil from the plate. Then, air is kept from top to bottom, and the oils in the needle channels are filtered together with the impurities.

    • 3-After cleaning, the needle plate is lubricated again.
    • 4-Oil channels are cleaned.
    • 5-The parts basket is dismantled. Top and bottom fluorescents should be removed and cleaned.
    • 6-All steels and adjustment motors are removed and cleaned. It is checked whether the materials are deformed. The cleaned parts are replaced and lubricated with grease.
    • 7-Jacquard motor and screw shaft should be lubricated with dark grease.
    • 8- Roller settings, roller tires are checked and worn or lost tires are replaced with new ones.
    • 9-Electronic cards are removed by a specialist and cleaned with air.





    Posted by %PM, 28% 551% 2016 14%:%Feb in Knitting Read 5621 times

Electronic Flat Knitting Machine