It is made to increase the strength of the warp threads to be used in weaving. Sizing process; It is to increase the resistance of single-ply warp yarns and centerless untwisted filament yarns against mechanical frictions that will be affected during weaving. It is aimed to obtain a smooth warp thread body in terms of providing strength to the warp threads to withstand the impact and tension work in weaving, to ensure the ease of working in weaving so that the threads moving side by side during the weaving work do not tangle with each other. sizingliquid that provides these properties. size It called.
What are impacted teeth?
When one or more teeth fails to grow in the correct position and is therefore held below the normal gum line, it is called an impaction. This can be complete, such as completely unerrupted (buried) third molars (wisdom teeth) or partial when just part of the tooth is visible in the mouth.
Why are impactions important?
For best function and appearance the teeth should grow in a healthy alignment. When one or more teeth is impacted, this can affect the function of that tooth but also the function and appearance of other teeth.
Whether all impactions should be treated is still controversial and your dentist and oral and maxillofacial team can explain the advantages and disadvantages or treatment for you, which is usually surgical.
With a different definition, sizing is the process of passing the warp threads through a viscous liquid with adhesive properties and covering them with a protective polymeric film in order to improve or protect their physical and chemical properties. The sizing process, which is carried out with the aim of providing strength to the friction and tension forces of the warp yarns during the weaving process, is based on the fact that the yarn surface is covered with a substance called size, minimizing the friction and not affecting the yarn physically and structurally. weaving is a preparatory process.
The sizing process is done in sizing machines after the warp preparation process. Beams prepared in serial warping machines are subjected to sizing and joining processes at the same time in sizing machines. The sizing process also helps to preserve the chemical properties of the yarns. It also reduces fiber debris by causing the fiber ends on the yarns to remain on the yarn.
OBJECTIVES OF THE SIZING PROCESS
1-To give strength to warp yarn.
2-To give elasticity to the warp yarn.
3-To add lubricity to the warp yarn.
4-To prevent static electricity.
5-To stick the fibers on the surface of the warp yarn to the yarn body.
6-Creating a smooth and flexible film layer on the warp yarn.
7-To add the required moisture to the yarn according to the warp yarn type.
8-to prevent the threads from rubbing against each other and becoming cottony during reading.
9-To combine the warp beams, which are warped in the warping machine, according to the type of fabric to be manufactured, and turn them into a single beam.
10- Winding the warp threads to the weaving beam with optimum and equal tension.
11-To improve the properties of the warp yarn in order to increase the efficiency of the weaving machine and the quality of the fabric.
12-The main purpose of sizing is to eliminate or minimize the warp breaks during the weaving process.
MATERIALS USED IN SIZING
The substances required to prepare the sizing liquor can be grouped into three classes in general. These;
3-Lubricants are substances added to size (auxiliaries) for special reasons.
The first basic material to be used for the sizing process is normal water. While preparing the sizing liquor, firstly, water is added to the sizing boiler in accordance with the sizing recipe. The control of the substances used in the sizing can be done easily over the computer network in the automated enterprises. The materials used can be seen directly on the computer during the weighing process and at the same time, the used material is dropped from the stocks in the sizing warehouse of the enterprise. Thus, several controls can be provided at the same time and with a more accurate use.
It is of great importance in terms of the amount and functions used in sizing. These substances increase the yarn strength by enabling the fiber ends to cling to each other.
1-Of course niches:
It is the most important substance used in sizing. They are divided into groups such as wheat, potato, corn, rice starch.
2-Modified (water-soluble) starches:
These are starches that dissolve easily in water and do not degrade when cooled.
These substances, which have high adhesive power, are added to the sizing mixture when using kia fiber. They cause difficulties in desizing because they cover the starch molecules. Less than this is suitable for use.
Basic sizing agents can be defined as natural or artificial substances that can form a macromolecule film and have a specific structure and ability to adhere to fibers.
In recent years, the increase in the importance of artificial fibers and their mixtures with each other, as well as natural fibers, has affected the use and amount of sizing agents. In many cases, since the desired sizing effect cannot be achieved with a single sizing agent in a sufficient and economical way, it is preferred to combine two or more sizing agents.
Softeners and lubricants:
It reduces friction on the loom by giving the warp threads slipperiness.
It is obtained from animal fat. It acts as both a lubricant and a softener.
It is used as a softener. It reduces the friction of the threads.
It had lubricating and softening properties.
It gives slipperiness to the yarn.
Apart from the above-mentioned substances, different chemicals are also used.
Sizing Auxiliaries: They have smaller molecules and their chemical structures and the effects they provide can vary greatly among themselves. These substances are added to the sizing bath in required quantities when deemed necessary.
Substances added to boiled rice for special reasons:
These substances are also called sizing aids.
They are used to prevent foaming that may occur in the sizing mixture. Acetic acid, calcium, zinc chloride and similar chemicals.
These substances prevent ashing and deterioration of sized and sized warps.
These substances absorb water and prevent the tile from drying completely. Salts such as zinc chloride, calcium chloride.
4- Substances that accelerate the melting and mixing of raw materials:
These are substances such as vinegar acid, sulfuric acid, sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate.
Among the auxiliary sizing agents, they are the most used waxes. Waxes are the substances applied to prevent the static electricity of the sizing yarn coming out of the dryers. As a result of the waxing process, the slippery properties of the yarns are increased. As a result of waxing, undesirable situations such as pilling behind the coverslip, cottoning behind the comb and not opening a clean nozzle are prevented. After the weaving process is finished, the sizing should be easily removable, otherwise it may cause problems in the next finishing processes.
PROPERTIES TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE SIZING MIXTURE
A more efficient and high quality sizing can be done by preparing a recipe with the following features in the sizing mixture.
The most important factor expected from the size mixture is that it is sticky. Usually this effect is provided by starch. When very strong sizing is required, some glue is added into the sizing.
The warp threads passed through the sizing mixture are dried. In order to prevent the dry size layer on the warp yarn from falling during the winding of the sized warp yarns to the weaving beams, substances are added to the sizing mixture that will give flexibility and prevent brittleness.
While working with sized yarns, some soap, paraffin, etc. should be added to the sizing mixture to gain lubricity against friction forces. items are added. Soap also facilitates the washing process in order to remove the desizing on the fabric after it is woven.
In order to increase the efficiency of working with textile raw materials, it is necessary to have a certain humidity. Moisture increases the flexibility and strength of the yarn. The film layer on the sized yarns prevents the moisture in the environment from penetrating the yarn. For this, some chemicals are added to the sizing mixture so that the warp threads benefit from the humidity in the working environment. Substances such as glycerin, roasted salt, magnesium chloride are used for this purpose. The substance generally used for dehumidification is glycerin. Because glycerin also gives softness and flexibility to the yarns.
5- Resistance to deterioration and rancidity:
It can deteriorate quickly due to the sizing mixture. In order to protect the size from deterioration for a long time, substances such as zinc chloride, formalin and phenol are generally mixed into the size.
Important points when preparing the sizing recipe:
1- Yarn raw material (cotton, polyester, rayon, wool or their blends)
2- Yarn hairiness
3-Thread structure (ring, open end etc.)
4-Type of water used (fresh or reclaimed)
5-Type and speed of weaving machine
6-% ratio of additional substances
7-Density of warp yarn
9-Sizing recovery and enzyme use
10-The design of the sizing machine and the number of boats
12-Number of warp and weft yarn
13-The state of the warp yarn (raw, dyed, wet, dry, etc.)
14-Warp and weft density
15-It is prepared by considering the parameters such as the type and speed of the weaving machine.