Yarns by Raw Material
  • Yarns by Raw Material


    It is a textile product where natural and synthetic fibers are combined parallel to each other after a series of processes, twisted or untwisted, and thus gaining strength.


    This product is yarn. WOVEN FABRICS AND KNITTED FABRICS is the raw material. Since all natural fibers and synthetic fibers such as natural fibers are in a staple structure (stapel), it is necessary to bring the fibers together by twisting. Otherwise, yarn cannot be mentioned. Besides, it is possible to obtain both twisted and untwisted yarn from continuous synthetic filaments. The yarn diameter is formed by the fibers coming together. Therefore, fine yarn can be obtained from fine fibers. Although the yarn number does not change, as the number of fibers in the diameter increases, strong and high quality yarn is produced. Fiber or filament thinner than 10 micron (μm) and more than 50 micron (μm) are not suitable for yarn making, thin ones can break very quickly. The thick ones are too rough threads creates.






    In the textile industry, it is a soft material with a certain length, fineness and strength, suitable for wrapping, spinning and bending. fiber ,The raw material used in textile is called fiber.






    It is the plural of the word fiber and it is called a colored or colorless fiber group that has the ability to be bent (spun) with tensile strength and breaking strength, to stick on each other and whose length is very long compared to its width.



    Short fiber (staple fiber):



    These fibers are composed of cotton and staple artificial fibers. Their length varies according to the species and strain, and these fibers range from 1 cm to 40 cm on average. "staple fiber" called



    Artificial staple fiber :



    Fiber obtained by shaping and cutting to a certain length in order to process artificial fiber together with cotton and wool fiber,"artificial staple fiber" 



    Long fiber:



    Bulifs are made of wool and stapled artificial fibres. Fiber Lengths vary according to the breed and breed of sheep and are referred to as “artificial staple fibers processed together with natural fibers over 40 millimeters”.long fiber"



    Solid (filament) Fibers:



    In continuous fiber, which is also called continuous fiber, the length of the fibers is infinite. To these fibersfilamentis called ".



    Monofilament (Single filament):



    It is a yarn with a thickness of less than 0,1 mm and consisting of a single filament.



    Flament yarn:



    It is a yarn consisting of filaments up to 0,1 mm in thickness, combined with one or more twisted or untwisted filaments.



    Textured filament yarn:



    It means a folded filament consisting of a single or multiple filaments.






    Carded ring cotton yarns are cotton yarns that are produced from shorter cotton fibers than combed cotton yarns and that have not been combed. Carded ring yarns are of lower quality than combed yarns.

    Bu threads It has an uneven and rough surface. The twist of these yarns, which are used in the weaving and knitting industry, is lower for knitwear and higher for weaving. The strength of carded ring yarns is lower than combed ring yarns and higher than open-end yarns. The thicker the yarn (the smaller the yarn count), the lower the price and the coarser the yarn. Generally, production is made between Ne 6 and Ne 30 numbers. Fabrics made with carded yarns are worse in terms of smoothness than fabrics made with combed yarns. They have a weak fabric structure. They form a loose, coarse and shaggy fabric. carded threads Since they contain some foreign matter compared to combed yarns, carded products look duller and less clean than combed products. Carded ring yarns are used for weaving fabrics such as denim (blue jeans), cord, towel, sportswear fabrics, sheets, upholstery fabrics, home textiles, technical fabrics. Carded ring yarns are briefly used in all cotton fabrics produced in weaving, except for cotton fabrics where combed yarns are mandatory. 






    It is a high quality cotton yarn formed by passing the long and thin cotton fibers through the combing circle (combing) and spinning them in a short staple yarn. The combing circle consists of sliver splicing and combing machines. Therefore, the machinery required to produce combed yarn is long and expensive. The material is processed with the expenditure of excess energy. This creates a high quality and more expensive combed yarn with wide use. Since it is free from short fibers, the staple diagram is developed. Ne up to 80 fine threads can be produced. It is smooth and soft. It is cleaner and more homogeneous than carded yarn. It has more strength and less unevenness. Fabrics made with combed yarns are better and of higher quality than fabrics made with carded yarns. Fabrics that cannot be made from carded yarns are made with combed yarns. The most important feature is that it is water absorbent. This increases its usability. There is no static electricity and piling problem. It can be used in all kinds of knitted, knitwear and woven fabrics. Fabrics obtained with combed yarns have a wide variety of uses. It is used in women's, men's and children's clothing, underwear and outerwear products (summer and winter), home textiles, upholstery, drapery and cover products. 






    They are yarns produced according to the open-end spinning system. The most used method is rotor spinning. Cotton and cotton type fibers can be used. It is based on the system of spinning the fibers falling into the rotor under the influence of centrifugal force. Formation of open-end yarn differs from ring yarn. There are basically differences in the machine park. In open-end spinning, the feeding is made as a tape and the resulting yarn is coiled directly. In short, the roving and bobbin stages found in ring spinning are absent in open-end spinning. Coarse and medium fine threads obtained. It has a voluminous and hairy structure. Compared to ring yarns, its strength is lower and its unevenness is higher. Open-end yarn can be made with a fineness of up to Ne 30/1. open-end threads It is generally used to obtain surfaces that do not require very high strength. The fabrics in which open-end yarns are used the most are denim (jean) fabrics. The fact that it is made of cotton gives absorbency to the fabrics. In addition, its covering power and heat retention properties are better than the fabrics produced with ring yarns. The use of rotor yarns on a product basis has been becoming more and more common since the day it emerged. Open end, which was mainly used in denim products in the early days threadsIt is used in many products today. Apart from the clothing sector, open end textiles, decorative fabrics, industrial fabrics that do not require much strength threads used. 






    It is a wool spinning method.


    It is a quality wool yarn obtained by combing and then spinning long and thin wool fibers.


    The machine park in worsted spinning is much longer than in woolen yarn.


    After the card, there are drawing, carding, finisher and ring spinning machines. Strength is good, unevenness is minimal.


    There is a uniform structure, the fibers are arranged parallel to each other and in a regular manner.


    fine wool threads obtained in this way.


    Worsted wool yarns are in principle similar to combed cotton yarns.


    In worsted yarn, short fibers go to waste with the combing process. This increases the quality of the yarn. 


    More smooth surface fabrics are obtained with worsted yarns.


    These fabrics are fine structured, delicate woven and knitted products.


    Texture and pattern are evident in these fabrics.


    Its heat insulating property is less than that of straw, which is the result of its tight structure and lack of volume.


    Although they show wrinkles, their iron holding feature is good. 


    Heavy and good holding quality clothes are produced from worsted yarns, which can generally be worn in winter.


    These are men's and women's outerwear products. (Suits, jackets, suits, suits, skirts, etc.) It is also used in fine knitted fabrics, sweaters, winter blouses and children's wear. 






    It is obtained by processing uncombed wool fibers with a high short fiber ratio according to the Strayhgarn technology.


    It has a very short machine park compared to worsted yarns.


    After the blowroom, it is carded.


    It is taken from the comb as a roving (pre-thread) and spun to form a yarn.


    Compared to worsted, it has a low strength, uneven and bulky structure.


    The fibers are arranged randomly in the yarn.


    It has a thick and rough appearance, its surface is rough and hairy. 


    Straykhgarn threadsUsed on woven surfaces.


    Its coarse and hairy nature minimizes its use in the knitting industry.


    Fabrics made from woolen yarns provide very good insulation thanks to their softness and volume.


    The texture of these fabrics is not very clear.


    Since they have a spongy and springy handle, they do not hold irons, but they are suitable for raising. 


    Straykhgarn threadsSince they provide a better insulation than worsted wool, they are widely used in overcoats, coats and especially in the production of blankets used in heavy winter conditions. Apart from these, they are used in the production of hand-woven carpets and rugs. 





    They are threads produced from flax fiber obtained from the stems of the flax plant.


    They are divided into two parts as short staple and long staple.


    Short staple linen threadsrough and thick with long staplethreads It is thin and delicate.


    short staple threadsIt has a voluminous surface and has irregularities.


    long staple threadsThey have a smooth and even surface.


    Generally, long staple linen threadshigher quality but more expensive than short staple yarns. 


    short staple threadsIt is generally used in the manufacture of coarse fabrics woven at home.


    long staple threadsThey are used for weaving more sensitive fabrics because they have thin and smooth surfaces.


    It can only be used in the knitting industry as a mixture. 


    Linen yarn, which cannot be used purely in the knitting and knitwear sector, is generally used in products obtained from woven fabrics.


    Thin fabric products are usually summer clothes.


    Coarse fabrics are used in products such as straw and shoes.


    Apart from these, linen is used in the production of home textiles, cleaning cloths, napkins and handkerchiefs. 





    The yarns obtained from regenerated cellulose fibers in filament form are floss (rayon), and the yarns obtained from staple fibers viscose yarns It called. What are impacted teeth? When one or more teeth fails to grow in the correct position and is therefore held below the normal gum line, it is called an impaction. This can be complete, such as completely unerrupted (buried) third molars (wisdom teeth) or partial when just part of the tooth is visible in the mouth. Why are impactions important? For best function and appearance the teeth should grow in a healthy alignment. When one or more teeth is impacted, this can affect the function of that tooth but also the function and appearance of other teeth. Whether all impactions should be treated is still controversial and your dentist and oral and maxillofacial team can explain the advantages and disadvantages or treatment for you, which is usually surgical.


    In filament yarns (flush), features such as appearance, touch and shine are silk-like, soft and draped, and do not cause problems in terms of static electricity and piling.


    made of staple fibers threads(viscose), on the other hand, exhibits a moisture-absorbing feature similar to cotton to a large extent.


    Its strength is less than filament yarn.


    Apart from this, its properties can be improved even more with various finishing processes that are similar to each other. 


    filament or staple floss viscose yarnsIt has a very wide use in woven and knitted fabrics.


    Finely draped and fancy fabrics can be obtained, displaying most of the yarn properties in the same way.


    Viscose fabrics are also suitable for processes such as dye printing. 


    Viscose (flush) fabrics have a very wide usage. It is used in ready-made clothing and industrial areas, especially in home textiles. They are especially common in the production of stylish and flowy fancy clothes. It is also used as a lining in upper clothing. 






    It is a synthetic (fully artificial) yarn type produced from polyester fiber.


    Petroleum-derived polyester threadsThey can be produced as filament or spun from staple fiber.


    Filament threadsIt has a smooth, slippery surface. Their sections are round.


    It has high strength.


    The strength of the staple form is close to the filament form.


    High stretch polyester threads They absorb low moisture.


    Its melting point is 260 °C.


    Its ability to be thermofixed is very good. Therefore, it is very easily texturized.


    Polyester that can be used with or without texture threads They are synthetic yarns that have an important place in textiles. 


    Polyester yarns have a very wide use in the production of woven and knitted fabrics.


    It is durable and flexible, has low moisture absorbency.


    Due to its low moisture absorbency, it creates static electricity and piling problems. 


    The positive properties of fabrics obtained from polyester yarns enable them to be used in a wide area.


    In general terms; It is used as technical textiles in all kinds of women's and men's clothing, home textiles (curtains, furnishings, etc.) and industrial areas (tent, tarpaulin, sails, etc.). 






    It is a synthetic fiber produced from polyamide fiber.


    There are two types, nylon and perlon.


    However, polyamide threadsknown as nylon.


    It can be produced as filament yarn or staple yarn.


    Filament threadsIt can be produced in desired length and thickness.


    staple threadsThey are used as a mixture with wool or cotton.


    It is used with and without texture.


    Nylon with high strength and elasticity threadsThey are the most widely used synthetic yarns in textile together with polyester. 


    Nylon on woven and knitted surfaces threadsIf they are to be used alone, they are generally used in filament form.


    But they are also used as staple yarn by mixing with cotton and wool. Thus, fabrics suitable for raising can be produced.


    Important features of nylon fabrics are strength form protection and easy maintenance.


    Static electricity is low. However, there is a piling problem. 


    Fabrics produced with nylon threads with very high resistance to temperature but poor lightfastness are used in places where high friction and abrasion resistance is required.


    It is especially used in thin socks, underwear, swimwear, sportswear, home textiles and decorative products. It is also widely used in industrial areas. 






    They are synthetic (fully artificial) yarns produced from acrylic fiber, which is a petroleum derivative.


    It is generally obtained by spinning staple fiber.


    They resemble wool with their plump, soft handle.


    Various types exist, differing in the proportions of their structural composition.


    Two of the most well-known of these are orlon and modacrylic.


    Orlon is a yarn consisting of staple fibers obtained from polyacrynitrile. There are more than twenty varieties.


    Modalacrylic is an acrylic yarn with improved properties.


    Light and warm, resistant to light and climate, easy to maintain, shiny and quick-drying threadsThey are known as. 


    Acrylic is commonly used in fabrics, whether woven or knitted.threadsused.


    Since it resembles wool, it is suitable for raising.


    Low dehumidification ability creates problems such as static electricity and pilling. 


    It has found use in all knitted or woven fabric products where resistance to high light and climatic conditions is required.


    It is widely used in women's or men's outerwear, floor coverings, home textiles (blankets, carpets, curtains, etc.), especially in sweaters due to its bulkiness.






    They are monofilament or multifilament yarns that can be used directly after being obtained as a result of fiber spinning from polymer melt.


    The usage area in textile is very limited. They are used in some knit fabrics.


    Due to its high price, the plain use of elastane fibers is avoided.






    In order to respond to the various needs of the textile industry in an economical way, elastane fibers have been used in combination with different yarn and fiber types. Elastane in the structure covered by wrapping various fibers on elastane in filament form threadsobtained.


    Combined with elastane content produced for these purposes threadsThey have properties that vary according to the type of components that make up the yarn and the systems used in production.






    A filament yarn consists of one or more filament fibers that continue along the length of the yarn.


    Thread consisting of a single filament monofilament,yarn made up of many filaments multifilament known as.


    In clothing applications, a filament yarn may consist of a small number of filament fibers such as two or three, or this number may be as high as 50. For example, in carpet manufacturing, a filament yarn may consist of hundreds of fibers.


    Most of the artificial fibers are produced in the form of filament yarn.


    Silk is the only natural fiber in filament form.


    filament depending on the shape of the filaments in the yarn threadsIt can be classified into two groups as flat and voluminous.


    The filaments in a straight yarn lie evenly and are arranged parallel to the yarn axis.


    For this reason, fiber placement in flat filament yarns is very close to each other and has a flat surface.


    A voluminous filament in which the filaments either fold or intertwine with each other. threadsthey have a greater volume than flat yarns of the same fineness. The main method for the production of bulky yarns is texturing.


    The texturing is accomplished by forming permanent folds, loops and loops along the length of the filaments.


    Textures threadsSince they have an increased bulk, the air and vapor permeability of fabrics made from these yarns is greater than those made from plain yarns.


    However, in applications where low air permeability is required, such as airbag fabrics, flat threadswould be a better choice.





    HDPE stands for high density polyethylene.


    Very high weight polyethylene is used as the starting material.


    Gel spinning process is applied for fiber production. In the gel spinning process, the molecules are dissolved in a solvent and the fibers are drawn by means of a nozzle.


    Molecules that form solid clusters in solution remain in the free state and maintain this state after the solution is cooled to form the filament.


    The stretching process applied after obtaining the fibers provides a very high macromolecular orientation within the filament, resulting in a high tenacity and modulus.


    HDPE fibers are produced in different grades for different applications.


    Separate types of filament yarns are produced for each of the rope production and cords, protective clothing and impact resistant materials.





    Carbon fibers are usually made from precursor fibers such as rayon and acrylic.


    A three-stage heating process is used when converting acrylic fiber to carbon.


    It is oxidative stabilization in which acrylic fibers are heated up to 200-300 °C under oxidized conditions in the initial stage.


    The second stage is the carbonization stage, in which the oxidized fibers are heated at around 1000 °C under an inert atmosphere.


    As a result, hydrogen and nitrogen atoms are removed from the oxidized fiber and carbon atoms remain in the form of hexagonal rings arranged in oriented fibrils.


    The last step is the graphitization process.


    Here, the carbonized filaments are again heated to 3000 °C in an inert atmosphere.


    Graphitization enhances the neat arrangement of carbon atoms organized in a crystalline layer structure.


    These layers are well oriented along the fiber axis, which is an important factor in the production of high modulus fibers.


    Like glass fibers, most carbon fibers are brittle. Size is used to improve machinability and to keep the fibers together.





    Glass is a non-combustible textile fiber and has a very high tensile strength.


    This fiber has been used in applications where flame retardancy is required and is often used in the insulation of buildings.


    Due to its properties and low cost, glass fibers are largely used in the manufacture of reinforcements of composites.


    There are different types of glass fibers such as E-glass, C-glass and S-glass.


    E-glass fibers have great resistance to moisture and also a high electrical and heat resistance. It is often used in glass-reinforced plastics in the form of woven fabrics.


    C-glass, on the other hand, is known for its resistance to chemicals, both acids and alkalis. They are widely used in chemical filtration works that require such resistance.


    S-glass fiber is also of high strength and is used in the manufacture of composites.


    Glass filament yarns are fragile when compared to conventional textile yarns.


    As a result, glass fibers can easily break during textile processing.


    For this reason, appropriate sizing is required to minimize the friction between the fibers and to keep the fiber bundle together.


    Dextrin, gelatin, polyvinyl alcohol, hydrogenated vegetable oils and nonionic detergents are commonly used sizing agents.


    When handling glass fibers, protective clothing and masks should be used to prevent skin irritation and to avoid breathing glass fibers.






    Aramid fiber is a long chain polyamide fiber in which at least 85% of the amide bonds of the fiber constituent are directly attached to two aromatic bands.


    Nomex and Kevlar are the trade names for two of the best known aramid fibers from Du Pont.


    Aramid fibers are high strength fibers.


    These aramid fibers are resistant to high temperature and many chemicals and stretching.


    Kevlar aramid


    It is well known for its relatively low weight and resistance to damage and fatigue.


    Because of these properties, Kevlar 49 has high tenacity and is used as a reinforcement material in the manufacture of many composites, including parts for aircraft parts and boat building.



    Nomex aramid


    It is resistant to heat and is used in firefighter clothing and similar areas.


    Aramid yarns are more flexible than other high-performance counterparts such as glass and kevlar, making them easier to use in the manufacturing processes of woven, knitted or knitted fabrics.


    However, the point to be considered here is that aramid yarns are stronger and more extensible than conventional textile yarns, but they can complicate fabric production processes.






    In the majority of fabrics in normal textile and apparel applications, a single layer threads used.


    But special threadshigh strength and modulus, especially for technical and industrial applications threads ply yarns are usually needed to obtain


    A ply yarn is obtained by twisting two or more single yarns together in a single step.


    cable threads


    They are produced by twisting two or more ply yarns or a combination of ply and single ply yarns together.


    Twisting several single yarns together improves tenacity by improving the bonding of the fibers in the upper layers of each yarn.


    This additional bonding increases the contribution of surface fibers to yarn strength.


    storeyed threadsit is also smoother, flatter and more durable.


    Perfectly balanced ply for applications requiring high strength, low flexibility, such as cord fabric, using a suitable single yarn and doubling twist threads can be produced.


    A typical process flow for ply yarns is done in the following stages;



    1) Single ply yarn production,


    2) Coiling and cleaning of single yarn,


    3) Folding; winding together the desired number of layers on a bobbin format suitable for ply twisting,


    4) Twisting,


    5) It is coiling.


    Twisting can be done by a two-step process or by a 'double-twist' machine.

    In the first step of the two-step process, a Ring twisting machine ensures that the low-fold twist is delivered, and in the second stage, a butterfly twister provides the final twist.

    The ring twisting machine uses low twist to achieve high output speed.

    In the ring twisting machine, a winding format suitable for the required unwinding of the yarn is prepared in the butterfly twisting machine.

    In the butterfly twisting machine, the feeding bobbin rotates with the spindle and the yarn is pulled from the upper side of the bobbin. A freely rotating small butterfly rotates with the yarn and transmits the twist of the yarn. In a two-for-one machine, the feeding coil is stationary.

    After the yarn is unwound over the bobbin, it is passed through the middle of the spindle and is frozen together with the spindle.

    Each turn of the spindle gives a twist to the part of the yarn inside the spindle and also to the part outside the bobbin (the main yarn balloon).

    The yarn thus receives two twists for each turn of the spindle.

    If the feeding bobbin is rotated in the opposite direction of the spindle, then the amount of twisting will increase as much as the bobbin rotation speed. The Saurer Tritec twisting machine works with this principle.

    In the Tritec twisting machine, the bobbin rotates with a revolution equal to the spindle speed, but in the opposite direction.

    Thus, three twists are given in each spindle revolution. The coil is magnetically driven.

    The production of two-ply yarn of the same thickness is much more expensive than the production of a single-ply yarn.

    This is due not only to the additional folding and twisting processes, but also to the cost increase of the finer production of single ply yarn.






    Numerous techniques have been developed to produce yarn from staple fibers without twisting.


    Thus, it was tried to increase the production and tried to avoid the limitations caused by twisting equipment such as the ring traveler system.


    Due to the different yarn properties, these techniques have not been widely accepted commercially around the world.


    However, they do offer an alternative and can be used to obtain some specialty products in an economical way.


    Most non-twist yarn production methods usually use an adhesive to hold the fibers in the yarn together.


    low linear density at high speeds. threadscan be produced.


    After the fabric is formed, the adhesive used can be removed and the connection between the fibers is now provided by the forces arising from the fabric structure.


    This type of yarn has a high hiding power due to its untwisted structure.


    However, these processes involve additional chemicals and require a high energy consumption.


    Yarns can only be used in fabric structures that can provide a good adhesion effect between fibers.


    If you are looking for an  TNO example of untwisted yarn production; In this yarn production, the roving is drawn under wet conditions, which provides better control. An inactive starch is then applied to the extruded roving, which is also false-twisted to give it temporary strength. The starch is then activated by the evaporation of the coil to be dried. TNO In another application of the untwisted system, PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) fibers that melt above 80 °C are used instead of starch to hold the staple fibers together. This is also Twilo Also known as system.






    They are yarns obtained by mixing fibers of different colors in specified proportions.


    This process can be performed by different methods.


    It can be mixed in the blow room or mixed by dubbing from vigure-printed worsted tops or tapes.


    The fact that the dyestuff suitable for one fiber is not accepted by the other fiber creates the melange effect.


    The amount of dyed fiber to be used in production is determined according to the color feature desired from the yarn.


    In general, they have a grizzled, color-changing appearance and are used in weaving and knitting.


    Melange fabrics reflect the characteristics of the raw material used.


    The desired color ratios and tones in the fabric are provided by yarn.


    It has a color change and gritty appearance.


    Usually mix threads used.


    The usage areas of the fabrics made with melange yarns are increasing from time to time depending on the fashion.


    However, the most accepted uses are sweatshirts, t-shirts and tracksuits.


    Apart from these, woolen melange products are used in men's and women's outerwear.






    They are yarns formed by twisting yarns of different colors by folding them together.


    This process is obtained either by twisting the rovings of different colors in the ring spinning machine after they are drawn, or by folding the single yarns.


    The amount of twist to be given is adjusted according to the place where the yarn will be used.


    The same or different fiber types in different colors can be used in the production of muline yarns.


    The properties of the yarn vary depending on the properties of the fiber used in yarn production.


    Muline produced by using different fiber types with properties suitable for the place of use. threadsIt is used in the production of woven and knitted fabrics.


    These fabrics are generally hard-touched and have a homogeneous color distribution.


    Woven and knitted fabrics produced using muline yarn are mainly used in outerwear subject to abrasion and friction due to their durable structure.


    From woven fabrics, such as suits, jackets, skirts; products such as sweaters and cardigans are obtained from knitted fabrics.



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Yarns by Raw Material