Q.1. What does threshing mean in spinning?
C.1. The process of mixing homogeneously by bringing together different types and characteristics of raw material (fiber) is called blending.
Q.2. What are the purposes of the blending process?
C.2. The purposes of the blending process:
1-Mixing different types and qualities of fibers
2-Mixing different types of raw materials
3-Opening large fiber masses in thin tufts
4-To clean the foreign materials in the fiber
Q.3. What are the benefits of the blending process?
C.3. Benefits of the blending process:
1- It helps the product to provide the required and expected features. Example: Mixture of artificial and natural fibers for ease of maintenance
2-It balances the variation of the properties of the raw material.
3- It helps to reduce the cost of raw material.
4-It provides an advantage in improving the efficiency throughout the production process. For example; Long staple fibers added to the blend during the processing of short staple material act as carriers and increase efficiency and quality.
Q4. For what reasons are the blending and threshing machines made in cotton and wool spinning different?
C.4. Blending and threshing machines made in cotton and wool spinning differ from each other. Because the physical and chemical properties of the fibers, besides their general properties, they also have unique properties. In addition, the chemical substances they contain are also different from each other.
Q.5. In how many groups are cotton spinning blowroom and machines examined, write in articles?
C.5.Cotton spinning blowroom and machines can be divided into three groups:
1- Placing the bales in the threshing according to the threshing recipe
2-Machines used in opening bales
3-Opening and cleaning machines
Q.6. How to place the bales in the threshing according to the threshing recipe, explain?
C.6.Bales are placed around the threshing machine according to the threshing recipe prepared in advance depending on the properties of the yarn to be made. The circles around the bales taken into the blowroom circle are cut and the cross-stitch is removed.
Q.7. What are the operating conditions (temperature, humidity, time) of cotton in bales?
C.7. Air Conditioning: At 20 – 24 ºC Humidity: 50-65% Duration: 24–48 hours
Q.8. What is the purpose of providing the operating conditions of cotton in bales?
C.8. It is the fact that the cotton masses that are compressed due to the press during baling open and swell and have the desired climate conditions.
Q9. What operations are carried out after the operating conditions of cotton in bales are met?
C.9.After the bales gain the desired properties, opening and cleaning operations are performed with the bale opening machine.
Q.10.Which properties of the wool fiber are taken into account and blended according to the yarn properties to be obtained?
C.10. Wool fiber is blended according to the yarn properties to be obtained by considering factors such as fineness, length, color, price and pollution.
Q.11. At what stages does the blending occur in worsted spinning?
C.11. 1-Before washing
2-Before combing clean wool
3-Before combing and pulling tape
Q.12. What are the purposes of lubricating wool?
C.12, 1-To prevent breakage by increasing the flexibility of the fiber during opening, carding, drawing, carding and spinning processes.
2-Reducing dusting and flying.
4-Reducing friction between fibers; to allow the fibers to slide easily but controlled over each other during the drawing, rubbing and spinning processes.
5-To provide thinner yarn spinning by adding slipperiness to the wool.
6-To prevent static electricity.
Q.13. What are the duties of the hallaç machine?
C.13.1-Opening the wool fiber as much as possible, separating it from each other and adding volume
2-To clean the foreign materials in the opened fiber
3- To ensure that the fibers are mixed homogeneously
4- Lubricating the fiber at the exit from the machine
Q.14. Tell us about blending in Strayhgarn spinning?
C.14. Blending in Strayhgarn spinning: Blending in Strayhgarn yarn production is usually done before carding. Depending on the characteristics of the fiber used, blending can be done before washing and in the form of clean wool. Blending is very important as a wide variety of raw materials with different properties are used in Strayhgarn spinning. Depending on the quality of the yarn to be made, short and coarse wools, wastes in worsted spinning, and wool obtained from a wide variety of new, old fabrics and knitwear can be used in the blend..
Q.15. What do you call a qualified person who has the knowledge and skills to buy various fiber groups and make yarn with the desired number and quality in the machines?
A) Weaver B) Painter C) Spinner D) Knitter
Q.16. Which of the following is among the duties of spinners?
A) Doing the washing process B) Carrying out the drying process C) Doing the dyeing process D) Blending the fiber
Q.17. Which of the following is the operation done in the thread circle?
A) combing the fiber B) washing the fiber C) drying the fiber D) dyeing the fiber
Q.18. What are the qualities sought in a person who wants to work as a spinner?
A) To be mentally unhealthy B) To be able to use eyes and hands in coordination C) To have low dexterity D) To be able to paint
Q.19. Which of the following can be defined as the combination of natural or synthetic fibers twisted or untwisted parallel to each other after a series of processes and thus gaining strength?
A) Yarn B) Fabric C) Fiber D) Fiber
Q.20. Which of the following shows the classification of spinning according to the raw material used?
A) Cotton spinning - Combed cotton spinning - Man-made and synthetic spinning B) Worsted spinning - Wool spinning - Artificial and synthetic spinning C) Cotton spinning - Wool spinning - woolen spinning D) Cotton spinning - Wool spinning - Artificial and synthetic spinning
Q.21. What is it called when a herbal textile product is embossed and unfolded in enterprises, it is purified from foreign materials (dust, soil, bark, seed, etc.) to a large extent, and it becomes a strip by combing and it is turned into yarn by giving the desired twist after being drawn to the desired fineness?
A) wool spinning B) cotton spinning C) silk spinning D) synthetic spinning
P.22. What is it called when wool, which is an animal textile product, is fluffed and unfolded in enterprises, cleaned from foreign materials (dust, garbage, velcro, etc.) to a large extent and turned into a strip after being drawn to the desired fineness, and then turned into yarn by giving the desired twist?
A) wool spinning B) cotton spinning C) linen spinning D) synthetic spinning
P.23. What is yarn called that consists of one or more continuous fibers along the entire length of the yarn?
A) wool spinning B) cotton spinning C) linen spinning D) filament spinning
Q.24. What is the process of mixing homogeneously by bringing together different types and characteristics of raw materials?
A) Fabric B) Coil C) Blend D) Dyeing
Q.25.What does blend mean?
C.25. The process of homogeneously mixing by bringing together different types and characteristics of raw materials is called blending.
Q.26. What is the name of the machine that makes cotton blending?
C.26. Threshing machine
P.27. What is the name of the machine that threshes wool?
P.28. Cotton spinning blowroom and machines are examined in three groups and what are they?
C.28.A-Placing the bales in the threshing according to the threshing recipe
B-Machines used in opening bales
C-Opening and cleaning machines
P.29. What is the function of the Unifloc machine?
C.29. It is the first machine to feed baled cotton in modern blowrooms. These machines replace bale opening machines in today's spinning mills. Bale plucking machine is a machine that provides a uniform (homogeneous) mixture by plucking the fibers from a certain number of bales in small tufts.
P.30. What is the function of the machines used in opening the bales?
C.30. It is the process of opening and mixing different or same origin bales by machines. The aim is to eliminate the differences between fiber groups.
Q.31. What are the opening and cleaning machines?
C.31.A-Mono (single) roller opener
B- ERM opener machine
P.32. What does opening (forging)-cleaning and condensation mean?
C.32.It is the process of opening cotton groups in tufts by mechanical methods and separating the foreign materials in them. At the end of this process, a lap form is formed or a structure similar to this form is added to the fiber groups (For example, condensation at the end of pellet feeding). Due to the environment in which cotton fiber is grown, it may contain substances such as dust, garbage and seed shells. Their cleaning takes place in opening and cleaning machines.
P.33. What is the duty of a mono (single) cylinder opener?
C.33. Mono roller opener is an effective cleaning and dust separating machine used immediately after the automatic bale opener (blendomat, unifloc)..
P.34. What is the task of the ERM opener machine?
C.34. ERM opener (uniflex-rieter) is a fine cleaner for natural fibers
P.35. Tell us about the Unimix threshing machine?
C.35. The material is fed into eight silos simultaneously and uniformly. The dust in the carrier air is systematically separated from the fiber and delivered to the filter unit. This integrated dust removal method is very effective and reduces ends down on spinning machines.This machine; It consists of three parts as storage, middle and exit parts. The fiber tufts are fed pneumatically from the feed chute to the machine, into eight mixing chambers. Mixture as many as the number of feeding chambers is provided on a conveyor belt and fed to the needle mat. The excess material on the needle mat is poured into the mixing chamber by the roller and the threshing effect is increased. The mixing chamber is controlled by an optical probe and the fill rate is adjusted. The fiber tufts remaining on the mat are taken by the receiving cylinder and conveyed to the next machine by the pneumatic conveyor system.In the threshing machines, better mixing of the fibers is ensured by connecting them one after the other.
P.36. Tell us about the fine cleaning (cleanomat) machine?
Feeding a cleaner of the C.36.Cleanomat system by multiple mixers gives very positive results. The multi-mixer provides the cleaner with an ideal and homogeneous lap. In order to fully adapt to the raw material, there are 1-4 opening and cleaning rollers in this system. In the Cleanomat series, there are 2 scraper blades under the first roller, a fixed scanning plate after the first blade, and 1 scraper blade under each roller, a suction head and a guide blade in front of it. It is known that the trash separated from the cotton in the grid system is sucked back into the corner of the grid. This error has been completely corrected in the direct suction system. Waste and dust separated from the cotton are instantly absorbed by the suction air and removed from the system. The direction of the guide vane can be adjusted as desired against the blade direction. In this way, the amount of waste produced can be determined. Although the selection and positioning of these rollers and thus the clothings depends on the quality of the cotton used, according to the basic rule of the opening principle, according to the raw material flow direction, rollers with coarse clothing take place first, and rollers with fine clothing after.
P.37. Describe the dust extraction machine (dustex) machine?
C.37. If the cotton is opened very well, the dust inside is removed. That's why dustex; It should be used after the delicate opener and before the comb. Dustex is fed and sucked by a fan. Dustex is of particular importance in OE spinning mills. Micro-dust, which collects in the rotor cavities and causes yarn breaks and yarn defects in the form of thick places, can be sucked in this machine. Coarse and fine dust in the cotton can only be removed after the cotton has been opened very well. Therefore, the dust extractor is used in the cleaning line after the fine opener, ie just before the carding machine. As the fibers pass through the channels or during operation, the dust contained in the fiber elements is removed by suction with air suction. The fiber coming out from here passes through metal separators before coming to the card. The material passes in front of a metal detector. In previous processes, the metal remaining fiber is dropped into another chamber. The separation of metals in the fiber prevents the possibility of fire and damage to the wires, especially in the card.
P.38. Tell us about the pellet feeding machine?
C.38. The cleaned and opened fibers in the fine cleaning machine reach the continuous fiber feeder machine integrated into the carding machine through the air duct. The task of the fiber feeding machine is to feed a fixed amount of fiber to the carding machine. In the new machine systems, by integrating the fiber feeding machine into the carding machine, it functions the same as the delivery roller assembly of the feeding table and the feeding roller of the carding machine. The fibers coming from the transport channels are filled into the upper chamber used as a reserve; then the air between the fibers is sucked in with the help of the grids in the narrow reserved channel; The fibers condense and move towards the feeding roller. The feeding roller compresses the material by means of the spring elements on the feeding table and turns it into a fiber layer of certain thickness. Immediately afterwards, the material in the form of a layer is delivered to the opening roller and the opening process is started. The opened fibers pass through the second silo and before the wadding is formed in the second chamber, the air separation between the fibers is performed again. The opened fibers are then condensed in the form of laps thanks to the feeding table moving with a spring. Thanks to the measuring arm connected to the spring elements on the feeding table, mass deviations that may occur in the lap are controlled. equipped with a mechanism to stop the machine.Cotton fibers, which take the form of wadding with a certain fineness, are given to the feeding cylinder of the carding machine from the fiber feeding machine.