A fiber resembling cotton is extracted from the fruits of the tree called Kapok. This tree (Ceiba pentandrd), whose homeland is the tropical parts of America and the West Indies, is widely cultivated to obtain fiber in some Asian countries such as the Philippines, Malaysia and Sri Lanka, especially Java. In general, the regions 15 degrees north and south of the equator are the regions where good kapok products are obtained.
Those grown at altitudes up to 450 meters above sea level yield the most and produce the best quality. Kapok tree exhibits a rather large appearance with its branches located almost perpendicularly to the trunk. The white or pink kapok flowers turn into large cocoon-shaped fruits after pollination with the help of bats.. There are many hairy seeds inside the kapok fruits, which are about 15 cm long. These hairs are removed from the fruit and used as fiber. For this, first the fruits are opened by breaking them with sticks, then the seeds are placed in a basket and mixed quickly; With the effect of these blows, the fibers are broken and collected at the bottom of the basket.
1-It has an extremely bright, cream-yellow color, silky appearance.
2-It is a soft, elastic and non-durable fiber.
3- It is a single cell. visible under the microscope as thin longitudinal ribbons.
4-The cross section is oval or round. The immature ones appear like the immature cotton fibers, that is, in the form of rods.
5- Even in mature fibers, the lumen is wide and the wall is narrow.
6- Its specific gravity is 30 gr/cm³ at 0.0388 degrees, and it is very light.
7- The fibers found in the capsule-shaped fruit of the tree, together with the seed, are separated from the capsules by hand or by machinery.
8- Seeds are separated from fibers much more easily than cotton.
9- Fiber length is 1–3,5 cm, It contains 63% cellulose and 13% lignin in its structure,
10-It weighs one-sixth of cotton.
11- Good air and heat insulation is provided due to the pores in the fiber structure.
12-It is also the best known sound holder.
13- It does not get wet in water for a long time, it dries quickly when wet. (It does not get wet quickly because the surface of the fiber is covered with wax)
The 14-1 kg kapok comfortably holds a weight of 35 kg on the water.
1-Because it is light, it is used in making mattresses, pillows and as a filler.
2-It is used in the production of pilot suits.
3- It is used in life jackets and life buoys since it has very low moisture and water absorption properties.
4- Since it is light and sound insulator, these features are used in airplanes.
COCONUT ( KOKOS ) FIBER
Cocos fibers are obtained from the fibrous layer that covers the coconut fruit.
It is grown in Ceylon, India and Pakistan. For its manufacture, coconut shells are kept in rivers for 6-12 months. During this time, the sludge in the shells is gone; The sticky substance that binds the woody cells to the fibers decomposes and the fibers become separated from each other.
These barks are dried and beaten with wood mallets. After cleaning, coarse, long, thin and short fibers are classified and separated. From light to dark brown, hard but highly flexible fibers are obtained. Coco fibers are turned into yarn; It is used in the production of brightly colored coco mats, in the manufacture of sacks and ship ropes. Hard ones are produced as mats and brushes. water resistant.