Effects of Yarn Structure on Fabric Performance
In addition to fiber properties, the performance of textiles is determined by yarn structure, fabric construction and special finishes. The durability of the yarn type fabrics that make up the fabric structure is one of the most important factors affecting the appearance and comfort properties.
Effects of yarn type on durability, appearance and comfort:
Yarn strength is the most important factor affecting fabric strength. Yarn strength does not only depend on the strength of the fibers that make up the yarn, but also on the yarn structure. Twist keeps yarns produced from staple fibers together. The yarn breaks as a result of the breaking of the fibers and the defeat of the twisting force. As the twist increases, the friction force that prevents the fibers from slipping also increases, thus increasing the yarn strength to some extent. When too much twist is given, the strength decreases. Thick yarns contribute more to fabric strength than thin yarns.
Another factor affecting the durability of fabric is abrasion resistance. Wear is a factor in how much energy the material absorbs. Yarn structure is one of the most determining factors affecting the abrasion resistance of fabrics. Low twist yarns wear out easily compared to high twist yarns. When the twist is low, it is easier for the fibers to move away from the fabric surface.
Factors such as drape, hand, crease resistance and dimensional stability all contribute to the performance of textile products. Drape is when the fabric folds freely under its own weight. The drape is better in yarn structures that allow bending and movement in the fabric. The twist factor also affects the bending of the yarns. Since the fibers are oriented at a certain angle along the yarn in high twist yarn structures, this type of yarn bends easily and has good draping properties.
Touch is “tactile sensations and effects that occur when fabrics are touched, pinched, rubbed or touched in any way.” One of the important factors when evaluating the touch is the smoothness of the material. The touch of the yarns consisting of filament and fine - combed fibers is soft. Fabrics that can be easily compressed and returned to their original form, flexible fibers and high-volume yarns affect the hand positively.
Wrinkle strength is another factor related to yarn structure. When wrinkles occur in the fabric, the yarns bend and twist. While the outer fibers lengthen in the yarn, the inner fibers are compressed. The bending resistance (stiffness) of the yarn is related to the twist and fineness. In low-twist loose yarn structures, the fibers can move freely to reduce bending forces, so they bend easily. In high-twist tight fabric structures, the situation is the opposite, yarns tend to maintain their original state and resist wrinkling. However, over-twisted yarns also crease easily. Thick and ply yarns show more resistance to wrinkling than thin yarns.
Heat transfer is one of the main comfort features for textile products. The yarn structure is the determining factor in terms of the thermal properties of the fabric. A yarn consisting of staple fibers holds the air more, therefore it is resistant to heat transfer. On the other hand, highly twisted yarns hold less air.
Air permeability is affected by yarn structure like other factors. As the spaces between the yarns or fibers increase, the air permeability of the fabric increases. As compact yarns are used and the density increases, air permeability decreases.
Apart from these, yarns contribute to the softness of the fabric. Low-twist yarns have a rough surface, which negatively affects the smoothness of the fabric.
Three major technologies are used today to spin short fibers such as cotton. These are the ring spinning system, the open-end rotor spinning system and the Murata vortex spinning system. The structures of the yarns produced with these technologies show great differences. Ring spinning is the oldest and most widely used system. In order to minimize some of the disadvantages of the ring system in production, the vortex system was developed by Murata in 1997. Recently, innovations in yarn technology continue with sirospun yarns, which can be produced similarly to double-ply yarn by adding an apparatus to the ring spinning machine without requiring a separate system.