New design from error in yarn

Irregularities, which are called faults in yarn production, are seen from a different perspective and constitute an important design tool in the yarn field. Yarn unevenness is expressed as unequal diameter at every point of the yarn. This is undesirable on non-fancy yarns. Uncontrolled yarn irregularities on the surface are called faults.

  • New design from error in yarn








    Fancy yarns and fabrics woven with fancy yarns have a special place in the field of textile today. Fancy yarns are different from normal yarns in terms of their characteristic features. Therefore, production techniques also differ. The fabrics woven with these yarns are also different from the others in terms of the aesthetic value they add to the designed fabric, the weaves used, technical calculations and production techniques.

    In weaving, which dates back to prehistoric times, fibers obtained from animals and plants by primitive methods were used before the spinning process. Later, they developed tools such as spinning wheels and spindles and twisted. In every work they do to meet the weaving needs of mankind, they also needed yarn, which is the raw material of weaving. For this reason, weaving and yarn have developed in parallel throughout history. In order to meet the increasing demand in weaving, spinning mills were established and even labor support was received from people in prison. However, these studies could not meet the yarn requirement. The spinning process, which women and children have been doing with their hands for many years, did not change much until the industrial revolution. The textile field was also affected by the technological developments that started with the industrial revolution. Production techniques made with traditional methods remained in local areas, and industrialization has progressed rapidly all over the world. With the industrial revolution, innovations have occurred in the field of textile as in many other fields and yarn twisting machines have been developed. Mass production was started with yarn twisting machines and natural fibers could not meet the fiber requirement in this serial production. Needs and demands have led people to research, thus regenerated fibers have been developed. Regenerated fibers provided strength in yarn production and increased production speed. The increase in mass production has revealed yarn faults that occur for various reasons in production.








    Rapid production and rapid consumption in weaving, therefore in yarn, have increased the importance of design and changed people's perspectives. Irregularities, which are called faults in yarn production, are seen from a different perspective and constitute an important design tool in the yarn field.. In this way, a new era has opened in the yarn industry and the fancy yarn phenomenon has taken its place in the industry.

    Although designers had difficulties in accepting fancy fabrics in the sector at the beginning, investors who were open to innovations invested in fancy yarn production by sensing the development in this sector. In parallel with fancy yarn, it has developed in fancy weavings. Since fancy yarn and fancy fabric are non-standard forms of production, the machines they are produced in are also different. Today, there is a continuous development in this field, and the machines are renewed technologically. Companies that produce professional fantasy in the market are constantly renewing their machine park.

    Yarn unevenness is expressed as unequal diameter at every point of the yarn. This is undesirable on non-fancy yarns. Uncontrolled yarn irregularities on the surface are called faults. Occurrence of these errors There are errors in the yarns due to raw material, workmanship, machinery, equipment and working method. These are the parts that visibly distort the appearance of the manufactured product. In fact, the general cause of the errors in the yarn is the mistakes made in the blending and combing. Undesirable yarn irregularities;



    • Nope error
    • pile fault
    • node error
    • fish bug
    • Thin place fault
    • Thick place error
    • fly error



    It is called.








    Nope (Neps) Error



    As a result of not performing the combing process on the fiber sufficiently, the short fibers formed on the surface of the twisted yarn cause agglomeration. nope (neps) is called. Although it can be nope for different reasons, it is generally seen to be caused by the scanning process. Apart from this, nope may occur on the yarn surface due to the wear of the part called traveler on the yarn twisting machine. During twisting, abrasion occurs because the yarn always contacts the traveler, which enables the yarn to rotate, from the same place. In this case, the fasteners need to be changed at regular intervals in order to prevent knots.








    Pile and Fly Error


    Especially in the production of cotton yarns, pile and fly faults are frequently encountered. The pile defect can be caused by the twisting of the fiber that has not undergone adequate processing during the combing phase, as well as the fact that the fluff flying around the yarn is trapped in the yarn body by the rotational movement of the yarn during yarn twisting and creates an unevenness on the surface. In order to prevent this, it is necessary to have a fixed or mobile vacuum system (suction system) especially in the production facility and the environment should be clean. In addition, the airiness of the fiber dust should be minimized by ensuring that the environment is humid with the ventilation system. The fly bug is also due to the same reason as the fluff bug. Irregularities formed by shorter piles on the yarn surface. fly error It called. What are impacted teeth? When one or more teeth fails to grow in the correct position and is therefore held below the normal gum line, it is called an impaction. This can be complete, such as completely unerrupted (buried) third molars (wisdom teeth) or partial when just part of the tooth is visible in the mouth. Why are impactions important? For best function and appearance the teeth should grow in a healthy alignment. When one or more teeth is impacted, this can affect the function of that tooth but also the function and appearance of other teeth. Whether all impactions should be treated is still controversial and your dentist and oral and maxillofacial team can explain the advantages and disadvantages or treatment for you, which is usually surgical.








    Node Error


    Knot defect is the connection formed at the splicing point as a result of the breaking of the yarn for various reasons during yarn twisting and connecting the two open yarn ends to each other. For example, it can be caused by the knot made by canceling these points on the thin or thicker surface of the yarn diameter. In this and a similar situation, weaver knot or machine knot is made in order to minimize the knot error that occurs on the surface while knotting the yarn ends. The machine knot can be made with a part connected to the machine or with a knot machine that workers can use manually. After the workers using the knotting machine place the yarn ends together in the mouth of the machine, the knot is made by tightening the machine. When these knotting techniques are not used, a faulty surface is formed in the product since the knot ends will be long and the middle of the knot will be coarse.




    my knot1




    Fish Error


    Due to the fish-like appearance, swelling on the yarn surface fish bug is called. In general, fish defect is caused by missing twisting during twisting or not combing the fiber well during blending. Due to the loosening of the slats under the spindles while twisting, an event called stop and go occurs in the machine and causes incomplete twisting.

    Fish defect can also be caused by other machine settings, such as shear adjustments deteriorating over time. It is possible to minimize the fish error by combing the fiber to be twisted well, bringing the loosened slippers to the appropriate tension and adjusting the scissors in the winding machine.








    Thin Ground Error


    As with other yarn faults, it may be caused by insufficient fiber combing, or a thin place fault occurs due to re-twisting or excessive twisting. Re-twisting and over-twisting occur in the twisted part when the machine is restarted after being stopped for various reasons. Thin place fault usually occurs when a weak area in fiber scanning is exposed by twisting.








    Thick Place Error


    In fish defect, the swelling on the yarn surface caused by fiber combing is also a thick place defect. Apart from this, thick place error occurs due to insufficient pressure on the fiber surface due to missing twist.

    Yarn faults are undesirable in yarns that are required to be smooth and standard. For this, these errors are eliminated as much as possible and the quality of the yarn, which is the raw material of the fabric to be woven, is ensured.

    Obtaining yarn without eliminating these errors ensures the production of fancy yarn. In other words, the elements called defects in yarn production are a feature for fancy yarn production. Fancy yarns are used as weft yarn in woven fabric production. Using it as a warp thread causes frequent breakages in the weaving machine and reduces the efficiency of the machine. This is also an undesirable situation.

    In the 1980s, it was desired that jeans be faultless. It was fashion. Now, jeans are offered for sale, especially by being torn from some parts. People wear these jeans. The reason is again fashion.

    In other words, while faulty products were not desired at the time, now especially faulty products are produced and sold. And its price is just like a quality textile product.








    Elimination of Thread Errors


    In order to detect yarn faults in production, the twisted yarn passes through a so-called knife in the bobbin transfer. The section where the blade is fed with the thread is wide and narrows in a funnel-like form. If there is a thickness in the yarn diameter while passing through the narrow section, the yarn surface is shaved with a knife up to a certain extent, preventing unevenness. If the thickness of the thread is too high for the blade to shave, the knife cuts the thread and the loom stops automatically when the thread breaks. In this case, the worker in charge of the loom cancels the thick part, connects the ends of the thread and runs the loom.








    After the thread passing through the blade, it passes between two circular steel pieces of a certain weight, called weight washers. The number of yarn washers on the loom is adjusted according to the yarn thickness. When there is a section thinner than the desired thickness in the yarn passing through the weight washers, the yarn breaks due to the weight and causes the loom to stop. In this case, the worker in charge of the loom cancels the thin part and connects the ends of the thread and runs the loom.

    In addition to eliminating the error in the bobbin winding machine in production, when two layers of yarn are to be made, the unevenness can be camouflaged by twisting the two yarns.








    Design in Fancy Yarns


    Design; It is the whole process of transforming the form envisioned in the mind into a product. Animated form; It is transformed into a visual product with color, texture, line, shape and material. At this stage, it is essential that the design be functional. While the design product seeks functionality, it must necessarily include the concepts of aesthetics and beauty.

    While transitioning from traditional production techniques to technological production in the field of textiles, the acceleration of production has also led to an increase in consumption. Manufacturers who want to take their place in the market share in the textile sector bring their products to the forefront with design. A design product created with functional and aesthetic concerns can attract attention with its difference while responding to the needs of the buyer. It has an important place in the sector with its standard production techniques and the difference of fancy products other than products. The raw material of the fancy textile product is fancy fabric, and an important raw material of fancy fabric is fancy yarn. Fancy yarns, which are widely used today, are controlled irregularities.

    Fancy yarns can be used for draw frame, card, dref spinning, rotor spinning, twisting and texturing etc. They are yarns with irregular visual characteristics such as different diameters, irregularities and/or different colors created with different technologies. These features make fancy yarns distinctly different from normal conventional spun or twisted yarns. fancy yarns; It finds its place in the application areas of daily and fashion wear, curtains, carpets, upholstery, wallpaper and many woven fabrics and knitting materials.











    Fancy yarns can be made by twisting two different colored yarns, by mixing different colored fibers as fibers, by different fiber mixtures of the same color or by only twisting differences during twisting. Structurally, fancy yarn production is the main basis for examining fancy yarns that allow endless production in terms of design and have high commercial added value.

    Structurally fancy yarn;

    a pole

    an effect

    a lock

    It is obtained from yarn.

    As the direct thread name suggests, it forms the basis on which the effect thread and the lock thread are attached. Visual effect on the surface is provided with effect yarn.

    The lock thread is the thread that locks the effect thread directly to the thread, that is, binds it with twist.

    After these three yarns have created a fancy yarn, the only process that will add a visual effect is the raising process to the yarn. Other than that, no further processing is done. For this reason, yarns that are effective on the surface are evaluated in terms of color and texture in fancy yarn design. The lock thread has little effect on the surface and its task is to bind the effect thread. The main effect in the color and texture design of fancy yarns is provided in the effect yarn.

    When considering design elements, the color factor has a very important place. Very rich fancy yarns are produced by using the color effect in yarn design. For this reason, coloring and color effects are frequently used in fancy yarns. Coloring is done effectively with gradient dyeing in fancy yarns. Gradient dyeing to the effect yarn is done in fiber or bobbin form. After dyeing fiber or yarn, fancy yarn is formed by twisting with pole and lock yarn.








    In fancy yarn production machines, various surfaces can be created by feeding the effect yarn at different speeds and binding it by the lock yarn.








    Some of the different fancy yarns available are;


    Marl Yarn


    It is the simplest of the fancy yarns and is made by twisting two different colored yarns with the folding process. It differs from normal double thread in terms of texture.

    The yarn structure shown in the figure above reveals the change of colors, which is the primary effect of the marl yarn, as well as the flat structure of an ordinary folded yarn.








    These threads are used in discreet thin strips for men's clothing or to good effect to produce a fine and irregularly patterned knit fabric with a relatively simple fabric structure. They are also used to provide a Lurex or other metallic thread with strong support while also creating a more subtle effect.


    Spiral or Corkscrew thread


    Spiral or corkscrew yarn is a plied yarn that shows a characteristic smooth spiraling of one component around another. The figure below shows the basic structure, very similar to the structure of a marl yarn, except for the different lengths of the two yarns involved, which is simple.








    Gimp Thread


    A gimp thread is a compound thread consisting of a core twisted with an effect thread wrapped around it to create wavy ridges on its surface. 

    Since a binding thread is needed to ensure the stability of the structure, the thread is produced in two stages. Two threads in a wide variety of numbers are folded together, tied around thin and then reversed. Reverse piecing eliminates twists that create wavy profiles, as it makes the effect threads longer than the actual length of the finished thread. The texture properties of a stapler, besides being different, are clearly better than those of spiral thread. The thinner of the two gimps indicates that the effect is less regular and perhaps even less well-defined.








    Diamond Thread


    A diamond thread is produced by folding a single coarse thread or cable with a contrasting fine thread or filament using S-twist and a similar fine thread using roving and Z-twist. Multiply or 'cable' yarns can be made to expand and diversify this technique to create a wide range of effects. Obviously, a real diamond thread will have some compression effect from thin threads to thick thread.

    This is a thread that can be very useful for designers who want to create subtle effects on color and texture, especially in relatively simple fabric structures.








    Boucle yarn


    Such threads are characterized by tight loops protruding from the thread body at almost regular intervals, as seen below. Some of these yarns are made with air-jet texturing, but most are of a three-ply structure. The three components of yarn are core, effect, and bond or binder. Effect yarn has loops wrapped around a core or base yarn, and then the third layer or binder is wrapped over the effect layer to hold the loops in place. The individual plies may be filaments or spun yarns. The properties of these yarns determine the final design effect.












    Loop Thread


    A loop thread has a core with an overfed effect thread wrapped around it to form an almost circular protrusion on its surface. Below is a somewhat simplified structure of loop thread in this case, showing the core as two straight rods.

    In fact, for a loop thread, the core, which always consists of two threads twisted together, can catch the effect thread.








    As a general rule, four threads are included in the construction, two of which make up the core or ground thread. The effect thread or threads are created with an overfeed of about 200% or more. It is important that they are of the right type and of good quality: even, low-twist, elastic and flexible yarn is required. The effect thread is not completely captured by the ground threads and therefore a binder is needed. The size of the loops can be affected by the level of overfeed, the groove gap in the drafting rollers, the spinning tension or the twist level of the effect yarn. Loop threads can also be made with ribbons instead of threads for effect.


    Snarl Yarn


    Like the loop thread, the core of the convoluted thread is twisted, but again for simplicity, the core is shown as two parallel rods in the figure below. A coil thread is one that shows 'folds' or 'twists' protruding from the core. It is produced by a method similar to loop yarn, but uses a lively, high-twist yarn and a slightly higher degree of overfeed as an effect yarn. The required size and density of folds can be achieved by careful control of the details of overfeed and spinning tension and the level of twist in the effect yarn.








    Knop Yarn


    A knot thread is thread containing distinct bundles of one or more component threads arranged at regular or irregular intervals along its length.

    It is normally produced using an apparatus with two pairs of cylinders, each of which can be operated independently. This makes it possible to deliver the base yarns intermittently, while the crimped yarns that create the effect are transmitted continuously. The crimped threads join the foundation threads under the knotting rods. Placing the twist gathers the knotted threads into a bundle or knot. The vertical movement of the crimped threads causes the formation of a bundle or knot. The vertical movement of the twist bars decides whether the yarn is small and compact or spread over one length of the yarn.







    Slub Yarn


    Slub thread is thread in which slubs are deliberately created to create the desired discontinuity type effect. Slubs are thick places in the thread. They can take the form of a very gradual change with only a slight thickening at the thickest point of the yarn. Alternatively, the slub may be three or four times the thickness of the base yarn and the increase in thickness can be achieved within a short length of yarn. 








    Fasciated (Crown) Yarn


    A bonded yarn is a staple fiber yarn consisting of a core of parallel fibers interconnected by wrapper fibers. The yarns made by the airjet spinning method are of this structure. Yarns produced under the hollow spindle method are often described as enchanted as the binder is applied to a core of essentially untwisted parallel fibers.








    The fasciated yarn seen below is produced using the hollow spindle process. It is possible to see the escaping fibers with the dark colored binding thread, which contrasts with one of the two strips used as feedstock in yarn making.


    Tape Yarn


    Tape yarns can be produced using a variety of processes; knitting, warp knitting and weft knitting are among them. In recent years, these materials have become better known, especially in fashion knitwear. It is also possible to use narrow strips of woven material or narrow strips of non-woven material or slit films.








    Chainette Yarn


    Chain yarn is produced in a miniature circular weft knitting process, usually using a filament yarn and a loop of 6 to 20 needles. They have been seen in small quantities for many years and are widely used in fashion knitwear.






    Chenille Yarn


    Real chenille yarns are produced from a woven leno fabric structure that is divided into narrow, warp-shaped strips to serve as threads. They are pile threads; The pile length may be uniform throughout the length of the yarn or may vary in length to produce a yarn of irregular dimensions. They are used in furniture and clothing.

    Chenille yarns have a soft, pile-cut pile attached to a core. These yarns can be spun but the machine required is very specific. Therefore, these yarns are usually woven on a loom. The effect thread forms the warp, which is connected by a weft thread. The weft thread is spaced at twice the required pile length. The warp is then cut halfway between each weft thread.






















    Posted by %PM, 20% 463% 2020 13%:%Nov in Yarn Read 2717 times

New design from error in yarn