Waxing is the process of adding lubricity to the yarn. It is to reduce the friction coefficient of the yarn to lower values and to prevent the problem that may occur from friction during its use.. In general, the yarn suitable for knitting is passed over a paraffin disc during the winding process, in the final process, in the winding machine, to ensure its waxing.
The important thing here is to plaster the thread with paraffin of a suitable value, neither less nor more. In general, in our country, the criterion of good waxing is incorrectly expressed in terms of only wax consumption. In other words, the amount of paraffin that is decreased during the production of a certain amount of yarn is considered as sufficient paraffinization. However, the most appropriate test management for the need for waxing is the measurement and comparison of the friction coefficient before and after waxing. In general, meticulous spinners working for export have the necessary test instruments for friction coefficient measurement in their laboratories. They expressed the coefficient of friction alongside other laboratory properties.
On the market, it is said that well-waxed yarn is knitted almost in half. In other words, even if the other properties of a yarn with bad waxing are good and sufficient, it will immediately suffer from bad yarn, as it will cause problems during paraffin knitting. On the other hand, it is possible to make yarn with poor properties at least knitable with a suitable waxing.
In addition, as it is known, one of the most annoying problems in dyed fabric is abrasion. A bad or excessive waxing penetrates the yarn excessively and cannot be completely dismantled during the subsequent finishing processes. This differs in the regional dyeing properties of the yarn, which may result in abrage.
In general, the waxing of the yarn is under the influence of the following factors::
1-The machine where waxing is done,
2- Paraffinization conditions (speed, tension, etc.)
3-External factors (air conditioning, ambient temperature, machine cleaning and maintenance, etc.)
4-The type of yarn to be waxed and its properties (fiber type, single or multi-ply yarn, moisture content, blend shape, yarn number, etc.)
5-Used paraffin and its properties: Paraffin is a petroleum-derived product obtained in refineries. It has a crystalline molecular structure expressed in micro and macro forms. By using their mixture together with different additives, properties suitable for the purpose are obtained.
1-Penetration (mm): It is the indication in millimeters of the amount of penetrating a 100 gram needle into paraffin in 25 seconds at 5 degrees Celsius. It expresses the hardness (values that can vary between 11 and 30, it means that the paraffin is softer as it increases.)
2- Melting point (C): It is the expression in degrees of the temperature at which paraffin changes from solid state to liquid state. Different amounts can be used.
3- Paraffins generally have a cylindrical shape and are obtained by melting and cooling by pouring into molds in accordance with the dimensions of the waxing machine.
4- Obtaining a standard product is a priority. Paraffin producers usually express their quality with different colors. This is useful to prevent misuse in end use.
During waxing during winding;
paraffin remains in the form of small droplets and flakes on the yarn in an uneven way.
Depending on the conditioning time and temperature (80°C), the paraffin droplets and flakes on the yarn melt rapidly. Approximately 50% of the melted paraffin remains on the surface, while the other 50% is absorbed through the cross section of the thread. (absorbed.) About 50% paraffin remaining on the outer surface solidifies on the yarn more homogeneously and tightly while cooling after melting.
Reducing the amount of paraffin on the yarn by 50% as a result of the above-mentioned effects of conditioning naturally reduces the friction coefficient values of the yarn. The simplest way to understand this is to perform the friction coefficient tests of the yarns mentioned below.
1-Before waxing (before winding
2-After waxing - before conditioning
3-After conditioning (it is recommended to do the test after at least 24 hours for the paraffin to solidify well.)
4-After rewinding and waxing
By the way, paraffin penetrating into the yarn will make the yarn more crimped and will help the loops to be thrown more easily during knitting.
The yarn to be subjected to conditioning process should be well waxed before conditioning. Otherwise, the amount of paraffin remaining on the surface will decrease due to the paraffin penetrating into the yarn during conditioning, and this will cause an increase in the optimum friction coefficient required during knitting of the yarn.
If the above issue is expressed in terms of friction coefficient values; the friction coefficient M should be around 0.10 before conditioning and a maximum of 0.14. In fact, a coefficient of 0.10 means an excessive waxing. However, the friction coefficient value will increase again due to the amount of paraffin that is reduced from the surface during conditioning. It is useful to perform the tests mentioned before and to decide on the type of paraffin according to the results.