Jute Fiber
  • Jute Fiber




    Its homeland is known as the Indian subcontinent and is a plant from the linden family. Jute fiber, also known as peel fiberIt spread to the world for the first time in 1970, when it was exported to the West from the Indian Subcontinent. Jute is a woody annual plant that grows up to 2-4 meters in tropical and subtropical climates.







    It is a dicot as a species, and the seedling stage resembles mint. The pile roots of the jute plant can go down to 1-1,5 meters deep depending on the soil structure. It varies between 1,5- 4,5 meters according to plant height and varieties. Jute pots are flat and round. Although there are many species, commercial fiber production is made from Corchorus capstilaris L. species. The main production place is the Asian continent, and India and Bangladesh meet 90% of the world production.







    Jute is the second most produced vegetable fiber in the world after cotton. In the stem of jute, which is an annual plant, fiber cells are found in bundles. The primary walls of cells contain a large amount of lignin. The cellulose layers in the secondary wall also contain some lignin. When the cross section of the plant body is examined, pentagonal or hexagonal angular cells are seen.








    Jute planting is done by hand or by machine. Maintenance operations consist of hoeing and irrigation. In India, plants are diluted 10-20 cm apart in rows. It is necessary to irrigate 8-10 times in normal humid climates and 12-15 times in arid climates.









    There are leaves near the top of the jute plant, which varies between 1,5 and 4,5 meters in length. The plant, whose leaves are bright green, likes a hot and humid climate. Harvesting of the fibers planted in March and April is done 4-5 months later when the plant blooms. The fibers of the plant collected at the time of harvest are soft, while the fibers of the plant collected late are hard.






    The jute plant is usually collected by cutting from the root part. Seeds, leaves are separated and bundled. The softening of the plant is based on the fermentation of the fibers left in the water for a long time. The collected jute plant is baled and thrown into the pools..








    Pools are kept covered with wood or weights. In running water or clean water pools, the shells of the plant rot and open. The fibers are removed from the shells and dried by laying. In the body of jute, the fiber cells are found in bundles. At the end of the digestion, the fiber bundles are separated from the trunk by hand peeling. The length of the fibers is 18-20 cm. The fibers, which are light yellow when first obtained, turn light brown over time. The obtained fibers are hung on bamboo sticks and the leaves are covered and dried for a long time.







    dried fibers, As in cotton yarn production, it is cleaned by passing through combs, completely separated into fibers, and wound on bobbins as thread. Rope thicknesses vary according to the purpose. The fibers, which are separated and grouped according to some features such as length, diameter and color, are transformed into various products after undergoing a series of processes in the factories.








    Physical Properties of Jute Fiber


    The fiber bundles obtained after pooling in jute plant are more difficult to separate into individual fibers than other fibers. For this reason, it is not possible to make finer yarn. Average fiber length is 16-24 cm. The fiber fineness is between 15 and 25 microns. Although its color is light yellow-brown at first, it darkens over time. Its ability to absorb moisture is quite high. It takes humidity up to 100% in a 34% humid environment. Commercial humidity is 12%. It is very bright with good qualities. Its tensile strength is quite good, but its flexibility is very low. If pressure is applied to jute fibers, they do not change shape and do not slide over each other. But the disadvantages are that the fiber rots under the influence of moisture and heat.








    Chemical Properties of Jute Fiber


    Although the chemical composition of jute fiber varies depending on the way the fiber is obtained, the percentages of the substances in the fiber content in terms of average values ​​are as follows. Cellulose is 71,5%, hemicellulose is 13,3%, lignin is 13,1%, extracts are 1,8%, shell and pectin are 0,2%. Since the amount of cellulose in jute fibers is less than other vegetable fibers, the fibers are more fragile. Therefore, it is treated with an oil-water emulsion before the spinning process. When jute fibers are treated with chlorine in a basic environment, it is very difficult to bleach because the cellulose chain is broken down. Can be bleached with hydrogen peroxide or sodium chloride. Jute fibers are more resistant to bases than acids. It can be dyed with all dyes used in cotton.









    Usage Areas of Jute Fiber


    Since jute is 100% degradable in nature, it is recyclable and environmentally friendly. Jute has a golden and silky sheen.. It is the cheapest yarn to manufacture from vegetable fibers in the world. Due to such characteristics, it takes the second place after cotton in terms of production and usability in the world. Jute fibers have found widespread use in various sectors as fiber, yarn and cross-stitch jute fabric. Jute fiber, shells and fibers are used. The importance of jute in the textile industry is that its fibers are very thin. Coarse fibers are used in burlap and packaging cloths, carpet floor knitting, and waste fibers are used in upholstery..








    High quality fine fibers are mixed with natural and artificial fibers and used in the production of dress and drapery fabrics. Packaging textiles constitute the largest area among technical textiles in terms of production amount. Jute sack fabrics are also included in this area. Due to the difficulty in bleaching jute fiber, the usage areas of these fibers are packaging material and carpets, etc. has been limited to.







    Thanks to the changes made in jute by chemical processes, these fibers can be mixed with wool, polyester and viscose for special areas of use.


    At the same time, they are preferred to be used instead of polypropylene or polyurethane as packaging material in foreign countries due to their ecological nature. Jute cotton blends are a completely new industry for jute. It is very important in terms of its use in clothing and upholstery fabrics in the textile industry. Due to the cost of jute fiber and its good physical properties, used very often in nonwoven technology.









    The elements of cheesecloth formation and strengthening and fixing of the formed cheesecloth constitute the main theme of nonwoven surface production. In this context, nonwoven products are obtained by choosing the appropriate one among the existing web forming and fixing methods according to its usage area and properties.







    Usage areas; It is used as an intermediate layer or base layer on tufted surfaces, as a base material for floor coverings, and as a filling material for upholstery.








    Environmentally friendly jute is used not only in the textile industry, but also in many areas such as packaging, shoes-bags, clothing accessories, agriculture, construction, maritime, automotive and pharmaceutical industries.








    Posted by %PM, 14% 791% 2016 19%:%Mar in Textile Fibers Read 6887 times

Jute Fiber