In yarn technology, the basic principle is to open the fiber, clean the foreign materials in the opened fiber, and make the fibers parallel to each other and show a smooth and even distribution in the yarn.
1- To open and parallelize the wool fibers until they become a single fiber,
2- To clean the short fibers, foreign materials such as dust, rot, etc. in the fiber, to open the nopes,
3-To obtain a more homogeneous band by blending the wool fibers,
4-To obtain a tape with a certain number at the exit and to wrap it in tops or to fill it in buckets.
The material that comes to the feeding chamber manually or automatically is transmitted to the scale pan and the pan is opened and an equal amount of fiber is fed on the feeding band in order to prevent any change in the card band number.
The fiber coming to the avantren through the throat rollers is opened and conveyed to the working group with the delivery roller to be combed. In the carding machine, the actual carding is carried out between the drum receiver working clothings. Velcro blades are placed on the Avantren to separate the velcro.
CombedThe parallelized fiber is brushed by the flywheel and transferred onto the doffer clothing. The fiber, which takes the form of cheesecloth, is separated from the doffer by the vibrating saw comb, turned into a band and stacked in buckets.
There are three basic operations performed on the carding machine:
2-Receiving and transferring
3-Embossing or brushing
The carding process is the process in which the wool fibers in the form of tufts are separated and opened as a single fiber. This process mainly occurs between the drum and the worker in the carding machine. There is also a carding process between the worker and the receiver, in part.
The clothing wire directions between the drum and the working rollers are opposite, the surface rotation directions are the same, the peripheral speed of the drum is greater than the peripheral speed of the worker. The fibers brought by the fast-moving drum are picked up by the worker, whose clothing is opposite to the drum, at the carding point, and the fibers are opened.
RECEPTION AND TRANSPORTATION
Receiving and transporting is the transfer of fiber from one cylinder to another cylinder. This process takes place between the worker-receiver, the receiver-large drum and the large drum-doffer. The fibers carried by the slow-moving lower surface are stripped of the fibers due to the direction of the fast-moving upper surface clothings.
RELIEF OR BRUSHING PROCESS
The embossing or brushing process ensures that the fiber that enters between the clothing wires of the drum with the effect of carding is embossed with a circular brush and transferred onto the doffer. This process takes place between the brush and the drum. While the fibers are on the slow moving lower surface, they are brushed by the effect of the rapidly rotating upper surface wires. In other words, the fibers entering between the sub-surface wires are embossed and brought to the surface.
Worsted wool carding machine consists of the following parts;
2-Pre-opening (avantren) part
1- pre-feeding chamber
2-oblique spiked wire mesh
3- back scraper
Consists of 6-feed mat.
Since the tape obtained in the carding machine is desired to be of a certain length and a certain weight, the feeding made per unit time should not change. For this reason, a scale device has been placed in order to ensure a smooth feeding. Wool fiber, classified according to their quality, washed, dried and oiled with blending oil, is fed into the pre-feeding chamber by a worker or automatically. While the fiber coming to the spiked oblique mat is transported upwards, the back stripper roller throws back the excess fiber. While a rough opening process takes place here, the falling fiber is mixed with the newly arriving fiber pile and a coarse blending is achieved. The remaining fiber in the spiked mat is poured into the balance chamber by the lower scraper roller. When a certain weight is provided in the balance chamber, the covers of the scales are opened and the machine is fed.
FRONT OPENING (AVANTREN) SECTION
This part opens the wool a little, making carding easier. Throat cylinders consist of licker-in, avantren and worker-receiver cylinder groups. The material passing between the throat cylinders comes to the avantren cylinder. By providing some opening between the worker-receiver and avantren rollers, the fiber is conveyed to the drum by means of the delivery roller.
This is the part where the carding, which is the main task of the carding machine, that is, the wool fiber is opened until it becomes a single fiber. The drum consists of the working and receiving roller group. The fiber passing from the avant-train to the drum is combed between the drum and the working rollers due to the speed difference of the rollers and the opposite direction of the comb wires. The receiving roller, on the other hand, puts the remaining fibers on the working roller back onto the drum. Some worsted wool carding machines may have more than one carding section. The difference of the other carding part from the first part is that the clothings are finer and the gauge settings are more closed. Thus, a finer carding process is realized.
This part consists of doffer, sawmill comb, belt hopper, calender rollers and winding rollers. The fibers passing from the drum to the doffer form a cheesecloth form on the doffer surface. This form of cheesecloth is taken by separating it from the doffer by means of a saw comb. It is passed between the band hopper and the calander cylinders, formed into a band, wrapped in tops or stacked in buckets.