Chemical Finishing Processes
- Created on Sunday, 24 April 2016 20:28
- Last Update: Tuesday, 25 January 2022 21:58
- Published on Sunday, 24 April 2016 20:28.
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Transferring the finishing material to the product by passing the textile product through a liquor or treating it for a while called chemical finishing.
After the finishing material is dissolved in a liquid, it is transferred to the material in a finishing machine operating by the impregnation or extraction method.
Due to the rapid transfer of the finishing materials to the textile material, chemical finishing is made on the products in the form of fabric, in the finishing padding.
The reason for this is that it is a continuous system and it is fast.
Apart from this, it is possible to make chemical finishing in machines such as overflow, airflow, haspel working by pulling method.
It is a chemical finishing process applied to fine fabrics.
The surfaces of the weft and warp threads in woven fabrics and the surfaces of the loops in knitted fabrics are covered with a filling material, giving the fabric a fuller attitude.
While there is a noticeable fullness in the handle of the fabric, there is an increase in the weight of the fabric.
It is a finishing process that can be applied by mechanical methods as well as chemical methods.
When applied to the material, the fabric gains a brighter appearance with the effect of the finishing agent.
It is generally applied to outerwear products..
DIRT REPELLENT FINISHING
It is a finishing process that prevents or reduces the adhesion of dry or wet dirt to the fabric and penetration.
With the dirt-repellent finishing, a thin film-like layer is formed on the fabric surface.
Dirt is attached to the film-shaped layer on the surface of the fabric and is prevented from penetrating into the fabric.
The application area is limited as the fabric gains a hard handle after application.
It is generally applied to products such as sofa upholstery and carpet, which get dirty quickly and are not cleaned frequently.
WATER REPELLENT FINISH
In the water-repellent finishing process, a hydrophobic (water-repellent) surface is created around the fibers.
Since the pores of the fabric are not closed, air transfer takes place.
When water is poured onto the fabric surface with a water-repellent finish, the water remains on the fabric surface in the form of droplets.
It gives the applied fabric water repellency as well as dirt repellency.
It is applied to fabrics that will be used as water repellent finishing, winter outerwear (raincoat, etc.)..
The front and back surfaces of the fabric are covered with a thin film of waterproof finishing material. Since the pores of the fabric are highly closed, skin breathing is very difficult.
For this reason, it is a finishing method that can be applied in limited areas. It is generally applied to the cloth parts of tents, tarpaulins and shoes.
Fabrics produced from viscose and cotton fibers, especially linen, wrinkle very quickly.
The crease-free finishing process, which is made by filling the amorphous regions of the fiber with resin in order to minimize its crease-free feature, is generally applied to fabrics that are not washed frequently in outerwear.
It is the process of giving a transparent appearance to the fabric by passing the cellulosic fabric through a liquor with high concentration of sulfuric acid in a tense environment.
It is usually applied to fancy fabrics.
It is a wash-resistant chemical finishing process that prevents bacteria and fungi from forming on the skin.
This finishing process, which is called anti-bacterial finishing, is done to prevent mold, odor formation and bacterial growth of items such as underwear and shoes in the finishing of textile products used in private and public areas open to the public..
HARD ATTITUDE FINISH
It is a chemical finishing process that gives a hard attitude when applied to the textile material and can be applied to all fiber groups..
Although it is a finishing process applied to all fibers, its application area is limited because hard handling is an undesirable feature in the fabric.
However, products such as tents, tarpaulins, and tartans used in wedding dresses, that is, products that should be firm and fresh, are treated with a hard attitude.
Slippery finishing is a chemical finishing process applied to all fibers.
It becomes slippery and softer when applied to the material..
Silk-feeling slippery finish is achieved by transferring the finishing material to the material.
POWER IGNITION FINISH
Flame retardant finishing is called flammability finishing in some sources.
Flame retardant finishing is carried out by transferring the finishing material to the fabric surface.
It is generally applied to bedding, military and firefighter's clothing, vehicle upholstery, textile products used in public and private areas (theatre curtains, etc.).
Scale layer in wool fibers; In heat, movement, extremely basic and acidic environment, it curls and becomes felted by entering into a mixed structure with other fibers.
For this reason, shrinkage occurs in the fabric in terms of length and width.
The finishing process, which is done so that the customer does not shrink while using the product, is called anti-felt finishing.
Insects such as moths damage the fiber by disrupting the structure of all protein fibers, especially wool.
Removal of these harmful insects from the fiber is provided with mothballs or DDT-like poisons, but it is not a very healthy method.
Moth-proof finishing materials and protein fiber are finished to prevent moth from dwelling on the fabric.
As a result of static electricity occurring in synthetic fibers, the clothes stick to the body.
It also gets dirty much more easily and is uncomfortable when removing the garment.
Antistatic finishing is a finishing process that prevents static electricity.
Antistatic finishing process is carried out with antistatic finishing materials.
The antistatic finishing process is generally applied during the spinning process of the yarn.
In products made of synthetic fibers, small fiber deposits occur on the fabric surface depending on the use.
These are in the form of beads and are unsightly when attached to the fabric.
This situation is not observed in fabrics with antipilling finishing process.
Antipilling finishing agent is transferred to the fabric from the scarf, preventing the fabric from pilling.
Soft finish, It is a chemical handling finishing made to provide a soft handle to textile materials.
An effective softness is achieved by using softeners in the finishing liquor.
The results obtained by mechanical means are not satisfactory.
Softness is one of the structural properties of the fiber.
Softness and hardness occur with the resistance of the fiber against deformation.
The high degree of softness facilitates processing in fiber spinning, weaving and knitting and determines the character and quality of finished products.
As a result of pre-treatment processes, wax, oil, etc. in the structure of the fiber. The process of regaining the natural softness lost due to the removal of substances is called “softening”..
Vegetable and animal fibers are regenerated due to the natural softening substances in their structure, and synthetic fibers are soft because they contain spin finishes.
However, since these substances make dyeing and printing difficult, the product gains a hard attitude as they are removed during the washing and pre-treatment processes.
For this reason, the chemical finishing process, which gives softness, is done as a final treatment in order to arouse the desire of the buyer and to give comfort of use to the textile products before they are put on the market.