Since the beginning of humanity, the textile industry has achieved greater and more important developments compared to other branches of industry. These developments have shown themselves both in terms of raw materials and production methods.
The reason for this is that, despite the rapid increase in the world population, the production of fibers, which are textile raw materials obtained from natural resources, does not increase significantly and the production of natural textile raw materials is very limited, especially in European countries.
In this respect, the production of synthetic fibers increases significantly compared to fibers obtained from natural resources. It is an inevitable fact that this increase is due to the continuous and continuous increase of the world population.
When polymers, which are the main material of the fiber, are obtained from natural sources as polymer compounds or by synthesis from chemical substances. artificial fibertakes its name.
There are basically two classes based on the classification of textile fibers. Natural fibers groupve artificial fibersis the group.Under these groups, the fibers are divided into 3 according to their source.
Artificial (Chemical) Fibers:
If the polymers that make up the main material of the fiber are obtained as polymer compounds from natural sources and turned into fibers by some physical and chemical methods, they are called REGENERE fibers.
If the polymer, which is the raw material of the fiber, is obtained by synthesis from some chemical substances, it is called SYNTHETIC fibers.
There are also fibers whose structure is obtained by human hands from inorganic materials. These types of fibers drawn from glass fibers and metal are called artificial ANORGANIC fibers.
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In this method, a solution of the polymer in a suitable solvent is prepared. This solution is sent to the nozzle in a coagulation bath under constant pressure with the help of a pump.The reason why it is called a coagulation bath in which the nozzle is located is that the polymer coagulates in this bath. Since the polymer solution comes out as filaments through thin holes, it coagulates and collapses in this way. The structure of the coagulation bath is prepared in such a way that it solidifies the polymer from the solution state. For example, it dissolves in alkaline solutions and does not dissolve in acids. A basic solution of a polymer substance is prepared. An acidic solution in which the polymer is not dissolved is selected as the coagulation bath.
(The solution of the polymer in the appropriate solvent)
This solution is sent to the spinnet (nozzle, nozzle) head in a coagulation bath with the help of a pump under constant pressure.
It sends the polymer solution to the spinnet (Nozzle, Nozzle) head under constant pressure.
3-Spinnet (Nozzle, Nozzle) Head
Spinnet heads are the ones with one or more holes in the diameter of the filament to be obtained on them. It is in the coagulation bath.
The polymer solution, which comes out as filaments through the fine holes of the spinnet head, coagulates in the bath and coagulates and precipitates in this way. The structure of the coagulation bath is prepared in such a way that it solidifies the polymer in solution. The structure of the coagulation bath is prepared in such a way that it solidifies the polymer from the solution state. For example, a basic solution of an insoluble polymer substance that dissolves in basic solutions and does not dissolve in acids is prepared. An acidic solution in which the polymer is not dissolved is selected as the coagulation bath.
Since the polymer solution emerges as filaments from the fine holes, it solidifies and precipitates in this form.
It is usually a flanged pulley around which the filaments pass, to adjust the speed and tension of the artificial fiber during the production.
A small amount of stretching is applied to the solution of the polymer that comes in the form of a filament.
8-Washing and Chemical Treatments
Cleans the solutions on the flament
After washing, drying is done.
10-Wrapping of the filaments
Coiling of Flaments is done.
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In order to prepare the polymer solution with this method, the solvent must be easily volatile, that is, a substance with a low boiling point..If such a solution is sprayed through thin holes under constant pressure and into the rooms in which the hot air flow passes, the solvent evaporates easily and the polymer material formed in the form of filament remains. Dry spinning (spinning) method is especially used for acetate fibers. Besides, it is used to obtain some polyacrylonitrile fibers.
(a solution of the polymer in a suitable solvent)
It is preferred that the solvent is easily volatile as well as easily available, cheap and non-flammable.
The polymer solution is sent to the spinneret (nozzle) head under constant pressure.
3-Spinneret (Nozzle, Nozzle) Head
These are the heads with one or more holes in the diameter of the filaments to be obtained on the spinneret heads.
4-Hot Air Inlet
The volatile solvent on the polymer solution is evaporated.
Solvent evaporates with air.
The solvent is removed from the filaments.
room with hot air flow
A little stretching is applied to the polymer solution that comes out as a filament.
The filaments are wound into coils.
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Polyamide, polyester and polypropylene fibers It is produced by soft drawing method. The melted polymer is ejected from the nozzle holes in the form of filament wires by pressing the nozzles with pressure. As soon as the filaments come out, they encounter cold air and harden, preventing them from sticking together. Then they are wrapped together in thick bundles. However, the number of filaments in the bundle varies according to the nozzle number of the nozzles and the diameter width of the nozzle holes. It is important to control the filament diameters in this process. The filaments coming out of the holes should be cured under the same cooling condition. The solidification of the filaments coming out of the nozzle in a soft state should be completed at the end of the first meter, and then they should be collected in bundles with the help of a wrapping mechanism.
When the cooling and solidification of the filaments is carried out in a short time and quickly, even if the fiber structures are sufficiently crystallized or even partially elongated during this period, the proportion of amorphous regions does not decrease much. For this reason, fiber strengths are not high, since the cohesion is not strong in the filaments. The necessary physical properties are imparted by subjecting the macromolecules to the stretching process.
This is achieved by drawing the filaments at normal or high temperature. During the stretching process, the macromolecule chains involved in the formation of the fiber are forced to line up among themselves and to change to a parallel state with respect to the fiber axis. At the same time, the filaments lengthen and their diameters narrow in proportion to the strength and speed of attraction.
Nylon products are put into a chamber and prepared for further processing.
Granules coming to the hot grills melt with the effect of heat and flow into the melt pool.
3-Nylon Melt Pool
The polymer from the grids goes to the pump for the next stage.
It sprays the polymer coming from the melt pool from the nozzle with constant pressure.
5-Spineret Head (Nozzle, Nozzle)
The desired number, shape and shape of the polymer is given here.
6-Cold Air Flow
Here, the hot filament coming out of the nozzle is cooled and solidified.
Here, the cooled filament is given steamy air.
It makes the flamen go to the feeding roller.
Feeding rollers make the coil ready for winding by applying stretching-drawing process.
As the last operation, the process of winding the material on the bobbin is performed.
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