Q.1-What does fabric analysis mean, please explain?
C.1-The production of a fabric covers many processes from supplying the yarns to be woven to shipping the fabric to the warehouse by weaving it. Before going into production, it is necessary to design the fabric or analyze an existing sample fabric and find the data needed to weave the fabric. The aim in the analysis of the fabric is to reach the information required for the production of the fabric with the same or the closest feature to the sample fabric.
It is the process of making calculations by analyzing the fabric and determining the weave in order to obtain the same fabric or the fabric closest to the sample fabric properties by making use of a sample fabric piece.
Q.2-What are the plain knitted standard fabrics, write their names in items?
Q.3- What are the standard twill knitted fabrics, write their names in items?
Q.4- What are the satin knitted standard fabrics, write their names in items?
C-Duvet Cover Satin
P.5-24/1 Explain what yarn means?
C.5-Thread number is 24, English cotton and single ply.
P.6-48/2 What does Nd yarn mean?
C.6-Thread number 24 Nd and two pieces of 48 number yarn, which is formed by folding and twisting.
P.7.70/36 What is PES Nd Yarn, please explain?
It consists of C.7-70 Nd and 36 filaments.
Q.8-What are the tools and equipment used in fabric analysis?
C.8-Lup, precision balance, analysis needle, pattern paper, scissors, ruler, cloth cutting tool, pencil, tweezers.
Q.9-Write the order of operations in fabric analysis in items?
A-Identification of the reverse or face of the fabric.
B-Determination of warp and weft direction of the fabric.
C- Finding the fabric weight.
D-Determination of yarn type.
Finding the E-Thread number.
F-Determination of weft and warp densities.
Determination of G-Warp and weft pattern.
Determining the H-Mesh, drawing the drawing-in and dobby plans.
I-Testpit of pulling in width and length.
Calculation of i-Comb width.
Finding the J-Comb number, the total number of warp wires and the number of wires passing through the tooth, finding the warp and weft weight.
Finding the K-Fabric weight.
Q.10- Explain what the empty square means on the pattern paper?
C.10- It refers to the weft thread, that is, the weft thread passes over the warp thread.
Q.11- What does the filled square represent on the pattern paper, please explain?
C.11- It refers to the warp thread, that is, the warp thread passes over the weft thread.
Q.12-What are the yarns numbered in the length unit system?
C.12-Number is metric, Number is English cotton, Number is English Worsted, Number is English Strayhgarn, Number is French.
Q.13- What are the yarns numbered in the weight unit system?
C.13-Number denier, size tex, size Scotch
Q.14-1 What does metric thread mean, please explain?
C.14-1000 grams of yarn, which is 1000 grams, is Number 1 metric.
Q.15-1 What does British cotton yarn mean, please explain?
C.15-768 meters means 453,6 grams of yarn.
Q.16-1 What does denier yarn mean, please explain?
C.16-9000 meters means 1 grams of yarn.
Q.17- Explain what is the difference between Length unit system and Weight unit system?
In the length unit system, the length is variable and the weight is constant.
In the weight unit system, the weight is variable and the length is fixed.
Q.18-What are the textile surfaces, write in items?
Q.19-What are the main braids?
C.19- Plain, Twill and Satin.
Q.20-What are Braids Derived from Plain Weave?
C.20-Rips and Panama.
Q.21-What are the types of Rips Braids?
C.21-Warp rips, weft rips, batter rips, patterned (mixed) rips, rubber rips weaves.
Q.22-Classify woven fabrics?
A-Normal fabrics (shirts, pants, etc.)
B-Looped woven fabrics (towel, velvet)
C-Triaxial woven fabrics (industrial purpose)
D- Fabrics produced in multi-phase weaving machines (bags)
Fabrics woven with E-Rotating power system (Leno knits)
Q.23-Classify knitted fabrics?
A-Weft knitted fabrics (fabrics produced in flat and circular knitting machines)
B-Wrap knitted fabrics (produced in warp automat, raschel, crochet machines)
Fabrics produced with A-Stitch knitting technique.
Surfaces obtained by C-gluing method.
D-Fixed cheesecloth (Nonwowen).
Surfaces obtained by coating a textile surface with E-Coating material.
Q.24-What is the formula used to determine the yarn count?
P.25-After determining the warp and weft threads in the fabric sample to be analyzed, the fabric was cut to be 5 cm wide and 5 cm long.
a) 10 warp threads were removed from the fabric and weighed on a precision scale. 1.50 grams came. What is the number of this warp yarn in Nm?
b) 10 Weft threads were removed from the fabric and weighed on a precision scale. 2.50 grams came. What is the number of this Weft yarn in Nm?
- a) CHIPNO = 0,5 mt / 1,5 gr = 0,3 Nm
- b) AIPNO = 1,5 mt / 2,5 gr = 0,6 Nm
Q.26-What are the errors that may occur in the sample weaving loom?
1- If drawing is done incorrectly, the pattern of the fabric will not be obtained.
2-Frame lower springs will face the log side. If reverse, the frames do not move from the log.
3- If the criss-crossing process of the threads is faulty and is faulty when placed on the loom, which thread will be drawn first is mixed and the threads are mixed from the warp beam. There is a tension difference in the threads. That is, the threads pass under each other. This causes the thread to break frequently.
4- If the comb average is not done correctly, the warp threads do not come parallel to the fabric beam and make weaving difficult.
5-Warp threads should be in sufficient length to be connected to the fabric bridge and to the fabric beam while drawing in strength and carding.
The warp threads to the 6-fabric beam should be tied in the form of a heart (a certain number) with the same tension from the outside to the inside.
7-After the strength wire falling on the frames is made according to the total number of warp wires, the strength wires must be properly attached to each frame. Power wires should not be installed crosswise. Power wires should move freely on the frame top and bottom bars.
8-The specified number of warp wires will be passed through each of the comb teeth. If the warp wire does not pass through any thread, there is a warp thread error in the length of the fabric.
9. When the warp thread breaks on the loom, the broken thread is tied. The strength of the relevant frame is passed through its eye and comb tooth.
Q.27- What are the points to be considered in determining the reverse and face of the fabric?
A- In finding the face of the fabric, it is difficult to detect the reverse or the face of some types of fabrics when first looking at them. In order to determine the face of the fabric, it must be examined in detail. The following features should be considered while detecting the face of the fabric:
B- If the fabric is finished, the hairs on the face are less or absent. The fabric face is usually given a better finish.
C- The flamboyant side that comes to the forefront for the user is the face of the fabric.
D-The surface fibers are better cut or grated on the fabric face.
In fabrics colored with E-Print, the pattern is clearer on the fabric face.
If the F-Fabric is woven with two different types of yarn, high quality and expensive yarn is used in the front wool of the fabric.
G-If there are color effects on the given sample fabric, the effects are more pronounced on the front. The front side of dyed fabrics is brighter when new.
P.28-You cut the fabric to be analyzed to be 10 cm wide and 10 cm long, and you weighed 0.20 grams. Accordingly, the fabric;
A-How many grams does it weigh per square meter?
How many grams is the weight of B-meter tulle?
A-10x10 = 100 cm square
100 square cm = 0,01 square meters
If 0,01 square meters is 0,20 grams
1 square meter is 20 grams.
B-0.01 if 0,20 grams per square meter
1,4 square meters comes in 28 grams.
S.29-Sample fabric will be woven on the sample weaving loom. The number of warp wires of the fabric to be woven as a sample is 150 wires. According to its knitting, the drawing is 15 frames and the row is drawing. How many strength wires should be placed in each frame?
C.29- Each frame should be put 10 power wires.
The table above shows the pleated and stretched lengths of 10 warp threads. The average length of the crimped warp thread is 5 cm and the average length of the stretched warp thread is 5,4 cm. Accordingly, what is the % of shrinkage of the warp yarn?
Q.31-How do you find the warp and weft weight of a sample fabric, please explain?
Finding Warp and Weft Weights
It is the calculation of the weight of the warp and weft yarns in 1 meter of fabric. When calculating the warp and weft weight, the value of the yarn number in number metric is used. When calculating the weft weight, the reed width is taken in meters.
Warp Weight = Total Warp Wire Count x 100 / Warp Yarn Number (100-Length Tensile % in Weaving)
Weft Weight = Number of Weft Wire in 1 cm x 100 x Reed Width / Weft Yarn Number
Q.32-What are the points to be considered in fabric analysis?
>>>>> In order to find the fabric weave, it is checked whether the fabric is in a known classical weave before proceeding to the analysis process. If we have not been able to recognize the knitting by just looking, we try to find the knitting pattern, or at least to guess it, by examining the loop knitting. After the lattice size is determined, lattice analysis is started.
>>>>> If the fabric sample we have is small, analysis processes that do not cause shrinkage by necessitating cutting the fabric or pulling yarn from the fabric should be done before proceeding with the knitting analysis.
>>>>> Since the weight of the fabric is an important feature of the fabric, these measurements and calculations should be done carefully.
>>>>> After finding the weight of the fabric, some yarns are removed from the two edges of the fabric that intersect in the weft and warp directions, and a fringe of 3-4 mm width is made. Suitable edges are left and top edges
>>>>> Weft and warp density can be found most accurately with a magnifying glass called loop, which enlarges 1 cm² area. While doing this, the rectangular edges of the loop are placed parallel to the weft and warp direction of the fabric and the yarns that enter 1 cm in length over the knitting are counted.
>>>>> If the knitting is so complex that it is difficult to count the yarns, then the appropriate edge of the fabric is placed parallel to a ruler and the yarns on the edge of the fabric are counted on the fringe with tweezers or a magnifying glass.
>>>>> If this is difficult, then the thing to do is to measure the distance between the two lines marked parallel to the yarns on the fabric, and then count the yarns that are pulled out.
>>>>> After making fringes on both sides of the fabric, it is possible to determine the design size in the weft and warp directions and to determine the order of the weft warp threads and the color scheme of many fabrics. This can be very difficult with reinforced, extra-thread and double-layer fabrics. In cases of difficulty, this work should be done by carefully pulling the thread.
>>>>> When sampling from the fabric to be analyzed, care should be taken to cover the color report and pattern features of the fabric completely.
>>>>> The warp and weft threads removed from the fabric during the analysis should be stored separately so that they do not mix. These separated threads should be used to determine the thread type and number.
Q.33-How to find Warp and Weft density, please explain?
C.33-The warp and weft density refers to the number of warp and weft wires in 1 cm. The yarn density on the fabric is determined by counting the weft and warp yarns in 1 cm with the help of the loop of the fringed sample fabric. During this process, the square-shaped space of the loop should be placed in line with the weft and warp threads and should not be moved until the counting process is finished.
P.34- warp and weftı How is the report determined, please explain?
In order to obtain different appearances in woven fabrics, it is used in yarns of different types, structures and colors, as well as weaving weaves. The order and number of these yarns in warp and weft are shown on the table as a report.
Color reports are determined by examining the colored threads on the given sample fabric. The yarns that make up the detected warp and weft color report are counted using the loop and analysis needle and marked on the table. While showing the warp color report plan, the edge warp threads should also be shown. In plaid and panel patterned fabrics, the report should be centered at an equal distance from the fabric edge. For this, after the warp color report plan is made, how many color reports will be in the total number of warp wires is calculated. If the warp report is not an integer, the integer is accepted as the number of reports and calculations are made accordingly.
Q.35- How to find the weave of the given fabric sample, please explain?
While determining the fabric weave, the threads are removed from either the warp or the weft, and attention is paid to whether the threads are at the bottom or the top. In both cases, the starting point must be determined. In determining the starting point, either an effect yarn is selected or a certain amount of fringe yarn is cut to create the starting point. The only unchanging rule in determining the knitting movements by removing the weft and warp is to mark the pattern paper when the warp threads are on top and it is expressed as full. In cases where the weft threads are above the warp threads, no marking is made on the pattern paper and it is expressed as blank.
Q.36- In which cases the warp thread or weft thread is removed in order to find the weave in the given fabric sample, please explain?
warp threadğdismantling: It is preferable to remove the warp thread in fabrics with a high warp density and in cases where the warp color pattern is small.
atkı ipliğdismantling: If the weft density in the fabric is higher than the warp density and there are knitting ways in the weft direction of the fabric, it is preferred to remove the weft thread.
Q.37-How should the thread be removed in order to find the most reliable knitting report in the given fabric?
While the fabric is found by removing the weave, at least two
The threads should be removed and marked on the pattern paper as a report. Knitting report detection
After the knitting is done, the drawing and dobby plans are drawn.
Q.38-How do you calculate the length and width shrinkage of the yarns of the given fabric, please explain?
Since the fabric is stretched with staples while it is woven in the weaving machine, there is a shortening in width and length after passing through the staples. This is because the warp and weft threads make connections with each other. This shortening means that the width and length of the raw fabric are reduced. Weft and warp densities on the fabric increase after weaving due to shortening. Apart from these, shrinkage occurs in the fabric as a result of the finishing processes applied to the fabric. The ratio of the lengths of the yarns on the fabric before weaving and the crimped lengths after weaving is called the shrinkage ratio and is expressed as the % shrinkage ratio.
In order to calculate the shrinkage ratio of the weft and warp threads on the fabric, a certain number of weft and warp threads (average 10 threads) are removed from the sample fabric and their curled and unfolded (tensioned length) lengths are measured with a ruler. The crimped lengths of the yarns can be measured on the sample fabric without removing the yarn. While measuring the stretched lengths of the threads, the thread should not be stretched, only enough tension should be applied to open the folds. The % shrinkage ratio is calculated by the proportioning method by adding the curved lengths and the stretched lengths. The value found is used in further processing.
Q.39-What is the shrinkage rate of the fabric and how is it expressed?
C.39- The ratio of the lengths of the yarns on the fabric before the weaving process to the crimped lengths after weaving pull rateı It is called and is expressed as a % shrinkage ratio.
Q.40-How to calculate the Reed Width in the given fabric sample, please explain?
C.40- While the fabric is weaving on the loom, the width of the warp threads on the reed is the width of the reed and is expressed with the letters “TE”. The width of the warp threads on the reed is equal to the taut length of the weft thread and the reed width. The stretched length of the weft thread removed from the finished fabric is equal to the reed width of that fabric. However, mostly during fabric analysis, since sample fabric is used in smaller sizes than the finished fabric, the reed width is calculated by proportioning the stretched length of the transverse weft thread of the fabric known or desired.
P.41- Sample sandş width (atkı ipliğget offıvrımlı longğu) :7 cm
atkı ipliğget off stretchyğL: 7,6 cm
Finished fabricş if its width: 150 cm
TE of 7 cm fabric. if 7,6 cm
150 cm TE of the fabric. It becomes x cm.
TE: 150x7,6 / 7 =162,8cm approx. 163cm (including edge)
P.42- choğflour to sandş analysis sırasıin the finished fabricşsample sand in small sizesş useıldLIGHTHow to find Card Width?
The reed width is calculated by proportioning the stretched length of the transverse weft thread of the fabric known or desired.
Q.43-Draw the plain weave in 2 reports?
P.44-D Draw 2/2 Z weave 1 report?
P.45-D Draw 3/3 S knit 1 report?
P.46-D 2/3/2/1 Draw 1 pattern of Z lattice?
P.47-Draw the Rç 2/2 braid in 1 report?
P.48-Draw the Rç 2/3/1 weave on a pattern?
P.49- Draw the Ra 3/3 weave in 1 report?
P.50- Draw a pattern of the Rça2/1/3/2 weave?
P.51-P Draw 2/2 knitting 1 pattern?
P.52-P Draw 3/2 weave 1 pattern?
P.53-P Draw 2/1/3/2/3 knitting 1 pattern?
Q.54-What are the features of the serial (plain) warping machine and the conical warping machine?
Series Warping machine
The number of bobbins placed on the creel gives the total warp wire count. In other words, we put 600 bobbins on the creel. This gives us the total warp wire count.
There are 800 coils in the creel. Each of the yarns from 800 bobbins goes to the cross reed by the tension strainers, yarn probes and routers. And we wound it to the warp beam. There are 800 warp wire counts in this warp beam.
We prepared 10 warp beams. Each one has 800 warp threads. These warp beams are arranged on the warp beam creels in front of the sizing machine. The tension of the threads coming from each beam is adjusted to be the same. Then it is sized and wrapped in the warp beam, a total of 8000 threads of warp are prepared.
Conical warping machine
The number of coils lined up on the creel gives the NUMBER OF WIRE TO ONE HEART. For example, we put 800 bobbins on the creel. These 800 warp wires are our 1 HEART. Our number of wires for a Kalba is 800 wires. Let the length of the warp to be untied be 500 meters.
Number of Heart Wires: KTS
Let's say there will be 8000 warp wires in the warp beam.
In that case;
Since the number of warp threads in one of our hearts is 800, we need to solve 8000 strands for a total warp of 10 threads. Since our warp length is 500 meters, each heart will be 500 meters long.
Each of the yarns from the 800 bobbins goes through the tension strainers, yarn probes and guides to the cross comb. After that, it passes through the collecting comb. The warp wires in each core are crossed and wound on the conical drum.
Q.55-What is the difference between the conical warping machine and the serial warping machine?
C.55- There is a conical drum in the conical warping machine. There is no drum in the serial (straight) warping machine.
Conical warping machine has sport and meter parts. Serial warping machine does not have sport and meter parts.
P.56 - HKE: 140 cm
Crimped weft thread length : 5,8 cm
Length of folded weft thread: 6,2 cm
TE = ?
P.57 - MKE: 180 cm
Crimped weft thread length : 5,7 cm
Length of folded weft thread: 6,3 cm
TE = ?
P.58 - MKE: 150 cm
Crimped weft thread length : 5,8 cm
Length of folded weft thread: 6,2 cm
TE = ?
Q.59-Total number of wires passing through teeth (TDS) = 1080 wires and Comb Number (TNO): 70 if Comb Width (TE) = ? cm.
Q.60- Total number of wires passing through the tooth (TDS) = 1200 wires and Scan Number (TNO): If 60, Comb Width (TE) = ? cm.
P.61- If the total number of wires passing through the tooth (TDS) = 1200 wires and Comb Width (TE) = 170 cm. Comb Number (TNO) : ?
P.62-TDS = 1200 Pieces of TE = 170 cm TNO: ?
S.63-TE = 160 cm TNO: If 80, TDS = ?
S.64-TDS = 1200 Number of teeth in 1 cm. 5 if TE ?
P.65-MKE: 160 cm Product folded weft yarn length: 10 cm If the product stretched weft yarn length: 10,8 cm, TE = ? cm
S.66-TE: 170 cm. If the number of warp wires in 1 cm is 30, then ÇTS ?
P.67- MCI = 150 cm If the CTS at 1 cm is 23, then the CTS: ?
Q.68-TE: If ÇTS at 90 cm 1 cm is 15, then ÇTS =?
P.69- MKE: 150 cm. ÇTS = 3450 ÇTS at 1 cm ?
Q.70- Warp color report ( CRR ) 48 wire Warp report repetition ( CRT ): If 100, ÇTS ?
P.72- In the comb, 1 warp wires per 26 cm are DTS; if 4 wires, TNO = ?
P.73-1 warp wires at 24 cm in the comb, DTS; if 3 wires, TNO= ?
P.74-In the comb, 1 warp wires per 24 cm are DTS; if 4 wires, TNO =?
P.75- If the total number of teeth used: 1020 TE: 170 cm No =? (Silk industry)
P.76-Total number of teeth used 1040 TE :172 cm. if TNO? ( Cotton industry )
P.77-TNO if 60 TE:170 cm. Total number of teeth used = ?
P.78- ÇTS:4080 wire DTS:4 TE: 170 cm Total Number of Teeth: 1020 if TNO = ? (in the woolen industry)
P.79- If ÇTS = 4080 wire TE = 170 cm Warp Density ( RS ) = ?
S.80- If ÇTS = 4080 wire HKE = 160 cm. Warp density ( RS ) = ?
P.81- If ÇTS = 4080 wire MKE = 150 cm, ÇTS = ?
P.82- There are 10 warp wires in 240 cm. TNO : 80 if DTS =?
P.83- There are 10 warp wires in 240 cm. TNO : 60( 10 cm. ) if DTS =?
P.84- If the number of warp wires is 4080 wires on the ground, 96 wires on the edges, and the edges are passed through the comb twice as often as on the ground and the total number of teeth is 1032; DTS =?
S.85- ÇTS = 4080 wire Edges = 96 wire TE = 172 cm If TNO = 60 (at 10 cm) DTS =?
S.86- ÇTS = 2040 wire Edges = 48 wire TE = 66 cm If TNO = 30 (at 10 cm) DTS =?
P.87- If the Warp Length is 424 cm Raw Fabric Length = 155 cm, Warp the Raw Fabric. %=?
P.88- ÇTS= 1360 wire Warp Yarn Number (CHIPNO) = 36/2 Nm, if ÇA = ? gr.
S.89-Comb width = 170 cm. AS (1 cm.) = 24 wire Fabric length: 500 mt. If weft yarn number ( AIPNO ) = 36/2 Nm, AA ?
S.90-Comb Width 176 cm. Raw Fabric Width 160 cm and Finished Fabric Width: 150 cm. if HKÇ =?
P.91-Warp 36/2 Nm, 4080 Wire, Warp shrinkage is 8% in raw, 10% weft in the product is 36/2 Nm, and the density is 1 in raw material, 22 cm.1 in the product, and the comb width is 24 cm; Raw Fabric Weight :? grams.
P.92-As a result of the analysis of the fabric, 1 wires were counted in 30 cm of the finished fabric. Necessary analysis and calculations were made and it was determined that the weft thread pulled 6%. The fabric will be 160 meters of product. According to this, how many cm is the Card Width. should it be?