TOOLS AND TOOLS USED IN FABRIC ANALYSIS
It is a kind of magnifying glass with a lens at the top and a square space at the bottom to detect the weave, warp and weft density of the fabric.
It is used to measure the warp and weft yarn weights of the fabric sample to be analyzed and the m2 weight of raw and finished fabrics. Calibration of the scale is important for taking correct measurements in the weighings to be made.
It is a millimetric paper in various sizes (1mmx1mm; 2mmX3mm; 1mmx2mm) used to show the fabric weave, drawing-in and dobby plans on the paper.
During the analysis, the fabric must be cut. Straight scissors are used to cut the fabric in analysis processes.
Cutting tool (fabric cutting weight tool) used to find the M2 (Square meter) weight
It is a tool for cutting a 100cm2 circular piece from the sample fabric. The cut fabric is weighed on a precision scale and the result is multiplied by 100 to obtain the m2 weight of the fabric. During the cutting processes, the fabric should not be stretched too much, the middle parts of the fabric should be preferred, and the fabric should not be cut from the edge.
It is used for marking the knitting and pattern report on the pattern paper.
PROCESSES TO BE APPLIED IN FABRIC ANALYSIS
1- Determining the type and usage area of the fabric
Considering the visual and physical data of the fabric, information is collected about the material for which it is used. For example, is the fabric synthetic, organic fiber, clothing, upholstery, etc.?
2- Determination of the face and reverse of the fabric
The face of the fabric is usually brighter. The pattern is more pronounced on the face. The fabric margin text is read from the front. The finished side is the face of the fabric. Surface fibers are smoother. If different yarns are used in the fabric, expensive and high quality yarn is used more prominently on the front.
3- Determining the warp and weft direction of the fabric
If the sample has an edge, it becomes easier to detect the direction. Considering the yarn density, the side with the highest density is the warp. Warp threads are strong, folded and centered. Thick and less durable yarns are used for weft direction. Warp threads are smoother and more parallel than weft threads. The comb trace is seen in the warp direction.
4- Determination of the card number of the fabric and the number of wires passing through the comb
The appropriate reed number is determined by considering the warp wire count of the fabric. The number of wires passing through the teeth can be determined by counting if there is a comb mark on the fabric. Otherwise, it is determined in accordance with the number of reports of the organ.
5- Determining the total number of warp wires and finding the reed width
The warp density of the fabric in 1 cm is determined. This amount is multiplied by the width of the finished fabric.
6- After finishing the fabric, paint, etc. determination of transactions
By examining the visual and physical properties of the fabric, it is tried to determine which of the finishing processes such as printing, touch, moisture absorbency, non-flammability, and raising were applied after weaving.
7- Determination of the weight of the fabric
The edges of the piece of fabric are neatly trimmed. It is weighed on precision scales. The weight found is calculated by establishing a direct proportion between the dimensions of the fabric and the length of 1 meter. The number found is multiplied by the width of the fabric and the meter tulle weight is found.
8- Removing the warp and weft threads of the fabric
Starting from the upper left corner of the fabric, the warp and weft threads are 10 mm. It is separated from the fabric one by one to remain idle. The yarns separated from the fabric are grouped according to their direction and type.
9- Determining the warp and weft color pattern of the fabric:
It is determined how many warp and weft threads are used, in which colors and in which order.
10-Determining the weft density of the fabric in 1 cm:
A ruler is placed on the edge where the threads of the fabric will be measured. The amount of yarn used in 1 cm is counted.
11-Determining the numbers and other properties of warp and weft yarns
The twisting direction of the yarns is determined by examining the yarns that are grouped by removing the edge of the fabric one by one. Weights are measured. These weights are used to calculate the yarn count. When the yarn separated from the fabric is free, it is measured and noted. The same thread is stretched and measured and noted. The percentage difference between the two data gives the percentage of shrinkage in the fabric in the direction in which the yarn is used.
12-Determination of the weave, drawing-in and dobby of the fabric
If the fabric is light, it is dark, if it is dark, it is attached to a light background with a thumbtack. Starting from the upper left corner, the first warp thread is started to be removed. Every connection made by this thread with the weft threads is written down from the upper left point on the checkered paper. Indication of the warp and weft color report on the paper at this time shows how the colored yarns affect the knitting.
required for determination.
13-Finding Warp and Weft Weights
It is the calculation of the weight of the warp and weft yarns in 1 meter of fabric. When calculating the warp and weft weight, the value of the yarn number in number metric is used. When calculating the weft weight, the reed width is taken in meters.
Warp Weight = Total Warp Wire Count x 100 / Warp Yarn Count (100% Pulling from Length in Weaving)
Weft Weight = Number of Weft Wire in 1 cm x 100 x Reed Width / Weft Yarn Number
14-Calculation of Fabric Weight
The fabric weight is made in the same way for raw fabric and finished fabric. The fabric weight is obtained by adding the calculated weft and warp yarn weights.
>>>>> Finding the raw fabric weight: When calculating the warp weight for the raw fabric weight, the percentage of shrinkage from the raw length is used when calculating the weft weight, the raw fabric weft density is used, and the raw fabric width is used when calculating the m2 weight. It is the same as the finished fabric weight calculation.
>>>>> Finding the weight of the finished fabric: The weight of the finished fabric is found by adding the weft and warp weights of 1m/tul fabric.
ANALYSIS OF MULTI-LAYER AND REINFORCED FABRICS
In the analysis of multi-layered fabrics, the methods applied in single-layer fabrics are also valid. However, before starting the analysis of these fabrics, the examination of appearance-based features should be done in more detail than single-layer fabrics. In double-layered fabrics, all yarns belonging to one of the fabric layers are drawn and two different single-layer fabrics are written, one for the face knitting and the other for the back weave, and the patterns are combined in accordance with the two-layer fabric patterning technique. In reinforced fabrics, first of all, the density ratio of reinforcement yarns is determined compared to other yarns. Reinforcement threads are generally thicker than others and have less connection rates. While knitting is being prepared, a row is left empty for the reinforcement threads in the direction of reinforcement and the movements of this thread are shown in this row with a different colored pencil.
ANALYSIS OF TERRY FABRICS
In pile fabrics, the pile density, yarn count, the way the loop forming the pile is attached to the fabric, and the number of wefts thrown in one loop directly affect the fabric density. When determining the density, the number of yarns in a unit, including pile yarns, should be counted. The points to be considered in the disassembly process are as follows; -Detection of whether the weaving is single-sided or double-sided, and ground yarns and pile yarns. The connections between the pile yarns and the ground and the ground yarns among themselves are determined separately. The type of connections made by pile yarns can only be understood by removing the cross-section of the fabric.
ANALYSIS OF JACQUARD FABRICS
In the analysis of jacquard fabrics, knitting analysis and pattern extraction are done separately. For knitting analysis, areas with different weaves are removed separately and the report of each different weave is prepared. The pattern is copied onto thin sketch paper. It is determined which organ is used in which areas of the pattern. Patterns and weaves are embroidered together as an open pattern on pattern paper suitable for the density.
Factors to be considered in the analysis of jacquard fabrics:
1- Accurate determination of the dominant weave and the appropriate knitting factor.
2-Getting an idea about how the pattern is developed by determining the basic knitting and the jump lengths that make up the figures.
3-Detection of the pattern report.
4-Rearranging the yarn counts and densities as close to the sample in accordance with the characteristics of the machine that the fabric will be woven.
5-Rearrangement of the drawing-in warp plan in accordance with the machine to be worked on.
Difference of Multi-Ply and Reinforced Fabrics from Single-Ply Fabrics
In single ply fabrics Generally, the stiffness of the fabric is the same in both directions, as the threads make the same number of connections on the face and back of the fabric.
In double-layered fabrics On the other hand, this type of fabrics are softer than single ply, since very few connections are made to the yarns behind the surface. The weights of multi-layered and reinforced fabrics are heavier than single-layered ones. The gathering rates of the yarns are higher in reinforced or double-layered fabrics. If the length of one of the threads drawn in the same direction is different from the other, the fabric is reinforced or multi-ply. In multi-layered fabrics, different weaves are used on the face and back. Thinner and higher quality threads are found on the fabric surface in double-layered fabrics.
In double-layered and reinforced fabrics the frequencies will be higher than the values allowed by the knitting factor. The formation of gaps due to the connections on the face and back of the fabric while the yarns are being drawn are the features that distinguish multi-layered fabrics.
While analyzing fabrics, the relationship between warp and weft densities and patterns should be taken into account. If there are twice as many threads in the warp or weft direction as the other direction, although the design elements such as the twill angle do not change, it is understood that the fabric is reinforced in that direction.
THINGS TO CONSIDER IN FABRIC ANALYSIS
>>>>> Before proceeding to the analysis process to find the fabric weave, it is checked whether the fabric is in a known classical weave. If we have not been able to recognize the knitting by just looking, we try to find the knitting pattern, or at least to guess it, by examining the loop knitting. After the lattice size is determined, lattice analysis is started.
>>>>> If the fabric sample we have is small, analysis processes that do not cause shrinkage by necessitating cutting the fabric or pulling yarn from the fabric should be carried out before proceeding with the knitting analysis.
>>>>> Since the fabric weight is an important feature of the fabric, these measurements and calculations should be done carefully.
>>>>> After finding the weight of the fabric, some yarns are removed from the two edges of the fabric that intersect in the weft and warp directions and a fringe of 3-4 mm width is made. Suitable edges are the left and top edges.
>>>>> Weft and warp density can be found most accurately with a magnifying glass called a loop, which enlarges the 1 cm² area. While doing this, the rectangular edges of the loop are placed parallel to the weft and warp direction of the fabric and the yarns that enter 1 cm in length over the knitting are counted.
>>>>> If the knitting is so complex that it is difficult to count the threads, then the appropriate edge of the fabric is placed parallel to a ruler and the threads on the edge of the fabric are counted in the fringe with tweezers or a magnifying glass.
>>>>> If this is also difficult, then the thing to do is to count the yarns drawn from the middle after measuring the distance between the two lines marked parallel to the yarns on the fabric.
>>>>> After the fringe is made on both sides of the fabric, it is possible to determine the design size in the weft and warp directions and to determine the order of the weft warp yarns and the color plan. This can be very difficult with reinforced, extra-thread and double-layer fabrics. In cases of difficulty, this work should be done by carefully pulling the thread.
>>>>> When taking samples from the fabric to be analyzed, care should be taken to cover the color report and pattern features of the fabric completely.
>>>>> The warp and weft threads removed from the fabric during the analysis should be stored separately so that they do not mix. These separated threads should be used to determine the thread type and number.
>>>>> When you analyze the fabric, you want to produce the same fabric. The reason is the customer's request. However, you can produce fabric with different properties by being inspired by this fabric. You can even market the product by using the reverse side of this fabric, not the face of it, according to fashion.