Fabric Calculations
• Fabric Calculations

CARD WIDTH CALCULATION

As it is known, the width of the fabric, as well as the length, shows differences during the production stages, that is, at the beginning of weaving, on the weaving loom, after weaving (raw) and when it is finished (finished, that is, the finished product). The width of the fabric at its widest when weaving is also equivalent to the width of the reed. Therefore, Comb Width is the widest width of the fabric. The fabric shrinks as a result of the shrinkage of the wefts thrown during weaving due to entanglement over and under the warps as a necessity of knitting. This narrowing continues with the finishing processes and in the finished fabric, the yarns come close to each other in the fabric and are completed with their final positions. The comb width can be calculated in various ways according to the following probabilities, as far as the available data allow.

FINDING CARD WIDTH IF NO DONE IS AVAILABLE

In such a case, a fabric chosen as a sample will need to be analyzed. First, the length of the weft yarn in the fabric to be analyzed is measured in its settled state in the fabric. It is then removed from the fabric, stretched slightly until the folds are smoothed out, and measured again. The ratio of these two measures to each other is multiplied by the finished width of the desired fabric. The same calculation can be made with simple proportion.

Sample :

The length of the weft thread in the fabric is 10 cm. If the length after removing and straightening the folds is 12 cm, the finished width of the desired fabric will be 150 cm;

12x150

TE = ------------------------------------------ = 180 cm.

10

By proportion;

10cm 150cm

It will be 12 cm x cm.

------------------------------------------------

12x150

Same result as X = ---------------------------- = 180 cm.

10

PROBLEMS:

1 - HKE : 140 cm

Crimped weft thread length : 5,8 cm

Length of folded weft thread: 6,2 cm

TE = ?

2 - MKE: 140 cm

Crimped weft thread length : 5,8 cm

Length of folded weft thread: 6,2 cm

TE = ?

3 - MKE: 150 cm

Crimped weft thread length : 5,8 cm

Length of folded weft thread: 6,2 cm

TE = ?

FINDING THE WIDTH OF THE COMB IF THE WIRE IS KNOWN IN THE ENTIRE WARP AND THE NUMBER OF WIRES AT 1 CM ON THE CARD

The comb width is generally calculated as the ground with or without the edge. If it is to be calculated together with the edge, the number of threads for the edge and how many threads will pass through one tooth will need to be known. Usually, the edge threads are passed through the reed teeth twice as much as the ground. In such cases, half of the number of edge yarns is subtracted from the total number of warp wires and the number found is divided by the number of warp wires in 4 cm in order to calculate the reed width.

In shuttleless weaving looms, the weft threads, the edge connections of which are cut a certain extent from both sides according to the structure and type of the machine, are provided by pulling them back into the fabric (with certain weaves) with special mechanisms, as well as by holding the wefts tightly with the last threads made of special leno knitting on the edges of the fabric and cutting the excess parts. In this second edge type, the methods in normal weaving looms are valid. Since the weft yarn density will increase twice on the edges formed by cutting the wefts long and pulling them back into the fabric, the frequency of the warp threads on the edges on the opposite side of the normal decreases to a certain extent. Specially made combs are used that will allow the arrangement (the teeth on the edges are thinner) as well as the edge-ground balance can be achieved by methods such as taking less warp wire from the reed teeth than the ground or applying loose weave. As a result, the calculation of the comb width is made depending on these regulations. The most reliable calculation is made by adding the number of comb teeth used for the ground and edges and dividing the number found by the number of comb teeth in 1 cm.

In order to calculate the reed width as just the ground without edges, the total number of warp wires used on the floor is divided by the number of wires in 1 cm. Here, if the number of warp wires in 1 cm is unknown, the number of teeth in 1 cm in the comb should be multiplied by the number of warp wires passing through one tooth.

For example ;

Card Number ( TNO ) = 60

Number of Wires Passing Through the Teeth (DTS) = 4

Since there will be 1 teeth in 6 cm of this comb, the number of warps in 1 cm means 6x4 = 24 wires.

For example ;

Total warp wire count with edge (TÇTS) = 4176 wires

96 wires are used on the edge.

Card Number ( TNO ) ; 60

DTS on the floor in the comb = 4

DTS at the edges = 8 wires

As it is here;

There are 4176-96=4080 warp wires.

It means that there are 1x6=4 warps in 24 cm.

96

( 4176 - ---------- )

2

TE = ------------------------------------------ = 172 cm

24

As a borderless floor;

4080

TE = -------------------------- = 170 cm.

24

FINDING THE CARD WIDTH IF THE TOTAL NUMBER OF CARD TOOLS AND CARD NUMBER USED ON THE CARD IS KNOWN

In this probability, the comb width is found by dividing the total number of teeth by the number of teeth per 1 cm.

Sample ;

Total number of teeth (TDS): 1020

Card Number ( TNO ): 60

TDS 1020

TE = ----------------------------------- = ------------ ----- = 170 cm.

1 cm. number of teeth in 6

Örnek :

TDS = 1080

TNO: 70

TE =?

Sample :

TDS = 1200

TNO: 60

TE =?

Sample :

TDS = 1200

TE = 170 cm

TNO: ?

Sample :

TE = 160 cm

TNO: 80

TDS =?

Sample ;

TDS = 1200

Number of teeth in 1 cm; 5

TE= ?

WEFT DRAWING AND FINDING THE REED WIDTH IF THE FABRIC'S RAW WIDTH OR PRODUCT WIDTH IS KNOWN

Reed width is calculated by dividing the known raw or finished (product) width (1-weft draw). Here, the finished weft (product) is taken according to the product (finished) if the most known, and according to the raw width if the raw is known.

Sample ;

HKE : 160 cm

If the raw weft shrinkage is 9,1%

TE =?

HKE 160

TE = ------------------------------------------ = ----- ----------------

1-Raw weft shrinkage percentage 1-9,1%

TE = 178 cm

Sample ;

MKE: 160 cm

Product Curled weft yarn length: 10 cm

Since the stretched weft yarn length is 10,8 cm;

TE =?

CALCULATION OF WARP WIRE NUMBER

The warp wire count is usually calculated for the floor. If there are edges on the fabric to be made, they are also added on the ground. The number of warp wires must be strictly divisible by the knitting pattern and the number of warps passing through the tooth. Calculations are made according to the probabilities listed below, depending on this general rule.

FINDING THE NUMBER OF WARP WIRES IF THE GROUND IS FLAT

In this case, the desired warp density at 1 cm in the finished fabric (in the finished fabric) will give the warp thread count by multiplying the desired warp density at 1 cm in the finished (product) width or XNUMX cm in the comb.

Sample ;

MKE: 160 cm

If the number of warp wires in 1 cm is: 28

ÇTS = MKE x number of warp wires in 1 cm.

ÇTS = 160 x 28 = 4420 wire

Sample :

TE: 170 cm.

Number of warp wires in 1 cm: 30

CTS?

ÇTS = warp wire number in TE.1 cm.

ÇTS = 170 x 30 = 5100 wire

Örnek ;

MKE = 150 cm

ÇTS at 1 cm: 23

CTS: 3450

Sample ;

TE :90 cm

ÇTS at 1 cm: 15

ÇTS 1350

Sample :

MKE: 150 cm.

CTS = 3450

ÇTS at 1 cm?

FINDING THE NUMBER OF WARP WIRES IF THE GROUND IS EFFECTED (COLOR)

Here, the number of wires of the color report that creates the effect (color) is multiplied by the amount to be used in the fabric.

Örnek :

Warp color report ( CRR ) 48 wire

Warp Report repeat (ÇRT): 100

CTS?

CTS = CRR x CRT

ÇTS = 48 x 100 = 4800 wire.

However, many times the color report is not in harmony with the number of warp wires. The number found by multiplying the warp color report by the number of wires and the amount used may not be compatible with the reed width determined for the fabric and the warp density at 1 cm in the reed. The resulting difference is properly fed into the warp.

For example, if there were 4080 wires in the warp instead of 4096 wires as calculated in the example given, these 16 extra warp threads would have to be placed in the warp by adjusting the effect locations according to the state of the color pattern, so as not to spoil the appearance of the fabric.

So CRR = 48 wires

If CRT: 85

ÇTS = 48 x 85 = 4080 wire.

CALCULATION OF CARD NUMBER

The comb number is the number of teeth in one unit of the comb. Numbering is applied according to the number of teeth in 10 cm for the woolen and cotton sector, and according to the number of teeth in 1 cm in the silk sector (because the comb is used very often).

FINDING THE COMB NUMBER IF THE NUMBER OF WARP WIRES IN 1 CM AND THE NUMBER OF WARP WIRES FROM ONE TOO IS KNOWN

The number of warp threads in 1 cm is divided by the number of threads passing through the thread and the number of threads in 1 cm is found.

Sample ;

1 ) 1 warp wires per 24 cm in the comb

DTS ;4 wires

TNO = ?

TNO = 24 / 4 = 6 (for silk)

TNO = 24x10 / 4 = 60 (for wool and cotton)

Sample ;

2) 1 warp wires per 24 cm in the comb

DTS ;3 wires

TNO= ?

Example :3

3 ) 1 warp wires per 24 cm in the comb

DTS ;4 wires

TNO =?

CALCULATING THE COMB NUMBER IF THE TOTAL NUMBER OF TEETH TO BE USED AND THE COMB WIDTH IS KNOWN

In this case, the task to be done is to find the number of teeth in 1 cm by dividing the total number of teeth by the width of the comb and apply it according to the sector in which it is used.

Sample ;

Total number of teeth used: 1020

TE: 170 cm

1020

TNO = --------------------- = 6 ( for silk)

170

1020x10

TNO = --------------------- = 60 (wool and cotton)

170

Sample ;

Total number of teeth used 1040

TE: 172 cm.

TNO?

Sample :

TNO;60

TE: 170 cm.

Total number of teeth used ?

Sample :

ÇTS: 4080 wire

DTS :4

TE: 170 cm

Total number of teeth: 1020

TNO = ? ( for silk )

CALCULATING THE COMB NUMBER IF THE NUMBER OF WARP WIRES AND THE NUMBER OF WARP WIRES ARE KNOWN

In this probability, the number of warp wires is divided by the product of the comb width and the number of warp wires passing through a tooth.

Sample :

ÇTS = 4080 wire

TE = 170 cm

DTS = 3

TNO? ( for wool )

ÇTS.10 4080.10

TNO = -------------------------------- = --------------- --------- = 80

TE.DTS 170.3

Sample :

ÇTS = 4080 wire

TE = 170 cm

DTS = 3

TNO? (For silk)

Sample :

ÇTS = 4080 wire

TE = 170 cm

DTS = 3

TNO? for cotton )

Sample :

TE = 150 cm

Number of warp wires in 1 cm = 24 wires

DTS =3

TNO = ? (Cotton or Wool sector)

CALCULATION OF WARP FREQUENCY

The warp density at 1 cm is calculated for three different situations: in the reed, raw and finished fabric.

CALCULATION OF WARP FREQUENCY ON THE REED

To calculate the warp density in the card, the total number of warp threads used is divided by the width of the card.

Sample :

ÇTS = 4080 wire

TE = 170 cm

If ;

ÇTS 4080

Warp Density ( RS ) = ----------------- = --------------------- = 24 wires

TE 170

CALCULATION OF WARP FREQUENCY IN RAW FABRIC

Here, the total number of warp wires is divided by the raw width of the fabric.

Sample ;

ÇTS = 4080 wire

HKE = 160 cm.

Warp density ( RS ) = ?

ÇTS 4080

RS = ----------- = -------------- = 25.5 wire

HKE 160

CALCULATION OF WARP FREQUENCY IN FINISHED FABRIC

It is found by dividing the number of warp wires by the width of the fabric.

Sample ;

ÇTS = 4080 wire

MKE = 150 cm

CS = ?

ÇTS 4080

RS = --------------------- = ----------------------- = 27.2 wire

MKE 150

CALCULATION OF THE NUMBER OF WARP WIRES FROM ONE REED TOOTH ( DTS )

The number of warp threads passing through a tooth is calculated with the formula only in cases where the entire warp is passed through the reed teeth in equal numbers. Because of its significant effect on both the structure and appearance of the fabric, usually the warps are passed through the reed teeth an equal number of times. In order not to spoil the appearance of the fabric (such as using gauze, etc. thick effect threads), it can be deliberately passed in different numbers and some comb teeth can be left empty.

IF THE NUMBER OF WARP WIRE IN 1 CM AND THE COMB NUMBER IS KNOWN, THE CALCULATING OF THE NUMBER OF WARP WIRES THROUGH ONE COMB

1 cm of the comb used for this calculation. The number of warps in 10 cm or 1 cm is calculated by complying with the numbering in the 10th or XNUMXth cm. and this number is divided by the reed number.

Sample ;

There are 10 warp wires in 240 cm.

TNO: if 80

DTS =?

ÇTS 10 at 240.cm

DTS = --------------------------------------- = --------- -----

Comb number (10 cm) 80

DTS = 3

There are 10 warp wires in 240 cm.

TNO: 60( 10 cm. )

DTS =?

ÇTS 10 at 240.cm

DTS = --------------------------------------- = --------- -----

Comb number (10 cm) 60

DTS = 4

IF THE NUMBER OF WARP WIRES AND THE TOTAL NUMBER OF TEETH ARE KNOWN, THE CALCULATING OF THE NUMBER OF WARP WIRES THROUGH A REED TOOTH

Dividing the number of warp wires by the total number of teeth gives the number of wires in the tooth. Here, attention should be paid to the condition of the edges. The condition of the edge threads is important. If the edges are passed through the reed teeth twice as often as the ground, half of the number of edge strands should be added to the number of ground strands when calculating the total number of warp strands. or it should be subtracted from the total number of warp wires.

Sample ;

The number of warp wires is 4080 on the ground, 96 wires on the edges and the edges are passed through the comb twice as often as on the ground and if the total number of teeth is 1032;

DTS =?

Ground ÇTS + Edge ÇTS 4080+96

DTS = ------------------------------------------ = ------ ---------- = 4

Total number of teeth 1032

IF THE NUMBER OF WARP WIRES, COMB WIDTH AND COMB NUMBER ARE KNOWN, THE CALCULATING OF THE NUMBER OF WARP WIRES

Since the product of the comb width by the number of teeth in 1 cm will give the total number of teeth, this probability is evaluated as the problem we did above. (As in the calculation if the number of warp wires and the total number of teeth are known).

The condition of the edge threads should be taken into account in the same way. Also, 1 cm of the combs should be taken into account. or numbering according to the number of teeth in 10 cm will naturally be taken into consideration.

Sample:

ÇTS = 4080 wire

Edges = 96 wires

TE = 172 cm

TNO = 60 (at 10 cm)

DTS =?

Ground ÇTS+Edge ÇTS 4080+96

DTS = ------------------------------------------ = ----- ------------- = 4

Number of teeth in comb width 1cm 172.6

Sample ;

ÇTS = 2040 wire

Edges = 48 wires

TE = 66 cm

TNO = 30 (at 10 cm)

DTS =?

Ground ÇTS+Edge ÇTS 2040+48

DTS = ------------------------------------------ = ----- ---------

Number of teeth in comb width 1cm 66.3

CALCULATION OF WARP TENSILE AND WARP SIZE;

As it is known, the warp threads make connections by passing over some of the weft threads and under some of them due to knitting. Due to this circulation, when the weaving of the fabric is completed, that is, when the threads are connected with each other and the fabric shape is changed, the length of the warp threads will be shortened to a certain extent. depends on transactions. And there is no known exact formula.

Warp shrinkage is calculated separately according to the warp length and the finished length after the raw and finishing processes of the fabric consisting of this warp (because the fabrics may shorten due to the effect of the finishing processes they will undergo), separately and in accordance with the formulas given below.

Warp length-Raw Fabric length

Warp Shrinkage in Raw Fabric = --------------------------------------------- ------

Warp Length

Sample :

Warp length 424 cm

Raw Fabric Length = 155 cm

Warp Shrinkage in Raw Fabric % = ?

Warp length-Raw Fabric length

Warp Shrinkage in Raw Fabric = --------------------------------------------- ---

Warp Length

Warp Shrinkage in Raw Fabric = 0,634 = 63,4%

Warp Length-MKU

Warp shrinkage according to the finished fabric = ------------------------------

Warp Length

In addition to the warp tension applied depending on the structural features of each weaving machine, they will naturally lengthen a little as a result of the tensions on the warp threads to open the shed, and when these tensions are removed after the weaving process is finished, they will return to their old and original lengths. For this reason, there is no shortening of the warp threads in the aforementioned formation. The shortening we mentioned above is not actually a decrease in the yarn size, but rather a shorter measure than its actual length due to its position in the fabric.

CALCULATION OF WARP WEIGHT

The starting point in calculating the warp weight is the yarn count formula. However, in cases where different numbered yarns are used together, their average number should be found according to the number of uses. Also, if the yarns are numbered in different numbering systems, they should be converted to the same numbering system.

CTS x 100

CA = ----------------------------

CHIPNO

Sample ;

ÇTS= 1360 wire

If Warp Yarn Number (CHIPNO) = 36/2 Nm

CA = ? gr.

1360.100

ÇTS = ------------------------- = 7555,5 grams

18

CALCULATION OF WEIGHT OF WEFT

As in the calculation of the warp weight, if there are yarns of different fineness, their weight is calculated separately or by the average number method.

In order to find the weft length, the number of wastes to be calculated according to the weft density in 1 cm should be found and multiplied by the Reed width.

Sample :

Comb width = 170 cm.

AS ( at 1 cm ) = 24 wires

Fabric length: 500 mt.

Weft yarn count ( AIPNO ) = 36/2 Nm

AA?

ASxFabric length in TEx1.cm.

MM = -----------------------------------------------

AIPNO

170.24.500

MM = ------------------------------ = 113333,33

18

CALCULATION OF WEFT DRAWN AND WEFT LENGTH

Like warp threads, wefts also lose their length due to their entanglement under and over the warps due to knitting, and the shortening (narrowing) of the fabric in the width direction as a result of finishing processes.

This length loss also varies according to the fineness of the yarn, as in the warp, depending on the knitting and finishing processes applied.

Weft length is the length of its fabric at the beginning of weaving, which is equal to the width of the comb. Weft shrinkage is also calculated separately according to the raw and finished fabric, based on the data obtained as a result of the production and the fabric construction.

Card Width – Raw Fabric Width

Raw Fabric Weft shrinkage = -------------------------------------------

Comb Width

Card Width – Finished Fabric Width

Finished Fabric Weft shrinkage = -------------------------------------------

Comb Width

Sample :

Comb Width 176 cm. Raw Fabric Width 160 cm and Finished Fabric Width: 150 cm.

176-160

HKC = -------------------------------------------- = 0,091 = % 9,1

176

176-150

MKÇ = -------------------------------------------- = 0,147 = % 14,7

176

CALCULATION OF FABRIC WEIGHT

Fabric weight is generally the weight of one meter long fabric. It is used to indicate the thickness of the fabric. Since fabric widths vary in practice, it would be healthier to calculate the fabric weight in square meters in order to get a full idea about the fabric thickness. In order to obtain correct information, the width of the fabric must be specified. The weight of the fabric is calculated in two different ways as raw and finished products by adding the weights of the warp and weft threads in one meter.

Sample :

Warp 36/2 Nm, 4080 Wire, Warp shrinkage is 8% in raw, 10% weft in the product is 36/2 Nm, and the density is 1 in 22 cm in raw, 1 cm.24 in the product and the comb width is 170 cm;

Raw Fabric Weight:

4080

HCA = ------------------------------------- = 246,4 gr.

(1-0,08) x 18

170x22x100

HAA = ------------------------------------- = 207,8 gr.

18

PCA = ACA+CAA

PCA = 246,4 + 207,8 = 454,2 g.

Finished Fabric Weight:

4080

MCA = ------------------------------------ = 251,9 gr.

(1-0,1) x 18

170x24x100

MAA = ------------------------------------- = 226,7 gr.

18

MCA = MCA+MAA

MCA = 251,9 + 226,7 = 478,6 gr.

YARN USAGE RATIO IN FABRIC CALCULATION

It is necessary to determine the types and usage rates of the fibers used in the production of raw or finished fabric.

For definitive results, this should be determined by working in a laboratory environment. However, if you do not have enough time for this and you want things to be done faster;

First of all, we need a piece of fabric of at least 50 cm2 from the finished fabric.

Then we cut this fabric properly by means of a weight tool.

If there is none, we cut the fabric 10 cm x 10 cm. We find the weight of the piece we cut with a precision scale.

Then, we remove the threads in this fabric according to their types and put them in a separate place.

One of the points we need to pay attention to here is not to mix the fibers while removing them. We weigh the threads we remove one by one according to their types.

Sample ;

Cotton 120 gr. give up100gr arrived.

We add these two (120+100=220) then add 2 0s to the end of each fiber and divide by the sum

It turns out 12000/220=54,5 – 10000/220=45,5

So according to this process Cotton54,5% Polyester and 45,5%

Posted by %AM, 08% 374% 2017 10%:%Feb in Pattern Read 15683 times

.