It has to consider the design of woven fabrics in a versatile way. Physical and aesthetic design, it is necessary to combine it appropriately in line with the function of the fabric.
Woven fabrics come up with very different properties and in a wide variety of usage areas. The structures of woven fabrics that appeal to such different features and usage areas are also different from each other. Fabric structure is extremely important in terms of both affecting the properties of the fabric and determining the surface appearance of the fabric.
Accordingly, fabric design emerges as a complex problem. In order to solve this problem, it is necessary to know the fabric structure and the relationships between the elements that make up this structure very well. The design of woven fabrics varies according to the person using the fabric, the place and time it will be used. The important thing here is to realize the design in line with the purpose of woven fabrics. In other words, a design for functionality only or a design for aesthetics alone will not be sufficient in many respects. The design problem of woven fabrics is related to the appearance of the fabric as well as the ability of the fabric to perform the physical functions expected from it. In this case, the design of woven fabrics is a two-pronged problem.
There are a number of features that are desired to be found in woven fabrics according to the purpose of use. Among these, properties such as strength, flexibility, softness, heat retention, moisture absorption, drapeability, air permeability, and shrinkage can be listed. In order to have these desired properties in fabrics, the elements that make up the fabric and the relationships between them must be examined very well.
Basic structural properties of a woven fabric, type of raw material used, yarn properties, weave, thickness, weight, density and fabric dimensions. These basic properties determine the usage (performance) properties of the fabric.
Performance properties such as heat permeability, moisture retention, strength and softness in the fabric are affected by the type of raw material used..
The structural and mechanical properties of the yarn, which are affected by the fiber properties, also determine most of the physical and performance properties of the fabric and the place of use.
The fabric weave determines the surface appearance, texture and internal structure of the woven fabric, thus its mechanical properties.
Thickness, It affects the properties such as permeability, durability, drape of the fabric and is directly related to the knitting type, yarn diameter and density..
In addition to the conditions that the fabric structure should be suitable for a certain intended use, in the qualities required by that purpose, with the most suitable first material (material-material) for that purpose, in accordance with the conditions of the market, the season, and the taste measures, on the other hand, it should be suitable for that purpose and on the other hand. It should be prepared in economic values that can bring the highest profitability for the institution that offers it. However, it should not be forgotten that subjective factors such as personal opinions and pleasures (likes) play a much more active role here compared to objective factors such as the first item, machinery, technology. When the matter is approached from this point of view, factors such as suitable for use, suitable appearance and price, which are closely related to each other, affect each other significantly and are equally affected by each other, emerge as the leading issues of fabric production.
Material is one of the main factors to consider in design. Fabric is an important variable in product designs where fabric is used as the basic material. Besides;
- Characteristics of the target audience
- fashion of the day
- Production terms
Many factors are interrelated.
Fabric selection plays an important role in the success of the design. In fact, it often comes to the fore as the dominant element in the design. The designer, whose basic material is fabric;
- Different types of fabric,
- Structural features,
- usage performances,
- Market and price situation
He should have knowledge about it.
Factors Affecting Design
It can be said that the design product is half affected by artistic creation and other external factors. The artistic design identity of the product depends on the establishment of the relationship between these factors very well. Above all, this requires an informed, focused, intense and dedicated effort. A designer is a person who has high awareness and sensitivity, sees, and produces value by grinding what he sees with aesthetic values and abstracting it with his high perception ability. Undoubtedly, unlike the artist, he is surrounded by limitations. In its design;
- target material,
- Production technology,
- Target audience
- Economic factors
It has to take into account. There are some publications on the relationship between these factors affecting design, especially creativity and function, and design.
As it is known, the basic material of some goods and accessory designs used in clothing, accessories and space arrangements is fabric. Fabric is as much a factor as creativity and function in these designs.
While functionality is of great importance in products for use, originality requires creative thinking.
for example For a summer garment, the choice of fabric that does not wrap the body, has lightness, air permeability and moisture transmission functions and offers comfort of use, together with the model with a different and aesthetic cut, is also important. In addition, factors such as target audience, relevant technology and affordability should be taken into account.
a living room curtain The same is true for. The target material/fabric is chosen by the designer from a wide variety of materials by analyzing its ability to serve the meaning and purpose of the design. The material should be considered in connection with other factors affecting the design, especially the function. Provides material selection. However, the use of high value-added materials increases the competitiveness of designs. For this reason, the designer must have knowledge of fabric, follow the relevant developments and have up-to-date information. On the other hand, although new materials have been significantly improved in terms of physical and chemical properties, the designer should be careful in using them unless their performance has been proven. The color of the fabric is as important as the texture and quality of the fabric for the consumer. It is difficult to talk about the success of a design with wrong fabric and color choices. Harmony in the selection of functional and decorative materials is as important as the choice of fabric in design. Selected materials can be changed due to a number of difficulties encountered during trial production. However, since such a change will cause a waste of time, the analysis phase should be evaluated well. Material selection can significantly affect design cost. If the increase in cost is acceptable, quality materials should be preferred.
In this respect, the factors affecting the design are;
- Target audience
- Creativity and Art
- Target material ( fabric)
- Related technology
Fabric Structure and Factors Affecting Its Properties
Fabrics are covering and protective textile products formed by connecting fibers or threads to each other by various methods. As it can be understood from its definition, it is possible to create fabrics from many raw materials with different methods.
Every fabric created;
- smooth surface
It has many features that determine both its surface appearance and its behavior under usage conditions, as well as its basic qualities that enable its use as a textile material. These properties emerge as a result of complex interactions of variables such as “raw material”, “yarn” and “production mode”. The raw material affects the fabric structure and usage behavior, the basic properties sought in the fabric, especially the durability and touch, the finishing processes according to the purpose of use, and even the economic feature.
Fiber blends are used in order to improve the product in terms of comfort and aesthetics, and to provide efficiency and economy in production. Here, the good features of the fiber types come to the fore and complement each other, while the bad features are eliminated.
The yarn is used in the production of woven and knitted fabrics. Even if the fiber type is the same, the yarn count, twist feature, standard or effect yarn directly affect the structural and appearance properties of the fabric.
The production technique is the most important factor that determines the fabric performance and accordingly the usage area.
According to the fabrics production techniques, basically;
They are classified as structures. However, the performance of laminated (bonding with a polymer substance) and coating (formed by coating one or both sides of woven, knitted or non-woven fabric with a chemical substance) consisting of the combination of these structures, the performance of the combined fabric structures or coating material on the fabric. depends on features.
A fabric is formed with at least two yarn systems, warp and weft. The threads often intersect at a right angle. Three or more thread systems can also be used. It is possible to use almost any type of yarn. The yarns are high twisted, hard and strong in the warp, and soft with little twist in the weft. Woven fabrics can be produced from very sparsely porous structures to very dense structures. Flexibility is very little in the length, less in the transverse direction, and more in the oblique direction. Elongation rates are very low when elastic yarns are not used. It has a hard and stable structure compared to knitted fabrics. It can be produced in very low or high weights. It has a wide range of uses from technical textiles, especially clothing and home textiles.
They are fabrics that are formed as a result of connecting the yarn, which is formed into a loop by means of knitting elements, with the previous and next loops. Technically weft and warp Knitting is divided into two groups. In weft knitting, the fabric is formed as a result of the connection of the loops with the lower and upper loop rows in flat knitting (knitwear) and circular knitting machines with a single yarn system. In this type of knitting, the weave is dismantled in the transverse direction. It can be very open like a mesh, or it can be more dense but still porous. They have high flexibility in all directions. Transverse and longitudinal flexibility ratios vary according to the knitting type. They are generally soft handle fabrics. They are lighter than woven fabrics. Warp knitting is created by feeding one or more threads to each needle. It is formed by connecting the loop bars next to the loop bars formed by each needle separately. It is not dismantled or the beer is disassembled in the longitudinal direction. It is less flexible than weft knitting structures.
Some of the products obtained with the warp knitting system;
- Upholstery fabrics
- Medical supplies such as bandages and artificial veins
- shoe upper
- greenhouse cover
These are technical fabrics.
Evaluated within the scope of knitted fabric lace fabrics Threads can be in any direction. It is knitted with a single thread system to achieve the desired effect. generally perforated reticulated, patterned surfaces has. Their flexibility is limited. Additional processes are carried out to gain a hard attitude. It can be produced in low weights, depending on the motif structure.
Non-woven fabrics (Non-Woven surfaces)
- With natural fiber ( wool ) ;
Thus, the interlocking of the fiber mass is ensured. Shellac is used in hard felt. Non-woven fabrics (non-woven surfaces) are a production that has its own rules and binders are used extensively in production. Non-woven fabrics (Non-Woven surfaces) are generally Limited tear strength, poor handle and drape These are products that are mostly used as interlining and disposable protective clothing.
Laminated (coating) fabrics
The properties of the product to be obtained as a result of the coating or lamination process are determined by choosing a suitable floor fabric, a suitable coating material, a suitable coating or lamination technique. Lamination usually involves joining two or more fabrics with the aid of a polymer fiber preparation gum, temperature and pressure. Coating is the process of applying a polymer film to the surfaces of woven, knitted and non-woven fabrics, either in a single layer or in layers. As a result of the coating or lamination process, the characteristic properties of the fabric change significantly. Thus, it is possible to produce fabrics for daily wear such as windbreakers, coats and trousers with protective properties, as well as technical textile products for different uses, from agricultural textiles to medical textiles, from home textiles to protective clothing.
As long as it is not transformed into a product with a special design and imagination, the accepted usage areas of each fabric are certain. The fabric must be produced in the qualities required by the intended use, with the most suitable raw material for that purpose, in a beauty suitable for the market and seasonal conditions offered, and the measure of taste. On the other hand, it is important for the offering institution to have economic values that can bring the highest profitability. This quality is achieved by fabric designers and manufacturers using the fiber, yarn and structure forming method, finishing processes and technological possibilities in the most appropriate way.
Usage Performance of Fabrics
It determines the usage performance of the fabrics, the efficiency in the production processes where it is used as a material, and the properties that affect the user in the finished (ready to use) state.
The efficiency expected from the fabric in use during the production phase, that is, the working efficiency; It is of great importance in terms of affecting quality, efficiency and cost in production. The main production performances of fabrics are “shapeability” and “sewability”. Shapeability is the degree to which the fabric can be formed by reorienting multiple straight lines in the plane. The ability of fabrics to be shaped is provided by humidity, heat and pressure (ironing or printing) on a plane or by folding, stretching and compressing the moist fabric on the mold. Giving the desired curves in the design can be achieved in proportion to the formability of the fabric. Sparsely textured, flexible and soft fabrics have the ability to take shape more easily. However, under which conditions and how long these fabrics keep their shape, whether there is a change in their attitude, stretching, compression, moisture, heat, etc. It is also important how it is affected by the transactions. Sewability requires the existence of special machines that enable very different sewing techniques in line with technological developments, and the control and evaluation of fabrics accordingly.
The designer working with the fabric should take into account the sewability of the fabric he will choose, from the production methods, sewing machines and the skill of the operator. Quality sewing is the measure of sewnability, with sufficient number and speed.
The lower the speed required for the production of the fabric with the desired quality, the lower the sewability value of the fabric. Therefore, classification of fabrics according to fiber type, yarn properties, weight and volume, flexibility, weaving or knitting designs and surface characteristics are important in terms of the behavior of fabrics in terms of sewnability and the attitudes to be followed accordingly. For example, some machines melt the thermoplastic fabric when they reach high sewing speed.
Again, since flat and circular knitted fabrics have a flexible structure, great care is taken not to stretch the fabric while laying the marker, and not to add too many layers, and they should be rested in marker form before cutting. Many varieties have a tendency to curl around the cut edges. Since woven fabrics have a stable structure, they are easier to lay and cut. No curling on the cutting edges. In addition, sewing control of static electricity charged fabrics is difficult. Sticking or potting tendencies create mismatch against machine movement and hinder the operator from working. In order to prevent electrification, the work area should be moistened so as not to hinder production. If this cannot be done or is too expensive, static removal tools such as earth, radium rod and electrical machines are used.
Finished/Finished Product Performances
In today's world, where the quality of life is gaining importance, the features expected from the products have increased with the awareness of the consumers.
Comfort is a complex concept that includes many physical, psychological and physiological factors. Comfort in products made of fabric, especially in clothing, depends on the fabric properties together with the pattern.
The main usage characteristics of the basic material fabric, which greatly affects the comfort of the finished product and should be considered according to the usage area in the design, are briefly explained below.
It is the power of resisting the effects such as tension, strain and friction encountered during the use of fabrics. It is expected that the product will show resistance to these effects during its lifetime.
Tearing, breaking, bursting and abrasion resistance of fabrics, It can be tested with objective methods according to established standards.
They are small knots that are formed by the entanglement of the free fibers on the fabric surface as a result of the migration of the surface fibers in the yarn. It is an undesirable situation that usually occurs on collars and armholes, in areas exposed to friction. Beads often contain foreign matter, making the undesirable fabric appearance even more pronounced.
It is the ability to stretch back of the wrinkling that occurs after bending, crushing, folding or washing during the use of textile products. Fabrics that can easily return to their original state after such deterioration maintain their good appearance for a long time. This is related to the structural property of the fiber. However, this structure resists ironing. While cotton and linen fabrics preserve ironing marks for a long time, woolen fabric does not form iron-dry marks.
The trace of ironing created by the effect of the iron deteriorates in a short time during use.
It is the ability of fabrics to stretch under tension and quickly return to their former dimensions when tension is removed.
degree of stretch
It is determined by the ability of a fabric to return to its original shape after 2% elongation. The difference compared to the old size is defined as the "permanent length". It is desirable that the permanent length is not high in fabrics. Elastic fabrics are ergonomic, compatible with body contours when worn, do not create potholes due to use, have low seam tension, high breaking strength and are suitable for the production of comfortable clothes.
Attitude or touch is a factor in determining the fabric quality.
It is defined as softness, fullness, vitality, mobility, slipperiness, etc. Fabric touch is perceived depending on the handling characteristics that occur on the fabric plane after stretching, compression, shaping, molding or applying force. The less the fabric supports its own weight in the horizontal and vertical positions, the softer the fabric and the smaller folds it creates. Thermal comfort is one of the main characteristics in determining the wearing comfort.
Factors determining thermal comfort, heat and moisture transfer, air permeability, heat retention ability, static electricity tendency, water vapor permeability and water absorbency.
Although it differs according to its structure, the ability to retain heat (thermal resistance) decreases as air permeability and moisture transmission increase in fabrics.
There is a close relationship between permeability and the covering factor, which is the expression of the order and density of the yarn gaps in the fabric.
The amount of light passing through a certain area of the fabric is the measure of illumination on the surface. It is generally evaluated subjectively in line with the transparency, translucency or opacity of the fabric.
Anti-dirt and easy cleaning are expected features from every fabric. Since soiling can be removed by washing or dry cleaning, the fabric should be easy to clean and resistant to these processes.
Thanks to this, the soiling time of some fabrics can be extended, although not permanent. Electrification/Static electrification is the state of attracting and holding electric charges from the air with accumulation on the surface due to the moisture content and friction of the fabric. Static electricity is caused by the friction of the fabric against itself or another fabric or object and is both a working and a usage characteristic. This feature causes the fabric to bump, stick to each other or to the user, attract dirt and dust, change color and lose its shine.
Although it solves the problem temporarily, it is important for the consumer how permanent it is after washing.
evaluated according to the burning characteristics of the fabric. Especially in places such as theaters, nursing homes, hospitals, nurseries where human communities are located, flame retardant fabrics should be used. Color is an important factor in clothing, in terms of expressing oneself with different colors and determining the relationship with the society in which one lives.
Therefore, you can visit our colour, In textile products, it should be chosen according to the purpose and conditions of use of the product. All shapes and surfaces can be perceived as more interesting or not noticed at all because of different color choices. Colors, which have a very important place in textiles, are chosen by paying attention to the impression and psychological effects they leave on people, as well as their suitability for the fashion of the day. The knowledge of the designer about the color is important for the correct selection of the fabric color.
Importance of Fabric in Design
Just as paint is a medium for an artist to convey creative expression, fabric has the same or even higher meaning for the design of clothing, home textiles and related accessories. It is important to choose the appropriate material for the product in every sense.
The characteristic features of the fabric inform the designer about where and how to use it. Fabric selection plays a very important role in the success of the design. In fact, it often comes to the fore as the dominant element in the design. Looking at the history of fashion movements, it is possible to see many examples of this.
The use of Teflon-coated cotton in sportswear and raincoats can be given as examples due to the durability of denim fabric. Blue jeans are a striking example of the successful meeting of model and fabric. This legendary trousers is an indispensable garment for almost everyone with its comfort, durability, ease of maintenance and wearability since the day it was born.
According to sources, Levi Strauss, known as the "inventor of the blue jeans" (whose real inventor is Jacob Davis, an American citizen from Nevada), calls this product Levi's. In order to manufacture the durable trousers he invented on a large scale, he offers a partnership to Strauss, from which he buys fabric. He patents this trousers in 1873. The need for a more durable fabric, which arose due to its great demand, is located in the city of Nimes, France, and this fabric is called "denim", which means "from Nim" and is recognized as such.