Abrasion is the deformation that occurs as a result of any material rubbing against another surface.
As a result of abrasion, decrease in fabric strength properties, weight, thickness, air permeability, changes in color and pilling on the fabric surface are observed.
There are many parameters that affect the resistance of fabrics to abrasion.
These parameters can be generally said as fiber types and properties, yarn structure and fabric structure.
There are different methods to measure fabric abrasion resistance..
One of them is "sample breakage determination” is the test.
This test method is most often performed with a Martindale instrument. Here is a circular test piece under a certain load, a Lissajous pattern. (The Lissajous pattern is a pattern formed by a movement that changes from a circle to an ellipse) It is the friction of the abrasive (standard fabric) that abrades with the translational movement forming the test piece to the fabric. Evaluation is made by determining the test piece in the inspection range where it breaks. Sample breakage according to fabric types is accepted according to the following situations.
1- Complete breakage of two different threads in woven fabrics,
2-In knitted fabrics, breaking of a thread that causes a hole to form
3- In pile fabrics, the pile gradually disappears completely,
4-For nonwovens, a hole with a diameter equal to at least 0,5 mm is formed as a result of abrasion.
Standard atmospheric conditions
Martindale abrasion tester
Abrasive standard fabric (140 x 140 mm square in width and length)
Wool felt sole (140 +0.5 mm diameter)
Sample holder foam base (38+0,5 mm diameter)
Cutting tools with a diameter of 140 mm and 38 mm
Magnifier (with 8x magnification)
3 test specimens (38 mm in diameter).
In this experiment, under a certain load, the fabric is abraded with the abrasive surface (standard fabric) by a translational movement that creates a Lissajous pattern. Abrasive surface TSE EN ISO
According to the 12947-1 standard, it is defined as woven wool felt with a mass of 750 ± 50 g/m2 and a thickness of 2,5 ± 0,5 mm. According to the TSE EN ISO 12947-2 standard, the abrasion test is based on the principle of abrasion of the fabric with the Martindale Method. The test specimen is mounted on the test piece holder with a foam backing. This foam is produced from polyetherurethane and its density is defined as 12947 ± 1 kg/m30 and thickness as 3 ± 3 mm according to TSE EN ISO 3-1 standard.
If the sample mass is greater than 500 g/m2, it is mounted on the test fasteners without the need for foam support. Two abrasion load parameters are defined for this test.
a) Nominal pressure of 795 kPa (7±12 g) for workwear, upholstery, bedding and linens and fabrics for technical use; or
b) Nominal pressure of 595 kPa is applied (7±9 g) for other home textile fabrics and apparel product fabrics.
The test pieces should be taken at a distance of at least 100 mm from the cut edge length of the sample. At least 3 test pieces should be taken to obtain a statistical result. The diameter of the test pieces should be 38 ± 0,5 mm. The abrasive fabric should be a square of at least 140 mm in diameter or 140 mm in width and length. The foam base of the sample holder should be 38 mm in diameter. Before starting the experiment, the samples should be conditioned under standard atmospheric conditions. The preparation of the test piece for special fabrics (flexible fabrics, cord fabrics and pile fabrics) is given in detail in the same standard.
The test pieces are prepared by cutting with a die and placed face down on the fastener, then the foam base is placed and compressed into the fastener. The felt is placed on the abrasion tables, on the felt in the abrasive fabric. By attaching the shrink ring, the felt and the abrasive fabric are tightly connected. The abrasion test is carried out at certain intervals according to the friction number at which sample rupture will occur. The test intervals are given in the table below according to the ISO 12947-2 standard.
After the test pieces and abrasive cloth are placed in the device, the device is started.
At the test intervals, the test pieces are removed from the device and it is observed whether there is any rupture in the sample. If there is no rupture, the sample is placed in the device and rubbing occurs until the next test interval. If the rubbing motion exceeds 50,000, it is necessary to renew the abrasive.