Pilling occurs as a result of the separation of the fibers on the fabric surface and the mixing of these fibers during other uses and creates an unpleasant appearance on the fabric.
The fiber entanglement that causes pilling is determined by the speed of the processes, the excess surface fiber formation, and the fiber and bead reduction that develops over time.
Their speed depends on fiber, yarn and fabric properties.
In this experiment, it was aimed to determine the resistance of textile fabrics to pilling and surface change by using the Martindale device.
The Martindale device is used to measure both pilling resistance and abrasion resistance of fabrics. used to measure strength.
The pilling occurs when the fabric rubs against itself.
The device has three drive wheels, two on the sides and one on the inside.
With their movement, the Lissajous movement is provided.
The upper plate with the sample holders is in the horizontal direction, each point Lissajous movement acts to do so.
In this movement, it first takes the form of a circle and then gradually narrowing ellipses, and after making the last linear movement, it makes gradually expanding ellipses and finally circular motion again. ( TS EN ISO 12945-2)
Standard atmospheric conditions
Martindale abrasion tester (with features specified in ISO 12947-1 standard)
Drive mechanism and parts of the base pedestal
Sample holder guide plate
Sample holder and auxiliary materials,
Weight (attachment weight 260 g ± 1 g and made of disc-like stainless steel) and loading parts),
Illuminated inspection cabinet, abrasive fabric that abrades the standard fabric test sample (in the form of a circle with a diameter of 140 + 5 mm or a square with a length and width of 150 ± 2 mm),
Top felt (90±1 mm diameter),
Bottom felt (140+5 mm diameter),
cutting tool with a diameter of 140 mm,
By paying attention that the test samples are not from the same weft and warp threads, test samples should be taken from the fabric edge at least 150 mm from the randomly selected areas.
According to the TSE EN ISO 12945-2 standard, the number of test samples required for a fabric is 3 pairs; It consists of 1 pieces of sample fabric, 2 pair of samples, one sample for the sample holder at the top and one for the pilling table at the bottom.
For the lower and upper test samples of the felt to be used, the diameter should be 140 +5 mm and 90±1 mm diameter, respectively.
Abrasive fabric should be 140 +5 mm in diameter.
The test piece is also prepared to be a square of 150 ±2 mm in size for both the test fastener and the pilling table.
For knitted and woven fabrics, a sample is prepared from its own fabric as an abrasive fabric.
100% wool standard abrasive fabric is used in upholstery fabrics.
The test sample can be subjected to washing and dry cleaning pre-treatment upon customer request.
Before taking test pieces from the laboratory sample, laboratory samples must be conditioned under standard atmospheric conditions.
The test piece is attached to the fastener and the pilling table in such a way that the front faces of the test pieces overlap each other.
Here, the samples prepared for the lower fasteners are placed on the lower disc with felt fabric, and on the upper disc for the upper fasteners.
Three specimens are required for specimen holders when a woolly abrasive cloth is used.
The test sample fastening weight is 260 g ± 2 g for woven and upholstery fabrics (loading piece) and 155 g ± 2 g for knitted fabrics.
The weight is loaded by placing on the fasteners and compressed with the holding collar.
Before starting the device, the number of rubbing movements and their periods are determined according to the table given below (TS EN ISO 12945-2).
As can be seen in the table below, the test pieces are ordered according to their weights and production methods for the pilling test.
Then the device is started and the rubbing test continues until the specified periods are completed.
At the end of the test, the pilling levels of the samples are evaluated visually in the filiscope device in the illuminated cabin and their degrees are found.
The determination of the degrees is made by considering the following data.
Pilling test categories
Eye evaluation degrees
5 No change
4 A slight fuzz
3 Moderate pilling and/or pilling.
2 Significant pilling and/or prominent pilling.
1 Intense surface pilling and/or pilling