Made with mechanical methods or chemical substances to improve the handle, appearance and usage properties of textile products. finishing (finishing) operations It called.
What are impacted teeth?
When one or more teeth fails to grow in the correct position and is therefore held below the normal gum line, it is called an impaction. This can be complete, such as completely unerrupted (buried) third molars (wisdom teeth) or partial when just part of the tooth is visible in the mouth.
Why are impactions important?
For best function and appearance the teeth should grow in a healthy alignment. When one or more teeth is impacted, this can affect the function of that tooth but also the function and appearance of other teeth.
Whether all impactions should be treated is still controversial and your dentist and oral and maxillofacial team can explain the advantages and disadvantages or treatment for you, which is usually surgical.
In the past, the main purpose of finishing processes was to make the buyer want to buy, that is, to increase the appeal of the product. This was achieved by improving attitude and appearance. However, due to the emergence of synthetic fibers and changing living conditions, the issue of giving natural fibers some additional properties (such as wrinkle resistance) without losing their unique good properties has come to the fore. Thus, it would be possible for natural fibers to compete with synthetic fibers. This trend has led to the emergence of finishing processes to improve the use properties of textiles.
Another improvement was in the durability (permanence) of the effects obtained by finishing processes. In the past, since the main purpose of the finishing process was to arouse the buyer's desire to buy, the durability of the effects obtained was not given much importance. Today, it is often enough to give the textile product some features, but these features are required to be resistant to use, especially to washing.
These processes are examined in two large groups.
1.Chemical finishing processes (wet finishing processes)
2.Mechanical finishing processes (dry finishing processes)
Mechanical Finishing (Dry Finishing)
Mechanical finishing processes, such processes do not apply a chemical substance. The desired effects;
- heat treatments
It is provided by mechanical (physical) means such as In some cases, it is applied to the textile material during mechanical finishing processes.;
etc. Even if it is effected, usually such finishing operations are dry operations. These processes are sometimes applied alone, but often after chemical finishing processes.
It is the passing of the fabric between pressurized rollers to smooth, soften and flatten the surface of the fabric, to close the gaps between the threads or to give the surface shine..
It is a mechanical finishing process that can be applied to all fabrics such as cotton, synthetic and their mixtures, except wool. It can also be called a crushing process that increases brightness and vitality.
The main purpose;
It is to win. Remaining effects such as printing have gained a lot of importance recently.
As a result of this process;
- Fabric shine increases
- The fabric surface becomes smooth
- Knots in the thread are straightened
- The softness of the fabric is improved.
- Air permeability is reduced and the yarns that make up the fabric are brought closer
- Fabric opacity is increased.
- The surface is patterned with printing (embossed) calender.
- The web surfaces are joined
- A variety of looks are provided, from silk-like to high-gloss.
It is the pulling of fibers from the yarns of woven or knitted fabrics from the fiber ends to the surface of the fabric, thus creating a fabric appearance with a feathered surface.
The fiber ends, which were brought to the surface of the fabric by raising, are shaved to a certain length and brushed to stay flattened on the fabric, or they are left in a piled vertical position.
As a result of raising, the following changes are achieved in the fabric;
- 1- A layer of fluff forms on the surface of the fabric.
- 2-A desired shape (laying, straightening and cutting) is given in this feather layer, and the product gains a special appearance.
- 3-The product gains a more voluminous structure. The heat insulation property of the product increases and the fabric keeps warmer.
- 4-Because the mechanical effect also breaks the hardness of the product, the product gains a fuller, softer and woolly handle.
3-Brushing and Shearing
It is the process to remove the fiber or yarn ends on the surface of textile products with the help of special blades or to cut them in certain equal lengths.
It can be done in two ways, from the bottom and from the top, respectively, in order to create a smooth and desired length of fluff layer for the product to gain a brighter appearance. Bottom shearing process is mostly used for woolen fabrics. The aim is to create a smooth feather layer by shearing from the top.
As a result of this process;
- The fabric gains a shiny appearance and the knitting patterns of the fabric become more prominent..
It is the cleaning of the fabrics to be printed with a brushing machine in order to prevent the folds, threads and dust from remaining on the fabric surface after raising and shearing. For this, the fabric is passed through rotating brushes. It can be applied to woven, knitted, lace fabrics. After brushing, the fabric gains shine and softness. Brushing can be done wet or dry.
The sanforizing process is a non-shrinkage finishing process, which is a standard finishing process applied to all kinds of products. With this process, in order to prevent the fabric from shrinking or stretching during use, it is stretched from the neck to a certain extent and its width is adjusted. The new width and height are fixed and the process is ensured to be permanent.
Effects provided by the shrinkage process;
- Comfort and care of clothing
- Keeping the shape of the garment
- Fabric does not shrink
- The garment's resistance to stretching and loosening
- It is to provide comfort and confidence in garment operations.
It is the process of fluffing the woven fabric surface very thinly in order to give it a suede touch and smooth appearance.
In anti-pilling finishing, fiber ends are often removed by sanding in wet condition.
- Single yarn and warp knit fabrics
- elastic fabrics
- imitation leather
- Nonwoven (Non-Woven surfaces)
It is suitable for
In order to give the desired touch and appearance to woolen and wool blend fabrics;
It is a surface fixation process applied.
Features gained to fabrics with decaturation finishing;
- Attitude gets better
- Dimensional stability is ensured
- Brings shine
The resting process is to change the appearance and attitude of the fabric by using the felting feature of wool fabrics.
As a result of resting, the fabric gains a matted surface structure and its texture becomes tighter.
Bu fabric as a result of the process;
- Increases the ability to keep warm
- Mechanical properties improve
- The strength of the fabric increases.
The essence of crabbing is that the woolen fabrics are treated with hot water while they are in a proper state and they are cooled. As a result of a surface fixation provided in this way;
- The fabric shrinks less during wet processes.
- The danger of felting and wrinkle marks on the fabric is reduced.
- All wrinkles and traces formed on the fabric before craping are removed.
- As the surface smoothness of the fabric increases, a certain increase is observed in its gloss.
- As a result of the swelling of the fibers and the loosening of the product structure, a positive development occurs in the handle of the fabric.
The surface smoothing process is carried out by applying temperature and pressure to the product.
The degree and permanence of the effect provided by pressing;
- The moisture content of the fabric
- to the temperature of the fabric
- to the amount of pressure
- Pressure effect time
As a result of pressing, the surface smoothness of woolen products is ensured. In addition, the fabric gains a more closed (tight) structure with this process. Its brightness increases and its attitude changes.