leno weaves, They are fabrics that are obtained by the cross movement of the warp threads, although they are sparsely woven, they have a very strong structure.Rotary power assemblies are used to create leno weaves.
Woven fabrics are textile surfaces created by positioning two yarn systems called weft and warp perpendicular to each other and intersecting them according to the connection system called knitting. LWoven surfaces called eno, rotary power, openwork, cross or gaze if;
They are sparsely woven but robust textile structures formed by the up and down movement of the warp threads, as well as by moving them diagonally.
The weaving of these fabrics in the weaving machine is provided by rotary power devices. In Leno woven fabrics, the warp threads that are next to each other are not parallel to each other when connecting with the weft, but they are also connected to each other by making diagonal crossings. It is these crossings of warp threads that give the fabric its sparse but durable structure. In order to obtain leno fabrics, there are two warp groups, one of which is used to make a straight movement and the other to make a diagonal (with loop) movement. Due to the cross movement of the warp threads, such fabrics are called “Leno Weave”.
- In the Leno braid indicated by A (Leno braid with 5/5 jumps), leno connection can be made by using leno forces, or in the braid with 5/5 jumps, normal flat connection can be made by using steel forces.
- In the Leno weave shown with B, leno connections can be made by using 3/3 jumps in the braid, or normal straight connection can be made by using steel forces in the braid with 3/3 jumps.
Leno weaves are formed from two sets of warp yarns crossing each other and usually a set of weft yarns. In this way, loosely knitted, porous and porous structures can be formed. Various texture effects can be achieved by using various knitting effects, fancy yarns in the weft. It has an increasingly widespread use in women's and men's tops, home textiles, food packaging and greenhouse cultivation, in the construction sector, filter fabric, geotextile applications, medical textiles and auto upholstery.
There are many patent studies in the literature on leno fabrics, which have a wide usage area. In these studies dating back to the 1800s, the structure of leno weave was examined in the first years, weaving techniques were revealed, and with the development of technology, the advantages provided by the use of this weave in different compositions and different products were observed over time.
In 1896 Redding W., In 1911 Kelmel A. and In 1930 Snow I. tried different weaving loom mechanisms in order to make leno weaving according to the pattern in their inventions and obtained leno weaves by cross-linking in the warp with these mechanisms.
In 1941 Arnold W. demonstrated the production steps on the loom for tubular bags with triple warp yarn leno weaving.
In 1944 Faber B. has obtained loops along the warp by using leno knitting on thick pile fabrics.
In 1954 In the invention of Teague M., the structure and production methods of leno knitted rubber coated fabrics using high elasticity yarns in the weft direction were mentioned.
In 1954 Crandall E.'s invention includes the structure of fabrics used in electrical contactors woven from glass fiber with leno weave and impregnated or coated with insulating varnish.
In 1957 With the patent he received, Bussiere J. revealed the structure of open mesh fabrics woven from synthetic yarn with plain or leno weave.
In 1958 In his invention, Scuggs T. talked about the edges of open mesh fabrics produced with leno weaving used in places such as bags and the methods of joining with sewing.
In 1965 Heitzmann F. revealed the structure of dressings and bandages obtained with leno braids.
In 1965 The patent obtained by Bellmore R. is related to leno knitted elastic structure narrow column fabrics used in women's men's socks and underwear.
In 1966, Taticek L. and Striker M. used leno knitting on fabric edges in their invention.
In 1966 In his invention, Wall E. investigated a gauze production method with rotary forces for a loom containing two standard forces carried on adjacent spindles.
In 1967 Koch B. studied the movement of the rod holding the rotary forces on the loom in his invention.
In 1968 Rhodes C. prevented weft and warp yarns from dispersing by making a stronger connection by using leno weave in the fringe fabric structure used on the edges of various home textiles.
In 1971 Gosnell C.'s invention includes leno fabrics and antenna structure woven with Dacron yarn used in inflatable radar antennas.
In 1972 Lucas G. reveals the structure of inflatable support apparatus used to support goods in warehouses. This structure creates a laminate structure with a pressure-resistant, flexible polymeric material and an entire outer surface coating of the polymeric material, including layers of open mesh fabric. The polymeric material used here is the least permeable material, and the textile fabric layer is leno woven structures.
In 1975 Romanski E., Horn J., Dutt W. revealed the structure of carrier textiles used in the production of conveyor belts in their invention. These textiles are produced with warp yarn polyamide fiber and central glass and/or metal wire covered polyamide fiber with leno weaving and coated with high temperature resistant resin from polyamide and its derivatives.
In 1975 Goff R. examined the fabric structure of a light, foldable, narrow, elastic waistband in his invention. These fabrics are woven with leno knitting with three groups of warp yarns as elastic, plain and textured.
In 1986 McCall C., Wallhalla SC, Capbell M., Dean W. In this invention, the elasticity and recovery of high-volume and heat-extruded fabrics formed by using texturized thermoplastic yarns in lock stitch knitting or leno weaves with certain numbers and different densities were investigated.
In 1989 In their invention, Capadia I. and İbrahim M. demonstrated the woven vascular vascular structure that would provide pre-coagulation even if cut using plain woven with synthetic yarn or leno weave combined with twill weave.
In 1993 Williams M., Carriker R., Barkis E., Biley L., Cabanis T. examined leno fabric structures used in barrier fences and obtained patents.
In 1994 Tucker M., Ferris L., Lepage S. Porter J. examined the production methods of wall reinforcement systems using leno mesh in their patent.
In 1994 Ogawa T., Mori H., Matsude Y., with their invention, revealed the parachute fabric for paragliding and normal parachute, and the structure of the partition walls of the parachute fabric. Here, lateral airflow formation is ensured by using mesh or mesh fabrics between the chambers of the ventilation vehicle.
In 1995 Keating J., Baucom E., Batman J. investigated the leno woven reinforced membranes used in the electrolysis process and capable of ion exchange in their invention.
In 1995 Boyd G., Castle G. investigated reinforced systems for fire protection coatings and used leno weave with various yarn combinations in these hybrid fabrics.
In 1996 Friedman A., Ribble W., Wade W. examined reflector panels containing mesh fabric for insertable reflectors, and used the leno weaving method in the production of mesh fabric.
In 1998 Scari D., Scari M. investigated glass fabric structures bonded with unidirectional leno yarns from the warp used in industrial applications.
In 1999 Stevenson E., Bruner J. revealed the structure of reticulated fabrics in composite structure in their invention. These are woven textile structures obtained with full or half cross leno knitting with various yarn combinations.
In 2001 Scales J. mentioned textile materials used to stabilize soil slopes and foundations in his invention. The textile mesh fabrics used were formed with leno weave and thus ensured that the particles that hit the gaps from side to side are kept for soil slope and dirt stabilization under the road.
In 2002 In his invention, Goettsch L. investigated the use of reinforcement products such as power transmission belts used in the production of industrial products and the production methods of reinforcement materials and used leno knitted fabrics in the form of strips in belts.
In 2003 Fensel F., Horne L., Winowich D., Hallam C. Sokol D. investigated the structure of composite roofing materials formed by fixing glass fiber roving on the carrier mesh in their invention. They revealed that the carrier mesh fabric used here can be obtained with leno knitting.
In 2007 In his invention, Wahhoud A. was interested in the thickness of leno fabrics that could be used for different functional and aesthetic properties, and the curling and shortening of the yarns were examined in various weft yarn counts and densities.
In 2008 Braekevelt G. Gallens J. Puype L. made leno knitting experiments using metal elements such as steel in his inventions, and the tendency of the fabric to bend and twist was eliminated by the metal used and the weft-warp and warp-warp binding.
In 2009 Egan W., Newton M., Tucker M. examined the structure of exterior finishing systems used against corrosion with the patent they received. In these systems, meshes obtained from open mesh fabrics woven from non-metallic fibers such as glass fiber are used.
In 2011 Adams B. has revealed methods of manufacture and composition of exterior insulation finishing systems for the use of exterior insulation blankets to reduce exterior wall damage due to birds. These are wall-mounted sheets, the interlayer is fabrics woven with leno weave.
In another study conducted in 2011, Callaghan S. examined the production processes of leno fabrics used as wallpaper fabric, light-weighted, easy-to-use, aesthetic, specific size and robust structured glass fiber.
In 2011 Imhoff S., Michiels D. Peschek J, Delanoy W, Eackhout P., Snauwaert B. in the same year, In 2012 In the inventions of Asaad M., the structure and production methods of pneumatic tires were mentioned and leno woven fabrics were used in the interlayers of these tires.
In 2012 Li S. reveals the structure of processed textile rubber composites used in automobile tires, belts, hoses, printed covers, without limitation in end use. The textile material used here is leno braided woven fabrics.
In 2012 Cyek S. investigated the structure of weft elastomeric mesh fabrics, which are aimed to provide low wear and hold the furniture frame such as seat backs and armpits in his invention.
In 2012 Another patent received by Hitchings J. describes coated silica mesh fabrics developed for use in metal casting processes.
In 2013 Kopan B. investigated the structure of ballistic armor systems in which helical leno woven fabrics are used as layers by using high performance fibers.
In 2013 Rudo D. demonstrated the usability of strip fabrics obtained with leno knitting technology in dental treatments.
In 2014 Bell T. patented his work on the structure of leno knitted materials combined with the jacquard mechanism used on sports shoes.
In 2014 Vito R. revealed methods of making impact dispersive fabric in his invention. Offering various alternatives in this regard, Vito R. has added a leno woven fabric layer between the nonwoven fabric layers.
In 2014 Another invention made by Newton M. Newton M. reveals the structure and production methods of reinforced mesh fabrics for architectural foam coating in his invention.
FTA Innovating Textiles company, obtained leno-knitted non-crimp fabrics from flat reinforced yarns such as glass, carbon, and compared the tensile strength, compression strength, tensile stiffness and bendability of these fabrics with normal non-crimp fabrics under the name of "Leno- Woven Non-Crimp Fabrics (NCF)". In all these performance features, it has patented that leno-linked non-crimp fabrics are better and can be used in many areas of technical textiles.
Apart from these patents, Zhau Y., Chen X. and Wells G., in the article they published, determined that the yarn-yarn friction in fabrics plays an important role in absorbing the impact energy in the body armor. They have revealed the applicable fabric structures by increasing
Regarding leno woven fabrics in our country In 2007 Akelma Y. examined the production methods and usage areas of woven fabrics with rotary power system in her thesis, and revealed fabric pattern applications with rotary power system on hand weaving looms.