It is obtained by processing the yarns consisting of different types of fiber together and by blending the raw materials that make up the mixture before being turned into yarn, then weaving or knitting after spinning. The purpose of obtaining a fiber blend is to change, improve and expand the properties of the fiber types that make up the blend, and to obtain fabrics with new effects. Blends depend on the processability of the fiber, yarn fineness and economy.
REASONS TO MAKE FIBER BLEND
The reasons for making fiber blends are to improve quality, appearance and economy.
1-Raising Quality: To increase the handling properties (friction strength, resistance to strain and wrinkle properties).
2-Increase the characteristics of clothing physiologyırmak: (heat insulation, moisture absorption and skin compatibility).
3-BehindIM feature plusrmak: (washing feature, drying and ironing feature).
4-Appearance: Changing the appearance (color, brightness and decoration effects).
5-Affordability: Affordableplusriver: (fibre price and variety, yarn quality equality and fineness).
THE MOST SUITABLE FIBER BLENDERS USED IN TEXTILE SURFACE FORMATION
Since it is possible to produce chemical fibers in matte or glossy, curled or straight form, special effects can be achieved. Fibers; When they are equal to each other in terms of strength, stretch, elasticity, fiber length and fineness, excellent fiber blends can be obtained. The most important fiber blend ratios are 70/30%, 60/40%, 50/50%.
1-Fiber Composition: It expresses the percentage by mass of the textile fibers that make up a textile product in this textile product.
2-Textile product cannot be defined as 100% pure or completely unless it is made using only one fiber. Similar terms cannot be used. However, a textile product may contain up to 2% of other fibers, provided that it is added only for technical reasons, not routinely. For the product, this tolerance value can be increased to 5%.
EFFECT OF FIBER BLENDERS ON TEXTILE SURFACES
In textile production, the blending of fibers takes place in two stages:
1- Various cut (short) fibers are mixed during yarn production. The blended fibers are made into spun fiber yarns.
2- Yarns obtained from different fibers can be used in the production of textile surfaces. For this, natural fibers, natural fibers; chemical fibers can be mixed with chemical fibers.
Especially the mixtures made between natural fibers and chemical fibers give very positive results. Here, while the positive properties of both fiber groups increase, their negative properties are almost eliminated. Very good results are obtained from the mixture of polyester, polyamide, polyacrylonitrile of wool and of cotton with polyester, viscose and modal.
When the strength and good elasticity of synthetic chemical fibers and the healthy wearing properties of natural fibers are combined, a quality product is obtained. Cellulosic chemical fibers are widely used due to their softness and high moisture absorption properties. Very fine yarns are produced by adjusting the fineness and length of the fiber.
Fabrics made of polyester/wool are very light and especially suitable for summer dresses. The ratio of viscose/polyester mixture is 70%. This mixture is widely used in dresses and men's trousers. 50/50% cotton/polyester blends are generally used for shirting fabrics and bed linens. This mixture combines good folding, tensile and friction strengths with hygienic properties. Only in these mixtures, the temperature of the water should be low during the washing process because permanent folds may occur and these folds may not be opened with an iron.
REQUIREMENT OF BLEND FIBERS
The term 'blend' is used by yarn manufacturers to describe the conversion of yarns formed by blending component fibers from two or more yarn types into a single yarn. For the dyer, the term "blend" is a blend of fibers containing two or more fibers, each with different dyeing properties. All blends must have properties acceptable for spinning. Important factors are relative diameters, discontinuous lengths and the prevalence of fibers present. Incorrect blending causes component fiber types to have low strength. Each of the components in the mixture has its own characteristic coloring properties. Mixed staple yarns, homogeneous staple fibers and side-by-side twisted types of yarns are used extensively in the textile industry.
Synthetic fiber blends, especially polyester blends, are produced in large quantities in blends with cellulosics. These; It is used in shirting, dresses, outerwear, rainwear, workwear and home textiles. Polyester/wool blends are used in suits, dresses and outerwear, hand knits and knitted garments. Carpets occupy a large space in the nylon/wool mixture. Blended yarns have been used in woven fabrics for years to provide features such as comfort, bulkiness and durability. The contrast dyeability and attractive effects of component yarns increase the possibilities of usability in carpets and knitted products. Finished fabrics are soft but not strong. They are especially useful where high strength, durability and moisture absorption are required.
GENERAL PROPERTIES OF FIBER BLENDERS
In order for the dyeing process to be healthy, it is useful to know some properties of the fibers that make up the mixture in terms of dyeing. The hydrophilicity and ionicity of the fibers closely affect the dyeing result. If a general classification is made, the fibers hydrophobe ve hydrophilic can be divided into two main groups;
1- Hydrophilic Fibers:
A--Cellulose-based (cotton, linen and regenerated cellulose fibers)
B-Protein based ones (wool, silk, mohair and regenerated protein fibers)
Another important feature of the fibers for the dyer is their ionicity in the dyeing medium, and they can be divided into three groups:
1-Non-ionic Fibers: Polyester, acetate, triacetate and cellulose fibers (cellulose fiber shows slightly anionic properties compared to the previous process.)
2-Anionic Fibers: Polyacrylonitrile
3-Cationic Fibers: wool, silk, polyamide
This grouping made in terms of ionicity and hydrophilicity is not precise, and the properties may change according to the previous processes and dyeing conditions of the fibers. Apart from these properties, the type and density of the bonds between the macromolecule forming the fiber and the amount of amorphous and crystalline regions also affect the dyeing result closely.
1- Non-ionic Group Dyestuffs (insoluble in water): Pigment, disperse and some 1:2 metal complex dyes.
2-Dyestuffs Containing Anionic Group: Such as direct, acid, reactive, chromium, 1:1 metal complex, cubic/loyko ester, water-soluble sulfur.