classification of fibers
  • Classification of fibers
    A-Vegetable Fibers
    1-Seed Fibers: Cotton. etc
    2-Sh (Body) Fibers: Flax, Hemp. etc
    3-Leaf Fibers: sisal,abaka.b
    4-Fruit Fibers: Kapok, Coconut.etc
    B-Animal Fibers
    1-Leather Fibers 
    a-Wool (Sheep) Fibers
    b-Special Fibers
       * Obtained from animals belonging to goat lineage: Mohair, Cashmere.etc
       * Obtained from animals belonging to camel lineage: Camel, Alpaca, etc.
       * Obtained from animals belonging to rabbit lineage: Angora.vb
    2-Secretory Fibers:
       b-Wild Silk
    c- Hairs : Horse Hair .etc
    C-Mineral Fibers:
    A-Regenerated Fibers
    1-Cellulose Based Regenerated Fibers
    a-Viscose Fibers
    b-Cellulose Nitrate Fibers
    c-Copper Ammonium Fibers
    d-Cellulose Acetate Fibers
       * Secondary Cellulose Fibers
       * Triacetate Fibers
    2-Protein Based Regenerated Fibers  
    a-Animal Based Regenerated Fibers: ( Casein Fibers )
    b- Plant-based Regenerated Fibers: (Corn, Peanut)
    3-Mineral Regenerated Fibers
    a-Glass Fibers
    b-Ceramic Fibers
    4-Other Regenerated Fibers
    a-Alginate Fibers
    b-Rubber Fibers
    B-Synthetic Fibers
    1-Polyamide Fibers
    a-Nylon 6.6 Fibers
    b-Nylon 6 Fibers
    c-Nylon 11 Fibers
    d-Nylon 6.10 Fibers
    e-Aromatic Polyamide Fibers
    2-Polyester Fibers
    a-Polyethylene Terephthalate ( PET ) Fibers
    b-Poly 1.4 Cyclohezylene dimethyl Terephthalate ( PCDT ) Fibers
    3-Polyvinyl Derived Fibers
    a-Polyacrylonitrile Fibers: Acrylic Fibers,Modacrylic Fibers
     b-Polyvinylchloride (PVC) Fibers
    c-Polyvinyldenechloride Fibers
    d-Polyvinyldenedinityl Fibers
    e-Polyvinylalcohol Fibers ( PVA )
    f-Polystyrene Fibers
    4-Polyolefin Fibers
    a-polypropylene Fibers
    b-Polyethylene Fibers
    5-Polyurathane Fibers
    6-Other Synthetic Fibers
    a-Polyurea Fibers
    b-Polybenzininidezol Fibers



     Cotton Fiber

    It is obtained from the boll of the cotton plant. Cotton plant is a shrub type plant, it is long-lived, it can give flowers and bolls for years when conditions are suitable.

    The cotton plant has been known since ancient times. So much so in Peru. Pieces of woven cotton fabric dating back to 2500 were found. The cotton plant was first cultivated in India.

    It was cultivated during the Harappan civilization, then seen in Mesopotamia and later in Egypt. It was brought to Anatolia from India in the 1st century. Today, it is mostly grown in Turkic Republics, China, USA. It is also grown in Turkey in the Aegean, Çukurova and the GAP Region. About 2% of world cotton production is grown in Turkey.

    Cotton extracted from its cocoon contains 88-96% cellulose. Cotton is transformed into pure cellulose yarn by undergoing various processes.

    Cotton fiber is durable, hygroscopic and suitable for dyeing. It has good resistance to heat and moisture. It is also important because it is the oldest known fiber. After the suitable fibers are separated from the cocoons of the cotton plant, the short fibers on the seeds, linter cotton It is used as a sofa-bed-pillow filler and also in making artificial silk.


    Organic Cotton Fiberı


    It is a new generation fiber. More precisely, it is the return to the essence of cotton cultivation. Due to the increase in the demand for cotton, fertilizer has been used in the fields and a continuous increase has been observed in the use. It is the fiber obtained from cotton grown in fertilizer-free fields in special regions, by choosing a dyestuff with limited finishing process and in accordance with ecological prohibitions.

    Thus, the harmful factors to human and nature have been eliminated or minimized.


    Flax Fiber


    Flax fiber is obtained from the stems of flax plant, its fibers are 20-50 mm. The stems are wetted and softened. The woody cells and the pectin that hold them together are separated and fibrous tissue is obtained, arranged parallel to each other, spun, and turned into threads.

    It is more durable than alkaline cotton. Baking like cotton – bleaching is done. Depending on the degree of bleaching, colors from white to cream are obtained.

    It can be dyed, it gets dirty later than it is lint-free. Sunlight and boiling water do not affect it.

    Linen's ability to keep cool is superior. A disadvantage is that it crumples quickly.


    Hemp Fiber


    It is obtained from the stems of the cannabis plant originating from Central Asia and Europe. Fiber length is 90-180 mm. Its fresh shoots, seeds and flowers are used to make cannabis, so its cultivation in our country is subject to permission. It is similar to flax but the fiber is hard and coarse. It is moisture resistant. It is stronger than linen. It is used in productions that require roughness and durability such as rope and sacks. It is spun with other fibers and used in the production of clothing in Italy.




    It is a silk shiny fiber obtained from a plant grown in China, India and America. It has high tensile strength, 25% stronger than linen, but not flexible. It is used in the production of fire hose, fishing net, twine and paper money.


    Jute Fiber


    It is produced from the 2,5-4,5 mm fibers of a plant first grown in India, then seen in Europe, China and Japan, such as flax and hemp. It's not as solid as they are, but it's cheap. It is used in products such as sacks, bags, mats, twine, bale cloth, domestic blankets used in India and Pakistan, and linoleum backing.


    Wool Fiber


    Wool is made up of a special protein called keratin. Mono and di combinations are amino group carboxylic acids whose combinations vary. Keratin structure in wool varies depending on the breed, diet and environmental conditions of the animal. British Hampshire contains 60% keratin, and Australian merino contains 40-45% keratin. There are 30-70% impurities in untreated wool. Unlike other proteins, wool proteins are completely insoluble in water. It has high moisture absorption properties. It is alkali resistant. They are hydrolyzed when boiled with dilute acids. They are suitable for painting.


    Cashmere Fiber


    It is obtained from Cashmere Goat hair grown in China, India, Iran and Tibet. In yarn production, thin soft inner bristles of the goat are used, not the long coarse outer coat. The resulting fibers are extremely fine and soft. It is used in the production of quality coats, coats and shawls.


    Moher Fiber


    It is obtained from the hair of the goat, known as the Angora Goat in Turkey, living in Turkey, South America and the USA. The fiber is very durable. It is mixed with wool to produce durable, high quality fabric.


    Angora Fiber


    It is a type of fiber obtained from rabbit hair. It is a very soft, very expensive fiber. It is mixed with wool by spinning and fabric is obtained.


    Silk Fiber


    Silk is a type of animal fiber obtained from animal secretions. Silk BC. It is known that it has been produced since 2600 years. It is obtained from the secretion of the silkworm. The secretion accumulates in the cocoon. The cocoon is a sheath formed by the caterpillar to protect itself while in the chrysalis state.

    The silkworm fills the entire cocoon without stopping. A cocoon contains 1000-2700 m of uninterrupted silk. Approximately 1000 g of useful silk thread is obtained from every 100 cocoons.


    Silk dissolves in concentrated acids. It is not affected in a short time by cold concentrated alkali. It decomposes with heat and if left in the light for a long time. Silk thread is named differently according to its quality. Raw silk- Two or more silk threads wound together and slightly twisted

    Thrown silk- It is made from low quality cocoons.

    Spinning Yarn - It is made from damaged cocoons. The broken threads are combed into parallel bundles.

    Organize – It is made from the best cocoons.


    Viscose Silk-Rayon


    Also known as flush. Wood cellulose, mainly beech, and cotton waste, linter It is produced using cotton. The cellulose obtained with a purity of 90-94% turns into alkaline cellulose with caustic. After a series of processes, a very bright fiber is obtained. It is silk-like, soft and draped, does not lint.


    Vision Fiber



    It is produced from beech wood. The cellulose structure did not change after production. It is similar to cotton. Its moisture absorption feature is superior to cotton. But its dry strength is low and its wet strength is weak.

    It is very suitable for painting. The resulting fabric is elegant and comfortable. It is used in the production of T-shirts, dresses, underwear. Viscose fiber is obtained by combing and spinning short-cut fiber (staple fiber), called staple fiber, like wool and cotton.


    Sensual Fiber - Lyocell Fiber


    It is a regenerated cellulose product produced from the eucalyptus tree. Wet resistance is very good, moisture absorption and mechanical pressure resistance is high. It is used in the manufacture of clothing.


    Bamboo Fiber


    It is obtained from bamboo tree. It is a new generation fiber type. It shows natural anti-bacterial properties. It is UV breaker. Its production is similar to Viscose. It has high age resistance. It has a glossy appearance without the need for mercerization. It is elastic. It is soft like silk and cashmere. It is used in the production of towels, laundry and socks.


    Modal Fiber


    It is produced from beech wood. It has high wet-dry strength, is flexible and soft. The finishing process is similar to cotton. It shows natural whiteness. It has a shine without the need for mercerizing.


    Acetate Silk


    It is obtained by pickling cotton wastes and wood pulp. It is a quality and expensive type of silk.


    Copper Silk


    Wood Cellulose is precipitated with copper carbonate, ammonia or caustic, and then copper is removed in a sulfuric acid bath. It was a fiber with a structure similar to natural silk, but its resistance to water and chemicals is weak.


    Casein fiber


    It is one of the new generation fibers. It carries the properties of natural and synthetic fibers together. It is obtained from milk cream. Milk cream is precipitated in acid and filtered. The precipitate is dissolved with caustic and turned into yarn by hot spraying. It is compatible with the skin. Contains 18 amino acid groups, has skin nourishing properties. It is used in the production of fedora hats.


    Nano milk protein fiber


    New generation fiber. It is negatively charged. It improves the quality of inhaled air as it attracts ions. It improves blood circulation. It is antibacterial, sterile, durable.


    Zein Fiber


    What's new is fiber. Corn flour is dissolved with isopropyl alcohol, zein protein is obtained. It is processed with degreased cotton seed flour and turned into fiber.


    Alginate Fiber


    New generation fiber. It is obtained from seaweeds. The structure of alginic acid is similar to cellulose. It can be painted. It is heat resistant, it is used in the production of fireproof fabric. It has no alkali resistance. This feature is used in the production of lace and fine-fantasy fabrics.

    - Pattern is embroidered with cotton on alginate fabric. Then the alginate part is dissolved in alkali and the lace appearance remains.

    - Fine wool or cotton yarn is wrapped together with alginate yarn and is woven without breaking.

    Then the fabric dissolves in alkali. Thus, a very fine texture is obtained as the alginate is removed.


    Soybean Cellulose


    20th century invention new generation fiber. It is cheap in cost, resembles silk/cashmere in appearance. But it is similar to synthetic fiber in terms of strength. It balances the moisture and temperature of the body. It is antibacterial and UV protective. The wound is therapeutic.


    Polyester Fiber


    It is a polycondensation product of dicarboxylic acids (tetraphthalic acid) with diols (glycols).

    The fiber is resistant to 200Oc heat. Its strength is high. It does not break easily. It is resistant to chemicals, moisture and bacteria other than phenols. Not suitable for cooking. It is resistant to acids. It can give saponification reaction in alkali. But cotton/polyester blends can be mercerized with little damage. Wool/polyester blends do not require ironing. It is not affected by humidity. Casein/paraffin is used when sizing polyester fiber.


    Modified Polyester Fiber - kodal, vestan Fiber


    In its production, hydroxymethyl cyclohexanol was condensed instead of glycol with tetraphthalic acid.

    A product resistant to acids and bases is formed. Bleaching can be done with sodium chloride.


    Anionic Modified Polyester Fiber


    Fiber resistant to fire and burning (withstands heat up to 150oC), dyeable with basic dyes.


    Mineral Fiber


    It is obtained by adding natural minerals such as silver and jadeite to polyester. It has antibacterial, antifungal, deodorizing, antistatic, flame retardant, antiseptic, less wrinkling, less lint properties. Easy to clean. It is the choice of athletes.


    Polyamide Fiber


    It is obtained as a result of polycondensation of amino carboxylic acids or their lactams.

    It is similar to protein fibers in that it contains acid amide groups.

    Polyamide 66; nylon 66 or just nylon is named. Fiber from caprolactam polyamide 6, nylon 6 yada perlon it is called.

    It is used as a filter cloth in industry because it is resistant to alkali. It is sensitive to air and light.

    When it is resistant to rot, bacteria and pests, it is used to make tent cloth, car covers, fishing nets. It is acid resistant at high temperatures. It is sensitive to peroxide, therefore care should be taken not to use detergents with active oxygen when washing white laundry made of polyamide. It absorbs water very little, as a result, it dries quickly. Because of this feature, it is used in the production of swimwear and raincoats. It is mixed with other fibers to make it more robust.


    Other types of polyamides:


    Nylon 11 – It is produced from castor oil. It is quite cheap but has a low melting point.


    Nylon 13 – Produced from cocoon oil (erucic acid)


    Nylon 1313- It is produced from ozonated form of erucic acid.


    POLYURETHANE FIBER – Elastane fiber


    Lycra, Lastex, Uralow, Opelon,


    It is a polyurea copolymer. It is obtained by adding daimines to diazocyanate. Withstands 240 oC heat. Its main name is SPANDEX fiber, which means expandable in English.. It is flexible. It has high tear and tear resistance. Its length can be extended by 500-800%, when the pressure is removed, it becomes the same length again without breaking. It does not deteriorate when melted and cooled again. It is used in industry such as insulation jackets, valve jackets, polyurethane coated glass fiber.


    Nomex Fiber


    It is the polycondensation product of metaphenylin diamine and isophthalic acid. It is insoluble in organic solvents and phenol. It is based on alkaline dilute acids. Its heat resistance is very high. Because of these properties, it is used in the production of ironing board covering cloth, military-specific clothing, and hot gas filters.


    Polypropylene Fiber


    Propylene is a polymerization product. Its density is the lowest among all fibres. Its wet and dry resistance is very good. It is not suitable for painting. The fiber is colored while it is melted during production. It is used as a filling material for carpets, covers, underwear and outerwear.

    polyethylene fiberIt is a polyethylene polymerized product, but it is not used in textiles. It is suitable for making filter cloth, floating rope, fishing net.


    Polyvinyl Alcohol Fiber


    It is obtained as a result of saponification of polyvinyl acetate. It is hardened by reacting with aldehydes or ketones. It is suitable for painting. It is moisture attractant. Since its unhardened state is water soluble, it is used in the production of surgical suture (self-melting surgical suture). It is used in textiles by mixing with wool, cotton and other artificial fibers.


    Polyvinyl Chloride Fiber


    - Movil, Envilon, Talon


    It is obtained by polymerization of vinyl chloride. This polymer is not usable, however, because it is soluble in high-boiling solvents. It becomes soluble as a result of chlorination.


    Pe-Ce fiber


    Much PVC fiber obtained by chlorination is called. (Contains 65% chlorine). The fiber is colorless. It is bleached with sodium chloride. It is thermoplastic, it softens above 80 oC. It has good resistance to acid and alkali, because of this feature, it is used in the production of protective work clothes and filter cloth. Since it is resistant to decay, fishing equipment, sail cloth, tent cloth, awning, auto covers are produced from Pe-Ce fiber. Fiber is a filling material in quilt making. It is mixed with other fibers and used in the production of clothes and laundry.


    Polyvinyl Chloride Fiber


    - Saran, Velon, Harlan


    It is the polymerization product of vinylidene chloride. It is resistant to water and chemicals but not to heat. It shrinks at 65 oC and softens at 90-120 oC. It is hydrophobic, therefore not suitable for dyeing. It is a very cheap fiber. It is resistant to sun, biological factors, acid-base, therefore it is suitable for auto upholstery, curtains, mosquito net awnings, filter cloth industrial hose construction.


    Acrylic Fiber


    Among the artificial fibers, it is the fiber most similar to wool. Fiber containing at least 85% acrylonitrile in its structure acrylic fiber is called. The one that is 100% acrylonitrile polymer is hard, brittle, difficult to paint. It is modified so that it can be used. The polymer product of acrylonitrile and a comonomer is made. Polyacrylonitrile fiber (PAN) is produced with different polymer ratios and features suitable for different purposes. It is used in the production of sportswear, clothes, costumes, drapery and upholstery.


    Pan Fiber


    It is a modified form of acrylonitrile polymerized product.


    -Anionic modified PAN; Acrylonitrile its aqueous solution is polymerized under the activator of peroxide sulfate/sulfide thiosulfate. The structure gains anionic properties, so it becomes dyeable with cationic dyes.


    Cationic modified PAN; During polymerization, nitrogen-containing substances such as vinyl pyridine or vinyl pyrazine are added to obtain a copolymer. Due to its cationic nature, the polymer can be dyed with anionic dyes. Its appearance is silky, soft, provides heat insulation


    PAN can also be modified by making copolymers with non-ionic materials such as vinyl chloride, vinylidene chloride, vinyl acetate.


    divided into 4 groups PAN Fiber trade names are as follows.


    1. Anionic ….. Dolan, Dalon, Orlon 42, Zebran 200, Acrylan C3, Acribel, Crylor S


    2. Cationic… Vinyl pyridine or chloride copolymer…. Acrilan C, Orlon 28 /44


    3. Nonionic… Vinyl chloride/vinylidene chloride copolymer… Dynel, Verel, Zefran 100, Shout out


    4. Nonionic… methacrylate/methyl methacrylate copolymer Crylor H, Verel




    Posted by %PM, 11% 716% 2017 19%:%Feb in Textile Fibers Read 5340 times

Classification of fibers