Q.265.What should be done to ensure personal safety in order not to be exposed to work accidents?
A- Every incident, even minor, should be reported to the supervisor immediately.
B- Protective glasses should be worn.
C- Protective shoes should be worn.
C- Work clothes must be worn at work and the buttons of the work clothes must be buttoned.
D- The sleeves of the shirts should either be buttoned or rolled up.
E- Hair should be cut short and a protective hat should be worn if necessary.
F- Before the machine is started, it must be ensured that all guards are in place and in a working condition.
G- Before the machine is operated, the cleanliness of the machine and its surroundings should be checked.
Ğ- Attention should be paid to sharp-edged parts, burrs and roughness. Finished workpieces should not be left with burrs and sharp edges.
H- The appropriate key should always be used. A broken key or tool should not be used.
I- Care should be taken that the hammer heads are not loose.
İ-A safe distance must be kept while lifting a piece by crane.
S.266. What are the security threats in buildings?
A- Sanitary Installations (dirty and clean water installations)
C-Heating and lighting installations
p.267. What does occupational disease mean?
C.267. In general, occupational disease is “temporary or permanent illness, disability or mental breakdown in which employees are affected by both the raw materials used and environmental conditions.” is defined as
p.268. What are chemical-related occupational diseases?
A- Heavy metals
C- Acid and alkaline substances
P.269. What are occupational diseases of physical origin?
A-Noise and vibration
B- Working at high and low pressure
C- Working in cold and hot
P.270. What are biologically induced occupational diseases?
B- Those caused by viruses
P.271. What are biotechnology-related occupational diseases?
A- Occupational diseases of psychological origin
B- Occupational diseases caused by carelessness in ergonomics
P.272. What benefits does success in preventing occupational diseases provide?
A- Employees are protected.
B- Operational safety is ensured.
C- Production safety is ensured.
Ç- Environmental safety is ensured and protected.
D- Work accidents and occupational diseases approach zero.
E- Economic losses are reduced.
F- Costs are reduced.
G- Satisfaction of employees, customers and workplaces is ensured.
H- Efficiency increases.
S.273. The employer is responsible for ensuring the occupational health and safety of the employees, what are they?
A- When assigning duties to the employee, he considers the employee's suitability for the job in terms of health and safety.
B- It works for the prevention of occupational risks, taking all kinds of measures, including training and information, organizing the organization, providing the necessary tools and equipment, adapting health and safety measures to changing conditions, and improving the current situation.
C- It monitors and inspects whether the occupational health and safety measures taken in the workplace are complied with and ensures that nonconformities are eliminated.
Ç- Makes a risk assessment or has it done.
D- Takes necessary measures to prevent employees from entering places with life and special dangers, except those who are given sufficient information and instructions.
E- Employer; to fulfill the principles of protection from risks, to fulfill occupational health and safety services, to carry out or have risk assessment, control, measurement and research, to register and report work accidents and occupational diseases, to inform employees, to provide training for employees, to receive their opinions and to ensure their participation. liable.
F- Receiving services from experts and organizations outside the workplace does not remove the employer's responsibilities.
G- The obligations of the employees in the field of occupational health and safety do not affect the responsibilities of the employer.
H- The employer cannot reflect the cost of occupational health and safety measures to the employees.
S.274. Considering that occupational diseases are preventable diseases, if the employees fulfill their obligations in line with the training and instructions given by the employer, they will have fulfilled their obligations. What are these obligations?
A-Using machinery, devices, tools, dangerous goods, transportation equipment and other production tools in the workplace in accordance with the rules, using their safety equipment correctly, not removing or changing them arbitrarily
B- To use and protect the personal protective equipment provided to them correctly
C- Immediately notifying the employer or employee representative when they encounter a serious and imminent danger in terms of health and safety in machinery, devices, equipment, facilities and buildings in the workplace and when they see a deficiency in protection measures.
D- Cooperating with the employer and employee representative in order to eliminate the deficiencies and violations of the legislation determined by the competent authority in the workplace.
D- To cooperate with the employer and employee representative in order to ensure occupational health and safety in its field of duty.
E- When employees notice that something is not right, they should monitor and obtain information. Some hazards can be easily noticed in businesses, but it may not always be possible to notice every danger easily. Employees should report any potential hazards that make them feel that something is wrong with the employer and the occupational safety specialist.
F- Reporting a danger that employees see is the only necessary way for them to eliminate that danger. Considering that the working conditions in the enterprises are variable, it is not possible for the employer to immediately realize the danger or to read the minds of the employees. An employee will immediately notify a hazard he/she notices, ensuring not only his/her own health and safety, but also the health and safety of all employees.
G- It is the employer's responsibility to eliminate the danger after the employees report the danger. If the employee thinks that the existing danger has not been eliminated, he has the right to refrain from working until the necessary measures are taken, if the decision is made in line with the employee's request.
p.275. What are the Responsibilities of Occupational Physicians and Occupational Safety Specialists?
A-The rights and powers of workplace physicians and occupational safety specialists cannot be restricted due to their duties. These persons carry out their duties within the ethical principles and professional independence required by the profession.
B- Occupational health and safety specialists inform the employer in writing about the measures to be taken regarding occupational health and safety in the workplaces where they are assigned. In the event that the employer does not fulfill the life-threatening issues, they notify the authorized unit of the Ministry.
C- Organizations providing services, workplace physicians and occupational safety specialists are liable to the employer they serve for their negligence in the execution of occupational health and safety services.
D- In the event of an occupational accident or occupational disease that results in the death or disability of the employee, the authorization certificate of the workplace physician or occupational safety specialist is suspended.
In order for e-Occupational safety specialists to be employed, at least (A) class occupational safety expertise in workplaces in the very dangerous class, at least (B) class in workplaces in the dangerous class, and at least (C) class in workplaces in the less dangerous class. required to have a certificate.
p.276. What are the general measures to be taken against occupational diseases?
A-Employees; In workplaces that can cause occupational diseases or work with substances registered in the occupational diseases list, they will be trained about the properties, harms and protection remedies of these substances.
B- Special posters showing the first symptoms of getting sick and poisoning with these substances and the precautions to be taken in workplaces will be hung in appropriate places. Toxic and harmful substances used in workplaces will be replaced with less toxic and harmful substances that do the same job, if technically possible.
C- Work with toxic dust, smoke, gas, steam, fog or liquids will be carried out in a closed system according to technical possibilities. Effective and adequate ventilation shall be provided in such workplaces. The wastes will not be released to the atmosphere and external environment without rendering them harmless.
D- In workplaces where very toxic substances are used, these substances and the sections where these substances are used will be isolated from other places, thereby reducing the harmful effects of very toxic substances.
D- Adherence of harmful substances to the environment will be prevented by keeping the workplace air moist and the floors, walls and counters wet in toxic dust, smoke and steamy workplaces. When necessary, these works will be carried out together with general and local ventilation.
E- In workplaces where toxic and harmful substances causing occupational diseases are worked, appropriate personal protection tools will be given to the workers and they will be taught to use them.
F- In order to prevent occupational diseases, employment and job placement examinations will be carried out regularly, those who are sensitive to the substances used will not be employed in these jobs, and importance will be given to the placement of suitable people.
G- Health examinations and, when necessary, laboratory researches will be carried out in certain periods according to the nature of the danger and damage of the workers placed in the job.
P.277. What does personal protective equipment mean?
C.277. The materials used to protect the working people against occupational diseases and work accidents and to make the work more ergonomic are called personal protective equipment.
Q.278. What is an Occupational Accident?
C.278. The event that causes the events not to go as planned, injuries, disability and death of people is called an accident.
Q.279. What are the cases that are considered work accidents?
While the A-Insured is at work,
B- Due to the work carried out by the employer,
C- When the insured is sent to another place by the employer on duty, without performing his/her main job,
C- During the times reserved for the insured lactating woman to give milk to her child,
D- It is considered as an occupational accident if it occurs while the insured is taken to and from the place where the work is performed (service) in a vehicle provided by the employer.
P.280. What are the accident chain factors?
A- The natural structure of man (human weakness against nature)
B- Personal faults
C- Unsafe act and unsafe conditions
C- Accident event
D- Injury (damage or damage)
P.281. What are the causes of work accident?
79,5% of work accidents are “unsafe acts”,
19,5% “unsafe conditions”
1% are due to “unexplained” factors.
P.282. What are the unsafe acts in a work accident?
A- Working insecurely without being given a task or ignoring warnings
B- Working at dangerous speeds or using tools
C- Making safety equipment unusable
D- Using dangerous devices or managing hardware in an insecure manner
D- Unsafe loading, stacking, mixing, settling etc. behaviours
E- Unsafe situations or postures
F- Working in moving or dangerous places
G- Behaviors such as surprise, anger, abuse, startle
H- Not caring about safety or not using personal protective equipment
S.283. What are the unsafe conditions in a work accident?
A- Poorly made of the protector in the workplace
B- The preservative has never been made
C- Defective, rough, pointed, slippery, worn-out, cracked tools
D- Unsafely constructed machinery, tools, facilities, etc.
D- Unsafe layout, poor maintenance, blockages, closed passages
E- Insufficient lighting, dazzling light sources
F- Not giving safe work clothes or glasses, gloves and masks, tiring high heels etc.
G- Inadequate ventilation, environment, air sources etc.
H- Unsafe methods and mechanical, chemical, electrical, nuclear conditions
P.284. In how many groups are occupational accidents collected, what are they?
A-2% cannot be avoided
C-50% is grouped as easily preventable.