Professional Development Questions 2
  • Professional Development Questions 2



    Q.52. What does noise mean, please explain?



    C.52. Undesirable, undesirable sounds that have a negative effect on people, make no sense to the listener. gürültü It called. What are impacted teeth? When one or more teeth fails to grow in the correct position and is therefore held below the normal gum line, it is called an impaction. This can be complete, such as completely unerrupted (buried) third molars (wisdom teeth) or partial when just part of the tooth is visible in the mouth. Why are impactions important? For best function and appearance the teeth should grow in a healthy alignment. When one or more teeth is impacted, this can affect the function of that tooth but also the function and appearance of other teeth. Whether all impactions should be treated is still controversial and your dentist and oral and maxillofacial team can explain the advantages and disadvantages or treatment for you, which is usually surgical. It is understood that the sound does not necessarily have to be at a high level for it to be noise.

    Especially in our big cities, noise intensities are quite high and the distinction between sound and noise may vary according to people. Some sounds that sound like music to some people's ears, may be disturbing to other people and is perceived as noise. The limit of discomfort can also differ from person to person. However, it is a fact that noise disrupts human health and comfort, has negative psychological effects, and if the noise is continuous, the psychological effect will be permanent.


    P.53. What is the rms value of vibration (in terms of displacement, velocity, acceleration)?



    C.53. It expresses the square root of the mean of the squares of the vibration values ​​measured in a given time interval.



    Q.54. Tell us about the internal noise of the building, which is one of the noise sources, give an example?



    C.54. Noises arising from all kinds of mechanical and electronic systems and various vital activities in the buildings, which also affect the users in separate or adjacent buildings.

    For example, household vehicles, stereos, loud conversations, footsteps, friction of furniture, blows, office noises, various machinery and equipment (elevator, plumbing, ventilation, water booster sound, etc.) noises can be given.



    S.55. What are Non-Building Environmental Noises?



    C.55. These are the noises located outside the buildings that affect both the volumes inside the building and the individuals using the open spaces outside the building. These can also be classified as follows:


    A-Transportation noises (Necessary and unnecessary horn sound, convoy horn sounds at weddings and engagements, highway, railway, airport)


    B-Industrial noises (Industrial vehicle, machinery, workplace noise)


    C-Construction noises (Construction, road construction, demolition, etc.)


    Ç-Recreation noises (entertainment places, playground, sports fields, shooting areas, etc.) D-Commercial noises (Open air cinemas, entertainment venues, advertisements, music broadcasts, audio vendors, etc.).



    S.56. What does Natural Noises mean?



    C.56. Volcanic eruptions, rain, lightning, wind, earthquakes (earthquakes), underwater noises (caused by earthquakes) are called.



    S.57. What are the Sources of Unnatural Electromagnetic Pollution?




    A- Underground and above-ground power lines carrying electric current


    B-TV and computers


    C-Electric home appliances (Vacuum cleaner, hair dryer, shaver, etc.)


    C-Microwave ovens


    D-Radio and TV transmitters


    E-Radio communication systems


    F-Cordless phones


    G-Cellular telephone systems ( GSM base stations )



    S.58. What are the Harms of Waste Batteries?



    C.58. Batteries cause great harm to human health and the environment. Batteries are produced from mercury, lithium, cadmium, lead, zinc, manganese, iron, nickel, cobalt and chemicals. Indiscriminate disposal of batteries and direct or indirect delivery to the customer environment creates great environmental hazards. Metals can get into the soil and then into the groundwater. The soil becomes unusable and the water pollution created by the metals turns the aquatic ecosystem upside down. It is not only the aquatic ecosystem that is affected, but the entire ecosystem. During the day, these effects are also seen on the public. The main diseases caused by waste batteries are neurological disorders, central anger system diseases, cancer, kidney and liver diseases. All substances in batteries can reach lethal size over time. These substances can also enter the human body by mixing with the soil, the food of animals or the water. For example, a battery pen thrown into the ground pollutes 4 m2 of soil and causes the soil to lose its properties.



    S.59. What are the effects of noise on human health?




    A-High blood pressure (hypertension)


    B-Fast Heartbeat


    C-Cholesterol increase


    C-Adrenalin elevation


    D-Accelerated breathing


    E-Muscle stretching, can cause startles.



    P.60. What behavioral disorders are seen if the noise is loud enough and its source is unclear or if the voltage it causes is high enough?




    A-Sudden flashes, inability to control anger and losing oneself: Discomfort can turn into overreactions and behaviors.


    B- Anger and anger directed inward: Self-blame, excessive silence and introversion


    C- Expression of anger and anger: Being argumentative and pessimistic


    T-Sedative use: Increased consumption of sleeping pills


    D-Decreased tolerance


    Decreased e-Help request


    F-Behavioral disorders




    H- Feeling of discomfort




    I-Other reactions: Visiting your doctor, closing your window, spending little time outside or writing a complaint.



    P.61. What are the precautions to be taken for noise pollution?




    A- Establishment of airports, industry and industrial zones away from residential areas


    B-Preventing unnecessary horn sounding of motor vehicles


    C- Preventing electronically amplified musical instruments from being at a level that would disturb the environment in places open to the public and residential areas, or prohibiting allowing such activities in residential areas.


    D- Minimizing the noise level to which the employees will be exposed in the workplace (It is evaluated within the scope of the "Noise Regulation" of the Ministry of Labor and Social Security.)


    E-Providing sound insulation in newly built structures to prevent noise disturbance in residential areas and inside buildings


    F- The sounds of radio, television and musical instruments should not be raised to a disturbing level in settlements and residences.


    G- Ensuring the expansion of public transportation instead of using individual vehicles in order to reduce the noise in traffic (This will also contribute to the reduction of air pollution.)


    Sound insulation should be provided in H-Motor vehicles, especially in small motor-bike type vehicles, silencers should be used.


    I-There are certain measures that can be taken to prevent inconvenience and health damage caused by noise. These measures take place in case the values ​​in the tables specified in the Regulation are exceeded.


    İ-Teknik has a number of measures related to construction and protection at work. In fact, the noise factor should be taken into consideration in city planning and in the selection of industrial settlements.



    P.62. What are the Energy Sources, please explain?



    C.62. Resources that provide the necessary power to do various physical work in the economy. Traditional energy sources include coal, crude oil, water, natural gas and, to a lesser extent, wood. Battery, battery and electricity are considered as man-made energy sources. In the past, the most important energy source was coal. Later, oil took over this task. After the Second World War, new energy sources such as nuclear energy, solar energy (solar energy) emerged.



    P.63. What are the Non-Renewable Energy Sources, please explain?



    C.63. These resources run out as they are used, and new ones come in over a long period of time. For this reason, wasting them causes the disappearance of national wealth. For this reason, national consciousness should be created while using them. Coal, petroleum, natural gas, boron mineral can be given as examples.



    P.64. What is coal, explain?



    C.64. Coal is a rock of organic origin that can burn directly with the free oxygen of the air and contains 55 to 90-95% carbon.

    Coal, which is one of the main energy sources, is a substance that has a lot of negative effects on human health and the environment in terms of environmental problems as well as its beneficial properties. However, coal can maintain its importance due to its contribution to human life and because it is possible to reduce its damages with some measures that can be taken.



    Q.65.What is oil, please explain?



    C.65. Petrol is in the group defined as fossil fuel. The reason for this is that the fossils of animals that died about 300400 million years ago form the main ingredient of oil. During this long period of time, animal fossils are exposed to extremely high heat and pressure. Thus, oil is formed. Today, oil is found trapped inside large blocks of rock.



    P.66. What is Natural Gas?



    C.66. Natural gas, like oil, is a carbon-based fossil fuel. Its formation is the same as petroleum. The main ingredient of natural gas is methane, which is a colorless, odorless and tasteless substance. It is scented for safety during use.



    P.67. What are Renewable Energy Resources, give an example?



    C.67. They are continuous energy sources. Hydroelectric energy, geothermal energy, wind energy, solar energy can be given as examples.



    P.68. What is the source of Hydraulic (Hydroelectric) Energy, please explain?



    C.68. Hydraulic energy is the energy source with the most advanced technology among renewable energy sources. The source of hydraulic energy, which is one of the oldest energy sources in use, is water. For this reason, hydroelectric power plants have to be on a water source.



    S.69. What is the characteristic of hydraulic power plants built as reservoir and river type, please explain?



    C.69. It does not emit any greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere during the electrical energy production phase. In addition, it makes a versatile contribution to limiting and reducing emissions that cause global warming with its direct or indirect contribution to other reducing and preventive sectors (energy saving, terrestrial carbon sinks, flood prevention, development and protection of water and soil resources, etc.).



    S.70. What are the negative effects of hydroelectric power plants on the environment, please explain?



    C.70. Hydro projects have the advantage of no greenhouse gases, SO2 and particulate (particle) emissions. Dams have effects on land use changes, human evacuation, effects on flora and fauna, subsidence and filling of the dam area, and water use quality. There is a possibility that the natural and geological balance will be disturbed as a result of soil loss due to the formation of large water reservoirs. The swamps formed in these reservoirs constitute a suitable environment for the formation of methane gas.



    S.71. What is the purpose of building dams and hydroelectric power plants?




    Controlling the regimes of our streams


    prevent flood damage


    Providing drinking water from stored water


    Providing irrigation benefits


    obtaining energy



    P.72. What are the advantages of hydroelectric power plants?



    C.72. The economic life of hydroelectric power plants is much longer than other types of power plants (approximately 100-200 years). The operating cost is low and there is no fuel cost. It makes the biggest contribution to the formation of a competitive electricity market by producing cheap electricity. Ease of operation and flexibility is a very important feature. It has very important functions such as load balancing and frequency regulation in the interconnected system. Dams built for hydroelectric power plants play an important role in stopping erosion by reducing the speed of water. Since it has energy storage capacities, it reduces foreign dependency and in this context, it also contributes to ensuring supply security. It also provides social and economic benefits to the local people such as employment, irrigated agriculture, transportation and water sports. Since 350 hydroelectric power plants can be activated immediately during the hours of the highest energy demand, they also act as an insurance against increases in electricity prices due to supply shortages. 351 Hydraulic power plants can be activated in case of failure and keep the system alive.



    P.73. Where does the source of the water used in obtaining hydraulic energy come from, please explain?



    C.73. Hydraulic energy is a renewable energy source. Water is constantly moving in a closed loop. The water that evaporates from the seas, lakes and other water sources returns to the earth as snow and rain and flows back to the rivers, seas and lakes. Generating energy from hydraulic power is a clean, efficient (90%) and effective way.



    P.74. What are the effects of hydroelectric power plants with dams on the hydrological and biological environment?



    C.74. Establishment costs of hydroelectric power plants with dams are high and construction periods are long. Dams change the ecology of the surrounding area. 363 A HEPP that goes into production creates environmental impacts, not the water collection part (dam).

    In fact, this situation is more relevant for HEPPs with large dams rather than small HEPPs. The large surface area of ​​the dam increases evaporation, salinization and barrenness occur in agricultural lands, parasites and diseases arising from water increase. Until the beginning, the water quality is negatively affected for a few years.

    There is a change in the hydrological regime and forced migration may occur. Temperature, precipitation and wind regimes are changing, the natural vegetation in the region, aquatic and land creatures are changing in their habitat, and species that can adapt to life continue to exist. Changes in the flow regime and physico-chemical parameters of the stream create new hydrological effects.




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Professional Development Questions

Professional Development Questions 2