Q.461. How many ways is it possible to learn behaviors and what are they?
C.461. Behaviors can be learned in two ways:
- Planned and programmed education (Formal education)
- Through haphazard enculturation (Informal education)
Q.462. What are the factors related to the learning material?
- A-Perceptual distinguishability
- B-Semantic connotation
- C-Conceptual grouping
Q.463. What are the factors related to the Learning Method?
- A-Subject structure
Q.464. What are the factors related to the learner?
- A-Type-specific preparation
- C-General aroused state
- D-Old lives
- E-Attention focus
p.465. What does Type-Specific readiness mean for Human Learning, give an example?
C.465. The organism to learn must have the necessary biological equipment to display the desired behavior. For example, we can teach the parrot to speak, but not the sparrow.
Q.466. What does maturation mean in humans?
C.466. It is the physical and mental ability of the organism to perform a behavior. It can be examined under sub-headings as age and intelligence. For learning to take place, cognitive and physical maturation must be completed.
Q.467. What does the General Arousal State of the Learning Person mean?
C.467. In order for a certain learning to take place, the individual must be ready to learn physically, mentally, emotionally and socially. The individual's readiness to learn includes not only having the necessary maturity for the subject of learning, but also being willing and eager to learn that subject. The more willing an individual is to learn a subject, the more quickly and easily he learns. The level of arousal can be understood as the degree to which an individual receives external stimuli. If the person receives very little external stimuli and is generally closed to stimuli, the level of arousal is low (eg sleep); If he has taken too many stimuli, his arousal level is high (eg panic). Too little or too much arousal makes learning difficult. For a good learning to occur, the level of arousal must be at a medium level. However, the effect of anxiety on learning differs from person to person.
S.468. What does Motivation for the Learning Person mean?
C.468. Motivation is the force that drives an organism to act as a result of a need. It is an important factor in learning. Motivation covers the processes before the organism behaves (interest, giving importance and priority, meeting the need, understanding what it will do, being willing, taking action). Motives arise from the needs within the organism and activate the organism to meet these needs.
A motive occurs in the form of feeling the need => the behavior shown to meet the need => fulfilling the need.
S.469. Motives related to Learning Human are divided into two as primary motives and secondary motives, explain them?
- A-Primary motives: It is associated with urges such as hunger, thirst, sexuality, which are necessary to maintain the biological balance related to physiological needs.
- B- Secondary Motives: Other than physiological needs, success is related to needs such as appreciation.
S.470. Motives related to the Learning Human are divided into two as intrinsic motives and extrinsic motives in terms of the location of the motive source relative to the individual, explain them?
- A-Intrinsic motives: The source of motivation is the individual himself and the inner drive. In addition to all primary motives, it includes needs such as self-care, desire for self-actualization, desire to achieve. It is much more effective than extrinsic motivation.
- B-External motives: It is the force that pushes the individual to behavior with the effect of the environment in which the organism lives. The needs of the individual to be accepted, to be liked, to get high grades, to get the teacher's appreciation, to receive pocket money and to gain status come to the fore. Sometimes it can turn into an internal motivation later on.
S.471. What does the Old Experiences of the Learning Human mean, explain?
C.471. An individual's previous learning affects their current learning, and their current learning affects their previous learning. This is called transfer of learning.
S.472. In the past experiences, which is one of the factors related to the learner, What does positive transfer mean, explain?
C.472. Positive Transference Facilitating our present learning is called positive transfer. Positive transfer is when learning in one area positively affects learning in another area. For example, someone who knows how to ride a bicycle learns to ride a motorcycle more easily.
S.473. In the past experiences, which is one of the factors related to the learner, Explain what Active Forward Facilitation (Forward Support) means in positive transfer?
C.473. Forward Active Facilitation (Forward Support) Prior learning facilitates subsequent learning. For example, the individual who uses the camera learns to shoot with the camera easily. Someone who knows addition and subtraction will learn multiplication and division more easily.
S.474. In the past experiences, which is one of the factors related to the learner, Explain what Backward Active Facilitation (Backward Support) means in positive transfer?
C.474. Backward Active Facilitating (Backward Supporting) A situation in which subsequent learning makes prior learning more ingenious and effective. For example, a student who is just learning multiplication and division will do addition and subtraction more effectively.
S.475.In the past experiences, which is one of the factors related to the learner, What does negative transfer mean, explain?
C.475. Negative Transference When our past learning makes it difficult for our present learning, it is called negative transference. Negative transfer is when learning in one area negatively affects learning in another area. For example, someone who uses a computer with an F keyboard has difficulty in learning this when starting to use a Q keyboard.
p.476. What does Forward Inhibition mean, explain?
C.476. Forward Blocking If the previously learned knowledge makes you forget the new knowledge, do not push forward is called. Prior learning makes you forget new learning. For example, someone who bought a new phone line gives the previous phone number when asked for his number. Forward inhibition should not be confused with negative transference. Negative transference is mostly related to motor movements, that is, movements that can be observed or measured, while forward inhibition is related to cognitive processes such as forgetting and remembering. In addition, negative transference is used by behaviorists, and forward inhibition is used by cognitive theorists.
p.477. What does Backstop mean, explain?
C.477. Backward Inhibition New learning makes you forget old learning. In other words, if we have difficulties when we want to remember the old information and we use the new information instead. does not backtrack. For example, someone who bought a new phone line cannot remember or forget their old number when asked.
S.478. What does attention mean among the factors affecting learning and what are they, please explain?
C.478. There are thousands of stimuli around us at every moment. It is not possible for each of these stimuli to be transferred to consciousness. This is where attention comes in. Attention is the directing of a particular stimulus or the directing of mental energy towards a particular stimulus. If attention, which is among the factors affecting learning, stems from the needs of the individual, voluntary attention; If it occurs with the effect of a strong stimulus in the environment, it appears as involuntary attention.