Professional Development Questions 24
  • Professional Development Questions 24



    p.520. Explain an example of a PDCA cycle for learning by drawing a figure?












    P.521. What is the 5N-1K Technique, please explain?


    C.521. The purpose of the 5N 1K method is to analyze the problem. This method is based on asking 6 basic questions:

    • No?  
    • Where?  
    • When?  
    • Why?   
    • How?   
    • Who?

    This method; It helps to better label the problem, to better understand its connections.


    p.522. Explain what Cause-Effect (Fishbone) Diagram means?


    C.522. It is the technique used to determine the causes and factors that cause or affect any problem. The fishbone diagram helps to determine the causes of the problem. Since it is done with the participation of the relevant people, it ensures that everyone in the study has more information about the causes.


    P.523. What are the steps to be followed in the fishbone diagram technique?



    • 1- The problem to be investigated, ie the identified problem, is placed on the head of the fishbone (right side).
    • 2-The reasons or factors that led to the occurrence of the problem are written on the side bones of the fish bone one by one.
    • 3- Basic bones are generally in the form of people, environment, materials, methods, management, measurability, but these basic bones can be increased or decreased according to needs. Starting from the first bone, the reasons are added and the other bone is passed. Each bone or cause can have many sub-bones.


    P.524. Draw the fishbone diagram.


    C.524. Here, sub-factors are examined one by one and their contribution to the problem is tried to be determined.










    p.525. What is Pareto analysis, explain?


    C.525. Many problems are encountered in working life. The causes of the problems are generally in accordance with the Pareto principle. According to the Pareto principle, 80 percent of the results are due to 20 percent of the causes of a problem.Pareto diagrams allow the identification of small problems that cause large losses. In Pareto analysis, events are listed on the graph in order of frequency, time and importance. The most distinctive feature of the table created in this way is that it shows the order. Ranking the incidents in order of frequency helps those working on the subject to determine which problem should be addressed first. It would not be right to devote eighty percent of the time to a problem that has ten percent importance and priority. It is wiser to solve the problems in order of importance and priority, and Pareto analysis will give us this opportunity. Considering the frequency of encountering errors or the factors causing the problem, its share in the total is calculated as a percentage. It is plotted as in the example below.


    P.526. What is a Tree Diagram (Problem Tree), explain?


    C.526.A technique for making a map of the work that needs to be done to achieve a specific goal. Answers to why and how questions are sought. It is a technique for both finding the causes of the problem and solving it. The map is drawn by asking why and how questions. "Why?" The question looks for the source of the problem, “How?” The question tries to find ways to solve the problem.


    P.527. What does force or force field analysis mean?


    C.527. It is a technique used to strengthen positive factors and destroy or weaken negative factors by revealing the forces that support and hinder the solution of a problem.


    Q.528. What is information, please explain?


    C.528. The product revealed as a result of the relationship between the subject (subject) and the object (object) Bilgi is called. In other words, it is the product that emerges as a result of human's desire to know, recognize and understand existence. informationcalled i. Here, the subject is the knower, that is, the human being; The object is the known, that is, the being itself.


    Q.529. What is scientific knowledge, please explain?


    C.529. Scientific knowledge is knowledge obtained through scientific methods. The scientific method is based on reason, experiment and observation. The criterion for a knowledge to be scientific is that it is methodical. Scientific knowledge is objective, systematic, consistent and open to criticism.


    p.530. What does information resources mean, give an example?


    C.530. Publications used to obtain information or all sources from which information can be accessed. information resources Such as books, journals, dictionaries, encyclopedias, almanacs, statistical sources, atlases, biographical sources, chronologies and the Internet. The Internet is an important source of information. It is easier to access information on the Internet, but the Internet environment is open to all kinds of information. There may also be inaccurate or inaccurate information. That's why we should be very careful when getting information from the internet, we should make sure that the information comes from reliable sources.


    P.531. What does it mean to access information?


    C.531. information access; It can be defined as information gathering, data scanning, classification actions, the path followed to reach the sought and desired information in order to reach the desired information.


    Q.532. What does collecting information mean?


    C.532. Further examination of the sources and taking the necessary notes data collection called process. While collecting information, care should be taken to use resources equally and to use original sentences while taking notes.


    S.533. Explain the reliability of the information?


    C.533. Developing mass media, changing business world, developing city life lead to the production and dissemination of more and more information. This provides access to more information in a shorter time, but this makes it difficult to control the reliability of the information. Information pollution is information that cannot be determined to be true or false and is intentionally spread. According to the results of the research, students mostly use the internet to find information. On the other hand, students are in doubt about the reliability of the information they find. The Internet is also a very important and indispensable resource for researchers and employees. Here again, the problem of reliability, accuracy and timeliness of the source arises because there is no control for each of the information published on the web. Information on the Internet is available everywhere, not in one particular place; information is constantly increasing and being renewed. This again puts the way of control into a dead end and makes people doubt about information. The Internet is a technology that makes it possible for anyone to publish information in any way they want. This is a factor in the decrease of trust in the Internet. There are some ways to determine the reliability of information published on the Internet. The first of these is who wrote this information, the second is who published it (scientific institutions, publicly recognized institutions and professional scientific journals, etc.), and the third is how up-to-date the document and the information are. It is necessary to be careful about when the accessed information is created. It is most important of all that we know when the site that publishes the information is updated, the update is essential for the reliability of the information.


    Q.534. Explain the research guidelines and what are they?


    C.534. It is to determine in detail what the techniques and measurements to be used are, why they are chosen and how they will be applied, which data will be obtained from which sources and by which method.

    • 1- Experimental Research Methods
    • 2- Field Studies
    • 3- Introductory Studies
    • 4- Statistical Studies


    p.535. Explain Experimental Research Methods?


    C.535. It is a research method in which variables and factors can be controlled and the result is monitored in an environment created by processing or not processing any material. The purpose of the experimental method is to reveal the cause-effect relationships in the investigated event. In order to find the true nature of these relationships, all factors that are thought to affect the result can be tried.


    P.536. What does Field Studies mean, please explain?


    C.536. Field surveys mean that the study is carried out in the natural environment of the entities under investigation. The main difference from laboratory research is that the observer uses natural environments. Another feature of field research is that it is aimed at forming hypotheses rather than confirming the hypothesis established by a researcher.


    P.537. What does Introductory Research mean, explain?


    C.537. Introductory research aims to reveal some features of a particular knowledge set of interest. These are mostly made to meet practical needs. For this reason, it is applied by social workers, advertisers, marketers rather than social sciences. Population, workplace and household censuses, censuses carried out by municipalities to determine infrastructure services in slum areas are included in this type of research.


    P.538. What does Statistical Studies mean?


    C.538. Statistics research involves the quantitative expression of research data, its interpretation and evaluation with the help of statistical methods.


    Q.539. What does data collection mean?


    C.539. Numerous data can be mentioned depending on the abundance and diversity of knowledge fields. Studies carried out to obtain data that we need but cannot find readily. data collecting It called. What are impacted teeth? When one or more teeth fails to grow in the correct position and is therefore held below the normal gum line, it is called an impaction. This can be complete, such as completely unerrupted (buried) third molars (wisdom teeth) or partial when just part of the tooth is visible in the mouth. Why are impactions important? For best function and appearance the teeth should grow in a healthy alignment. When one or more teeth is impacted, this can affect the function of that tooth but also the function and appearance of other teeth. Whether all impactions should be treated is still controversial and your dentist and oral and maxillofacial team can explain the advantages and disadvantages or treatment for you, which is usually surgical.


    Q.540. What are data collection tools?



    • 1-Observation: It is a method of obtaining data as a result of examining the structures of the elements to be investigated in their natural environments.
    • 2-Experiment: It is work done in the laboratory.
    • 3-Questionnaire: It is a method of obtaining information and data collection by preparing questions created by the researcher, which will be read and answered directly by the people to be informed.
    • 4-Interview: It is a method of collecting data through conversation with the people from whom information will be obtained.
    • 5-Literature review: It is the examination of previously published books, articles, theses, handbooks and other researches related to the research topic.
    • 6-Archive scanning: Official Gazette, other newspapers, annual, statistics, documents, reports, charts, plans, circulars, guides and case law, which were previously published, are the main sources to be used in archive scanning.


    Q.541. What does survey mean?


    C.541. Question paper containing questions and possible answers prepared to get the opinions of people on any subject. survey It called. What are impacted teeth? When one or more teeth fails to grow in the correct position and is therefore held below the normal gum line, it is called an impaction. This can be complete, such as completely unerrupted (buried) third molars (wisdom teeth) or partial when just part of the tooth is visible in the mouth. Why are impactions important? For best function and appearance the teeth should grow in a healthy alignment. When one or more teeth is impacted, this can affect the function of that tooth but also the function and appearance of other teeth. Whether all impactions should be treated is still controversial and your dentist and oral and maxillofacial team can explain the advantages and disadvantages or treatment for you, which is usually surgical.


    P.542. What should be included in a survey form?



    • 1-Name of the person or institution conducting the survey
    • 2-Subject of the survey
    • 3-Date of the survey
    • 4- Name and surname of the interviewer
    • 5-Personal information of the respondents
    • 6-Survey questions
    • 7- Communication address of the person or institution conducting the survey


    P.543. What should be considered when preparing survey questions?



    • 1-The question type should be determined.
    • 2- The number of questions should be determined.
    • 3- Pay attention to the order of the questions.
    • 4-The questions should be chosen according to the purpose.
    • 5- Care should be taken to ensure that the questions are clear and unambiguous.
    • 6-Unknown words should not be used.


    S.544. The researcher may want to measure attitude, behavior or knowledge while forming the survey questions. What are the question types to be created for this purpose?


    • 1- Informative Questions
    • 2- Grouping Questions
    • 3- Two Elective Questions
    • 4- Multiple Choice Questions
    • 5- Sorting or Preferring Questions
    • 6- Scaling Questions
    • 7- Multiple Choice Questions
    • 8- Open-Ended Questions


    P.545. What does it mean to organize data, give an example?


    C.545. The data obtained in a research is scattered, irregular and complex. In this way, it is not possible to reach a meaningful conclusion from the data. This raw data, which is the raw material of statistical analysis, needs to be processed and rendered regular and understandable. For example; If there were 1000 students in the school, it would be a difficult task to evaluate the pocket money of each. To facilitate this, this data needs to be organized.


    Q.546. How to organize the data, explain?



    • 1-Sequential array: It is a sequence obtained by ordering numerical information from smallest to largest or from largest to smallest.
    • 2- Multiplicity division (grouping): It is the categorization of data into groups according to a certain number of size classes. Groups formed in this way are called classes, and the number of units in each class is called class multiplicity.


    Q.547. What does statistics mean?


    C.547. It is a science that aims to collect and analyze numerical information, to explain its meaning, to interpret and reveal the reliability of information in an unbiased way.


    Q.548. What does data analysis mean, explain?


    C.548. After organizing the collected data, the analysis of the data needs to be done. As the number of data increases, the interpretation of the data will become more difficult. For example, it will not be possible to evaluate the results of a ten-question survey applied to a thousand people without using a certain analysis method. For this purpose, methods are needed that will enable the interpretation of data in scientific research. Statistics deals with these methods


    S.549. What are the basic concepts that should be known for statistical interpretation?



    • 1- Stack
    • 2- Variable
    • 3- Variable value range
    • 4- Arithmetic mean
    • 5- Hydrangea
    • 6- Peak point (mod)


    p.550. Explain what it means to interpret and evaluate data?



    Interpretation will be made by making sense of the analyzed data and explaining what it means. For example, let's assume that we determine the success status of the students in a course according to their age groups. Let's assume that the success level of age group A is 85%, and the success level of age group B is 67%. We can make the following evaluation from the obtained data: Age group A is more successful than age group B. The integrity of the research should not be overlooked while interpreting the results of the statistical analysis. Issues such as the questions put forward to be answered in the research, the accepted assumptions, the solutions that can be brought to the current problem, the purpose of the study should never be forgotten in the comments. On the other hand, it may be possible to reach general rules by acting from certain analysis results. In order for a research to be considered concluded, the compiled library resources should be read and evaluated, methods such as experiments, observations, interviews, statistical analysis should be applied, and the hypothesis should be evaluated in the light of the results obtained. The research is not considered complete until all these processes are completed. Moreover, the research that the researcher does by summarizing the examined sources without adding his/her own creative ideas is not considered a scientific research.





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Professional Development Questions

professional development questions 24