P.149. What does mental traits mean, explain?
C.149. Mental characteristics are qualities related to understanding and interpretation that develop in the individual. Mental activities, which were extremely limited at first, develop and mature over time. This mental development of the individual depends on both his innate characteristics and his interactions with his environment.
The basic mental elements inherited in the individual undergo development and change as a result of the interaction of the individual with the environment. This development and change develops depending on both the individual's structure and environmental factors. While the environment affects mental activities, the structure of the mind also affects the perception of the environment. For this reason, differences occur between the mental structures of individuals.
The activities of the baby in the first two months are more of a reflex nature. Crying and feeding are reflex actions. In the following months, it is observed that the baby can repeat very simple movements and be affected by them. These features develop and turn into recognizing the environment and making judgments about the effects that will come from the environment between 18-24 months. At the end of the second year, the most important mental change takes place in the individual and the child starts to think verbally and to recognize the entities by their names. It acquires the ability we call language.
Language development; It is the individual's learning of words, numbers and symbols and using them according to language rules and the development of this use. Language development begins with making meaningless sounds. Then spellings are made. Then the first simple words are spoken. After understanding and pronouncing what is spoken in a simple structure, vocabulary is created and words begin to be used in sentences. Towards the age of four, the child begins to construct more complex images and to go down to finer points in language and thought. Until the age of seven, the child's concepts are mostly related to the objects he sees around him. Primary school children are in the concrete thinking stage. In this period, it is difficult for children to perceive and interpret situations and objects that they do not see directly.
Between the ages of 7 and 11, it is seen that children begin to understand the concept of part and whole. Children aged 7-11 can easily understand and interpret the height, weight, size, length, shortness and color differences of objects, but they have difficulties in abstract thinking and perceiving abstract concepts. The individual enters the abstract thinking stage after the age of 11. In this period, he can understand and interpret the object and the situation without seeing it. He can criticize his own thoughts and start thinking about his thoughts. By the age of 15, the individual has reached the ability to think abstractly independently, without relying on concrete events and objects. Problem solving and judgment skills have improved, and it has become easier to question and produce new ideas.
P.150. What processes do mental activities cover, what are they, write?
A-Detection: It is the interpretation and organization of information obtained from both the internal and external world.
B-Memory: It is the power to consciously keep in mind the relationship of what is lived, learned and perceived with the past and future.
C- Reasoning: It is the ability to use information to derive meaning and conclusions.
O-Thinking: It is the evaluation and interpretation of information and solutions in a cause-effect relationship.
D-Ability: It is the individual's ability to learn, do work and adapt.
P.151. What does spiritual traits mean, explain?
C.151. The spiritual characteristics of the individual, which are shaped by learning and maturation most open to influence, and which are among the most personal qualities, are an area that is difficult to talk about definitively due to all these reasons.
The psychological characteristics of each individual are different from the others, but individuals experience the emotions that make up these characteristics relatively common. The overlapping aspects of individuals with other people are their emotions. The whole of these emotions is unique to each individual, and no one is exactly the same.
The main period in which the psychological characteristics of the individual are formed is the preschool age. During this period, basic personality traits develop. Therefore, the most important period in the education of the individual is the pre-school age. When the child reaches the age of two or three, the age of asking questions begins. The child constantly questions what everything new to him is and how it is. This is a period that requires attention and care. If the questions asked by the child are not answered carefully, incorrect information may leave a lasting effect on the child, or if the attitude towards the questions he asks is negative, the child's desire to learn may be dulled.
The primary school-age child starts to care more about his friends, their jokes, games, mistakes or humor, success and love. As the child gets older and enters adolescence, the desire to be among his peers and to act with them also increases. However, some shyness lives more effectively. This shyness causes him to become incompetent, to run away from the places where the people he wants to be liked, or to get bored in such environments.
In this period, the love and dislike reactions of the young people are also excessive. He is very attached to his loved ones. He tries to stay away from those he doesn't like. This state of extremes returns to normal towards the teen's final puberty. During adolescence, young people's interests turn to changes in their own bodies and to the opposite sex. However, the effort to develop knowledge and thoughts of dealing with events in society intensifies in this period.
P.152. What does self-development mean, explain?
C.152. Development is the process of positive change towards a particular situation. Self-development is the process of change that a person realizes in order to achieve a personal situation that he wants to be and determines. In other words, self-development is an effort to reach the desired place.
P.153. Explain what it means to develop personal characteristics?
C.153. Personal development first begins with self-discovery. In the process that starts with the desire to understand oneself and develop, the target should be determined first. Be positive when setting goals. Two things are meant by positivity. The first is to look at life and yourself in a positive way. The second is the positive establishment of the sentence or thought to be created for the target. Goals cannot be set with negative sentences. One cannot take action with negative sentences. For example, “I don't want to fail.” The expression cannot help the person to set a goal, but positive sentences can activate the mind and generate thoughts. "I want to be successful." A positive sentence like this allows more thought generation.
P.154. Explain what it means to develop interests and abilities?
C.154. Interest is an internal stimulus that we judge to exist in cases of willingly orienting towards certain activities, preferring these activities to other activities even under restrictive conditions, and feeling rested instead of tiredness while performing these activities, and wanting to continue instead of boredom.
Interest has a dynamic effect on an individual's life. People want to get satisfaction from any job they do, any activity they participate in. If a person engages in some activity and gets satisfaction from it, even though he is not under any coercion or promises him a reward, it can be said that this person has an interest in such activities. Where the individual has freedom of choice, the possibility of determining genuine interest is higher. Talent indicates the potential of an individual to achieve a job and tells the point where he can come after a certain training and preparation. In this sense, talent rather means the learning power of an individual, the power to benefit from a certain education. Thus, talent gives us clues to predict the level of success that an individual can achieve in the future.
Interests include the processes by which people can get satisfaction from any job they do. Talent, on the other hand, includes the learning power of the individual, the power to benefit from a certain education. Then there is a direct relationship between talent and interest. The ability of the students to be satisfied with the fields they have chosen depends on their ability levels. A certain amount of talent is also a measure of success in that subject area. The individual may be interested in the subject area, but if he does not have a talent related to that subject area, then he cannot achieve the required level of success in the subject area. For this reason, there must be a harmony between interests and abilities.
P.155. What are the means of self-expression, explain?
C.155. The need for self-expression is as old as human history. In the beginning, the individual, who tried to explain himself to the people around him with some movements, shapes and various sounds, developed various symbols to meet this need over time. These symbols, consisting of the shapes of beings in nature, left their place to various lines over time. Self-expression is the ability to express oneself in written, verbal and physical dimensions, to express one's feelings and thoughts, to show oneself with the developed personal style and personal characteristics.
People use communication tools to express their knowledge, feelings and thoughts. The way a person speaks, the words he chooses, the tone of voice, body posture, gestures and facial expressions are important in expressing himself.
P.156. What does communication mean, please be clear?
C.156. Communication; It is the transmission of knowledge, ideas, feelings, skills, using symbols. Communication is essential for human beings to express themselves as a social being. Man lives by communicating with his environment. His every behavior, speech, silence, posture and sitting style are self-expression, that is, he conveys a message to his surroundings. The main purpose of communication is to send understandable messages and to bring about a change in the attitudes and behaviors of the other party. If there is no change in behavior, there is a message but no communication. The basic point of the development of communication, which is an activity that people perform almost every moment other than sleep, is to listen and try to understand the person in front of you. This is only possible by putting ourselves in his shoes while trying to value and understand the other person.
P.157. What does presentation mean, explain?
C.157. Oral or visual communication carried out to give information to any group or community about any subject is called presentation. In fact, all events, ceremonies or meetings are included in the presentation. Presentation is the transfer of a pre-prepared and planned topic to the audience in an effective and understandable way.
P.158. What are the factors to be considered while preparing a presentation?
Care must be taken when choosing the font size in A-PowerPoint.
In B-Headings, the most appropriate font size is selected. (Usually 36-44, the font size is selected but still optional)
The most suitable font size should be selected in the C-Text section. (Usually it is 20-32)
C- Unless necessary, the text is not written in all capital letters.
O-Italic, underline, different color, flashing etc. remarkable features should be included.
D-It should be noted that the background is dark, the texts are light or the ground is light, and the texts are dark. (For example, if the background is dark blue, it is remarkable when the text is white).
P.159. What does persuasion skills mean?
C.159. In short, persuasion is the effort of the source person or persons to ensure that the target creates a positive attitude towards a certain product, individual or view or changes the existing attitude.
P.162. What can be done to be persuasive?
C.162. In order to be persuasive, we must structure and organize the information and evidence we have well, and take control variables into account.
P.163. What does communication mean?
C.163. Communication; is the communication of knowledge, ideas, feelings, skills, using symbols
P.164. What does self-expression mean?
C.164. Self-expression is the ability to express oneself in written, verbal and physical dimensions, to express one's feelings and thoughts, to show oneself with the developed personal style and personal characteristics.
p.165. What does it mean to develop self-confidence?
C.165. Self-confidence is an important personal trait, it allows us to deal with life and problems realistically and makes it easier for us to endure difficulties. The process of gaining self-confidence is the experience of being a person worthy of being happy and capable of coping with life's major challenges.
P.166. What are the characteristics of a self-actualized person?
A-They perceive reality efficiently and can tolerate uncertainty.
B- They accept themselves and others as they are.
C-Thoughts and behaviors are sincere.
C-They focus on the problem rather than on themselves.
D- They have a good sense of humor.
E-They are very creative.
F- Although they are not unconventional, they are resistant to the internalization of their own culture. G-They are concerned with the welfare of humanity.
H- They can evaluate the basic experiences of life.
I-Build deep, satisfying interpersonal relationships with not many people.
i- They can look at life from an objective point of view.