It is a device that enables the examination of the image by magnifying the details of objects that are too small to be seen with the eye under the lens. It is a device that allows us to look at the structure of the fibers with a microscope, whether they are straight or mixed, to see the foreign materials in the fiber and to understand what type they are.
SECTIONS OF THE MICROSCOPE
In general, the microscope is examined by dividing into two large parts. As the mechanical part and the optical part;
Mechanical Part:Mechanical part of the microscope; consists of foot, body, table and tube.
Microscope Stand:It is the part that allows the microscope to stand.
Microscope Arm: It is the part that helps to bring the microscope to the desired inclination in order to work comfortably in the microscope.
Microscope table:It is the metal part on which the object to be examined is placed. It has a fixed and sometimes movable hole in the middle that allows the light reflected from the mirror (light source) to pass through, which can be circular or square.
Microscope Tables :It is the part that is used to compress the slide on the table.
Microscope Tube: Located at the top of the microscope arm. The eyepiece at the top is the part where the turntable is screwed at the bottom. It consists of two intertwined metal pipes. Its outer tube is fixed to the body with a spur gear. This part can move up and down with large and small adjusting screws. In this way, clear vision of the object (object) is adjusted according to the eye.
Turntable (Revolver):It is the movable part at the lower end of the microscope tube that allows one, two, three or more lenses to be attached under the microscope tube.
Set Screws: In the microscope arm, they are the screws that provide the movement of either the microscope tube or the microscope table and focus on the object.
Optical Part: The second and most important part of the microscope is the optical part. The optical part consists of a circular rotating rovelver that carries the eyepieces and lenses.
Mirror :It is the part that sends the light coming from the light source that can move in all directions under the microscope table to the object.
Source of light: In the microscope, it is either used to illuminate the natural light, which is sunlight, or it is used to illuminate the object to be examined from the strong light sources on it.
Diaphragm: The diaphragm adjusts the amount of light coming into the object by narrowing and widening the hole in the middle, by means of a lever on the upper part of the mirror, under the condenser. The substance to be examined under the microscope depends on the type of microscope. lam ve lamella It is observed between two thin glass parts of different thicknesses, called the spheroid, or directly microscopically. (Lam: It is a plate made of thin glass with a length of 75 mm and a width of 25 mm. Lamel: It is a very thin [14 mm thick] glass square with a width and length of 18, 20, 22 or 0,2 mm.)
Condenser: Above the diaphragm is the Condenser, which consists of a lens system. It collects the incoming rays on the preparation and provides illumination of the object.
Lenses:Lenses, which consist of lens systems right on the object to be examined, give an enlarged reverse image of the object. The lenses are attached to the turntable, and the turntables have 3-4 lenses depending on the degree of magnification..
Ocular :It is located at the top of the microscope tube and consists of two lenses, one small and one large. Some microscopes have double eyepieces. It consists of a converging lens with different magnifications, located on the side of the eye. It gives an apparent image by magnifying the real image formed by the lens.
USING THE MICROSCOPE
The rays coming from the mirror or light source come out of the optical condenser as a light beam, pass through the object to be examined and reach the objective. The lens produces the first image 11 mm below the top of the microscope tube, as in a powered projector. Here, the image coming out of the ocular through a prism reaches the retina of the eye. Ocular lenses show the image from the lens by re-magnifying it 25 cm from the eye. In fact, the image that falls on the retina of the eye is the image of this last image. The first image, which is enlarged at the order of 150x in the lens, is enlarged by 20x with the eyepiece; the eye sees the object 150x20= 3000x times larger.
LONGITUDE IMAGE ON THE MICROSCOPE
In order to examine the longitudinal appearance of the fibers, a suitable preparation must be prepared. For this, glycerin (or another binder) is dripped onto the slide, which has been thoroughly cleaned with alcohol, and enough fiber is placed on it. A coverslip is closed on these prepared fibers. The glycerin placed in the preparation ensures that the light coming from below spreads evenly between the fibers. During the closing of the coverslip, the coverslip should be left horizontally on the slide so that air bubbles do not form.
Otherwise, air bubbles between the slide and the coverslip prevent the view from being well defined. In order to prevent this, the coverslip is held by both sides, one side of it is next to the liquid drop, so that it touches the slide in such a way that it forms an angle with the slide. When the liquid covers the edge of the coverslip that touches the slide, the opposite side is slowly released. In this way, it enters as a layer between the slide and the coverslip. In order for the image to be seen clearly, the coverslip must be placed properly. The liquid drop on the slide must not be too much or too little. With the preparation prepared in this way longitudinal appearance of fibers under the microscope obtainable.
TRANSVERSE IMAGE ON THE MICROSCOPE
It is not always possible to recognize all fibers by their longitudinal appearance. For this reason, sometimes it is necessary to take cross-sections of the fibers. Various tools and equipment are used for this. To get a cross-section, the fibers are first made as parallel as possible by hand, for better results.
Some methods of cross-sectioning have also been developed. The main ones of these methods, from the simplest to the most advanced:
4-Slide and rotary microtome
The most important aspect in cross-sectioning is that the fibers are well paralleled beforehand. Because the cross-section taken from mixed and knotted fibers is not a cross-section.
>>>>> Cross Section with Mushroom
In the cork cross-section method, as seen with a suitable cork (not too hard or too soft), first the parallelized fiber bundle is gathered with the help of thread and then the needle is passed through the cork.
Here, with the help of a small microtome, the fiber bundle that has passed through the cork is compressed by the microtome and a 1 mm thick section is cut by the cork razor. Then the section taken from here is placed on the slide with tweezers and 1 drop of glycerin is dropped on it and the coverslip is closed. The preparation prepared in this way is placed under the microscope and the cross-section of the fiber is examined under the microscope.
>>>>> Cross Section with Metal Plate
The metal plate is a plate with dimensions similar to a slide, made of a stainless and hard metal with a thickness of about 0,5 mm with 0,25 mm / 0,5 mm diameter holes on it.in Figure As can be seen, the fibers that have been passed through a thin and strong thread are passed into the hole by pulling the two ends of the thread together.
The fibers must also be in the amount to close the hole. The parts of the fibers remaining on either side of the hole are cut from the plate surface at once with a sharp razor blade. The section is examined in this way or under a microscope by placing a binding liquid on it and covering it with a coverslip. This method is a practical and fast method that gives very good results in cross-section of coarse and mixed animal fibers with excessively indented chemical fiber in cross-section.
>>>>> Cross Section with Hand Microtome
The hand microtome is a simple tool that allows sectioning at the desired thickness. In order to take a section with a hand microtome, mushrooms, elderberry pulp and fibers blocked on a block material are fixed in the special place of the instrument and pushed up with the help of a mikovida and cut with a razor or special sharp instruments.
>>>>> Cross Section with Hardy Microtome
The Hardy microtome consists of two metal plates interlocked. One of the plates has a slot that adjusts the position of the fibers to be sectioned. In order to get the section, the fibers that are well compressed into the slot are cut from all sides with a sharp razor blade. In order to understand whether a good cut has been made, the cut location of the fiber bundle is checked.
Longitudinal Appearance and Cross Section Properties of Animal Fibers
Longitudinal Image : The surface is covered with scales. There are transverse traces on the surface according to the scales. It looks like a flat cylinder.
Transverse View : It has a round or nearly round oval cross-section. In the middle of the coarse wool, there is a space called the Medula.
Longitudinal Image : Like wool, but the scales are less frequent.
Transverse View : Wide round dotted. The edges are markedly dark.
Longitudinal Image : Its longitudinal view is chain-shaped, medullary.
Transverse View : It is in irregular ellipses with a thick medula.
Longitudinal Image : It has a smooth, transparent, smooth surface. There are no longitudinal prominent lines. It can contain nodes.
Transverse View : It is triangular in shape and the ends of the triangle are as if rounded. Not uniform in size and shape
Longitudinal Image : The longitudinal section is flat cylindrical. Dots are visible
Transverse View : It has a large round, dotted appearance.
Longitudinal Image : Similar to wool and mohair. It has a thin barred scaly appearance.
Transverse View : Round, dotted with dense central parts
Longitudinal Image : The discrete, long medula is visible.
Transverse View : Round, the medula is visible in its middle part. Other parts are dotted.
Longitudinal Appearance and Cross-Section Properties of Regenerated Fibers
Longitudinal View: It has very prominent longitudinal lines. It looks like a glass rod.
Transverse View : It is in irregular shape. It has an indented appearance.
Longitudinal View: There are sparse longitudinal lines. It looks like a glass rod.
Transverse View : It is uneven. It has a lobed appearance. The slices are irregular.
Longitudinal View: It is in the form of an uneven bar. No obvious longitudinal lines
Transverse View : It is irregular in shape. It has a lobed appearance close to the round
Examining the microscopic structures of fibers is an important way of recognizing them. It is possible without the need for chemical processing by examining their appearance under the microscope to understand which fiber or fibers are made of yarn, weaving, knitting and their surfaces. On the other hand, the layers that make up the fibers with a thickness expressed in microns and their arrangement can only be examined under a microscope.
Differences or similarities in the length and cross-sectional appearance of the fibers can only be understood by examining them under a microscope. Often, similar fibers may require microchemistry treatments.
Longitudinal view and cross-sectional properties of synthetic fibers