In today's competitive environment, the survival of businesses depends on satisfying the needs of customers and consumers in target markets better than their competitors. This is an approach that is at the core of the marketing concept. In this context, it is an understanding that should be adopted by all departments and employees of the enterprise. Otherwise, it will not be possible to provide customer and consumer satisfaction.
Marketing science emerged in the United States in the early 1900s. It then spread rapidly to other countries. In the scope of marketing, physical distribution, sales and sales management issues were given importance until 1950. However, after the 1960s;
- marketing mix
- Marketing management
- organizational marketing
- social marketing
- International marketing
- service marketing
A broader perspective has been given to marketing by developing new concepts such as
Economists have played an important role in the emergence of marketing knowledge. As a result of the fact that economists have one-sided views on issues such as price and supply-demand and their inadequacy in providing solutions, the efforts to seek solutions have led to the dogma of marketing science.
Marketing, It is basically an exchange (exchange) transaction aimed at meeting people's needs and wants.
Marketing is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges that satisfy personal and organizational goals.
Marketing; It is the business activities carried out to determine the demand for the products of an enterprise, to warn, to saturate, to meet the demand by making the products and services available in the most effective way and to make a profit.
It is the process of planning and executing the creation, pricing, distribution, and sales efforts of goods, services, and ideas to bring about change in accordance with the goals of individuals and organizations.
Marketing is a set of activities aimed at communication and exchange between the consumer and the business that a business chooses as a target.
The view that marketing is the same as selling is not only a very common view among the general public, but also a view held by many businessmen. Selling is a part of marketing, of course, but marketing entails much more than selling.
The three basic qualities of marketingği have:
- Being market oriented
- Using scientific methods
- Integrating business functions
Application areas of marketing
The concept of service marketing is a concept that has been mentioned frequently in recent years. The emergence of the concept is that service businesses start to use marketing techniques. In fact, manual marketing techniques can also be used by service businesses.
Industrial goods marketing
Until recently, it was widely believed that there was no need for marketing activities in industrial goods. It was thought that there was no need for advertising, sales efforts or special discounts on these goods. Today, the technological development and the increase in the number of industrial goods producers have caused the producers of these goods to enjoy their marketing techniques.
nonprofit boardşmarketing of
- public services marketing
- social marketing
- political marketing
Fundamentals of marketing
- Market information gathering
- Market segmentation and target
- Market selection
- Product planning and development
It creates. The basis of international marketing is; In its simplest form, one or more of these activities is carried out outside the national borders, and in the most complex form, these activities are carried out in many countries. If it is necessary to give a more regular definition;
“International marketing is the multi-country process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion and distribution of goods, services and ideas to create exchanges (exchanges) that satisfy individual and organizational goals”.
The concept of international marketing defined in this way should be distinguished from international trade. International trade is concerned with the flow of goods and capital across national borders.
Basic in the analysis of international trade issues;
- balance of payments
- commercial and monetary monetary policy affecting the flow of resource transfers across borders.
are the terms. This general economic rule gives the appearance of a "macro market" at the national level, which neglects any special attention to the marketing efforts of businesses. International marketing, on the other hand, deals with markets at the micro level and considers a business as the unit of analysis. Here the focus of the analysis is how and why a product succeeds or fails outside the country and how marketing efforts affect that outcome.
Somebodyşdid not operateş plan to open up to marketsşraising şu beş must decide on:
- International marketing decision. First of all, business management should decide whether to open up to foreign markets.
- Sunday election decision. Here, management must decide which market or markets to enter.
- enter the marketş sattached. At this stage, the management determines the most appropriate entry method to the foreign market or markets. For example, should the selected markets be entered through direct exports, licensing or production abroad?
- Marketing mix. It is decided. At this stage, business management determines the appropriate marketing mix from the external market environment.
- Organizing decision All these decisions are made based on certain data and marketing research is often needed for this.
There are a number of environmental factors that affect international marketing. The rapid worldwide acceptance and spread of technological advances in communication and transportation has made it easier for businesses to search for new resources and markets, and the world has become a small village for operators. In addition, efforts to eliminate barriers to international trade and mutual agreements and developments in this direction facilitated the entry of enterprises to foreign markets and accelerated the development of international marketing. In order to be successful in influencing their markets and consumers, international marketing managers have to know their target audience and their environment very well and analyze their different cultural characteristics. No marketing manager would like to take such a risk, as there is a great risk of wasting all marketing efforts without adequate knowledge of the target audience. For this reason, it is the basis of marketing success to study the environmental factors related to the international market to be entered and to develop plans and products that are compatible with this environment.
The international environmental factors that business – marketing managers should pay attention to consist of:
- Cultural and Social Environment
- Economic Environment
- Demographic Environment
- Legal – Legal
- Political Environment
After taking into account the external environmental factors as a result of market research, the enterprises will try to offer the products suitable for the demand to the market with their own means and resources within the framework of these conditions.
İşto be brought to market by the businessğin determining the product;
The resources, management experience, marketing opportunities and capabilities of the enterprise are also effective. Businesses will have to implement the most appropriate marketing strategy or strategies among alternative marketing strategies, with the influence of both external and internal environmental factors.
A goal in a marketing strategy is to select a market and to identify a marketing combination to achieve it. While determining the marketing strategy, other functional departments in the business are always taken into consideration and coordination with them cannot be neglected. The environment is always at the forefront.
at a fewğişThere are two types of strategy:
- Defense strategies It is prepared to prevent the loss of existing customers.
- Gelişpruning strategies It is prepared to offer more products and services to existing customers.
- Attack strategies Prepared to gain new customers.
Before moving on to alternative marketing strategies in terms of manufacturing businesses, we can generally state the marketing strategies that can be used by growth-oriented businesses as follows:
- Market entry strategies
- reformulation strategies
- Renovation strategies
- Product line expansion strategies
- Horizontal diversification strategies
- Market development strategies
- Market expansion strategies
- Market segmentation/product differentiation strategies
- Circular diversification strategies
- Clustered diversification strategies
- Forward and/or backward integration strategies
Among these alternative strategies, businesses have to choose and implement one or more strategies that are suitable for their own resource and marketing capabilities. Again, within certain periods, there is a need to evaluate the results of the selected and implemented strategies and to make decisions about whether or not to make changes in the strategies.
When we think on the basis of manufacturing enterprises, and especially small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises, it will be beneficial for both themselves and the general economy to implement one or more of the strategies listed below.
- Quality Product High Price Strategy
- A Low Price Strategy with a Universal Quality
- Concentration Strategy on a Single Product
- Strategy to Increase Sales with Multiple Products
- Product Differentiation and/or Market Segmentation Strategy
- Strategy for Building Brand Loyalty
- Brand Replication Strategy
- Strategies for Using the Tool or Not
- ı) Strategies Regarding After Sales Services
- Advertising Strategies
- Marketing Strategies in an Inflationary Environment
Among these alternatives, manufacturing enterprises are also in proportion to their own resources, opportunities and marketing capabilities; product simplification or differentiation, price discounts or price increases, using the appropriate alternative promotion tools, reducing or increasing distribution channel alternatives, they will be able to choose the most appropriate strategies for their own structure.
Development of marketing goals and strategiesşthe Tiril sIt can cover these phases;
- Evaluation of the current situation
- Determination of marketing objectives
- Evaluation of market opportunities
- Determination of target market
Nowadays, businesses make special efforts to be different from others. In order to gain competitive advantage, businesses need to make some changes. In the last 5-10 years, important steps have been taken in the field of Marketing. Today, businesses can easily market the goods and services they produce on the Internet. This is the last point reached in marketing strategies.
The Internet offers great opportunities for all firms, but especially small firms, as well as for the international recognition of medium-sized firms. The use of such a wide network structure will reduce the costs of the company as it can distribute the costs of printed advertisements and brochures with an e-mail list.
It is very convenient in terms of cost-effectiveness for a company to deliver its product or itself to potential customers all over the world via the internet. With the relevant product on the internet, companies may enter into an expectation, but it may take from a few weeks to several years for the site to be announced by advertising, e-mail (e-mail), and for it to take place among the customers. This is possible by announcing the site, attracting attention and entering the databases called search engines. Obtaining information from willing customers by filling out a form and making free phone purchases constitute the building blocks of this business. In this way, it is aimed to contact the customer directly.
Business-to-business e-commerce is automating processes that are only used by buyers and sellers to do business. These transactions normally involve the online sale of products and services to other businesses on the Web.
Electronic communities, which are sub-groups of the internet society that emerged with the introduction of the internet into daily life and reached a size that cannot be ignored today, have acquired a different tool to meet their needs as consumers, due to the shift of commercial activities to this area.
As a result, the Internet allows the firm to enter the international market at a reasonable price/cost, regardless of its size. Before entering such a global market, companies need to make some decisions regarding their marketing concepts and redefine their organizational structures. These decisions include international prices, global branding, organizational structure, competition and payment considerations.
The Internet requires a firm to adapt to a new environment in which cultural, legal and social systems differ widely, leaving its old traditional environment to reach a foreign market. The marketing idea that is valid and sufficient in one market may not be legally valid in other markets. Despite problems such as confidentiality, perception payment problem, cultural differences, international law, etc., companies are still in marketing.
They want their brands to be recognized by making investments in the use of the Internet.
For these reasons, the Internet has taken its place in the literature as a new marketing tool.
Total Quality Management with Marketing relationship
Total Quality Management can be defined as a management philosophy that takes the hanging of internal and external customer expectations as its main purpose, aims to inform and empower employees and to continuously improve all processes with teamwork.
In this definition, quality refers to meeting and exceeding customer expectations, and poor quality refers to the total damage done to society. The customer is the person who uses the product or service produced by the processes in the business. Those within the organization do you drinkşsweat, Those who buy these products or services with money outsideş isşteri It called.
What are impacted teeth?
When one or more teeth fails to grow in the correct position and is therefore held below the normal gum line, it is called an impaction. This can be complete, such as completely unerrupted (buried) third molars (wisdom teeth) or partial when just part of the tooth is visible in the mouth.
Why are impactions important?
For best function and appearance the teeth should grow in a healthy alignment. When one or more teeth is impacted, this can affect the function of that tooth but also the function and appearance of other teeth.
Whether all impactions should be treated is still controversial and your dentist and oral and maxillofacial team can explain the advantages and disadvantages or treatment for you, which is usually surgical.
Total Quality is a management style practiced in Japan “paying attention to people, advocating that motivation can be achieved in ways other than money, creating a team spirit by not competing with each other, providing lifelong employment in remuneration, paying higher wages with seniority, and doing the same job instead of specialization. is a system that prioritizes job enrichment through rotation.
TQM is a management philosophy that enables the planning and implementation of activities involving all employees, suppliers and distribution channels of an enterprise in order to meet the needs and reasonable expectations of customers in a full, continuous and most economical way.
Total Quality Management is a management model that focuses on quality, foresees customer satisfaction, employee satisfaction and is based on the participation of all personnel.
- T 'It includes the total, participation of all employees, all aspects of work done, all customers and all products and services produced.
- K ' Quality means meeting the current expectations and needs of customers fully and on time, and offering them products and services that exceed their future expectations.
- YThe second is that the management leads the employees in all matters, sets an exemplary model for the employees and ensures participatory management throughout the company. Participatory management means that employees at all levels have the opportunity to freely present their suggestions and have the right to have a say in the decisions to be made within the company.
Total Quality Management is a management approach to ensure long-term success through customer satisfaction. It is based on the participation of all members of the organization in improving processes, products, services and the culture in which they live. Products and services are passed through all stages, from design to delivery, on the basis of customer and quality.
Elements of THY
- Customer focus
- Cooperation with suppliers
- Employee Development and Participation
- Managing with Processes and Relying on Data
- Continuous improvement and Creativity
- Leadership and Determination
- Social Responsibility
- Orientation to Results
TKY's Sağladği Results
- _ Increasing product and service quality
- _ Reduction of costs
- _ Profit plus
- _ Efficiency boost
- _ Efficiency plus
- _ Increase in competitiveness and market share
- _ Increasing the quality of working life and increasing employee morale
- _ Cultural exchange
- _ External customer satisfaction
- _ Environmental quality understanding
A new management approach called "Total Quality Management" has emerged in the process starting from the 50's to the present day, in order to ensure that the marketing approach, which includes the consumer and customer orientation, is absorbed by the whole of the enterprise and on the other hand, to connect the control of the applications to certain criteria.
Total Quality Management is a management philosophy that realizes the production by considering the current needs of the customers, ensures the highest level of participation from all levels in the management and aims at zero error. In order to embed this kind of philosophy in an organization, it is necessary to be prepared for extremely radical cultural changes.
Total Quality Management requires an established communication network. Because it is based on the principle of transmitting the system to everyone, adopting it by everyone and making production with zero error. For this reason, there is no doubt that information technologies will play an important role in the establishment of the system.
Although TQM has been handled by management scientists and engineers for years, it is not possible to say that the relationship between Marketing and TQM has been elaborated. This relationship, which is also neglected by marketing writers, may have an impact on the activities and thus the success of businesses.
Marketing has important opportunities and tasks for a business to achieve its goals for total quality. Namely; Marketing is an important tool for maximizing total customer satisfaction, which is the primary objective of TQM.
The market and customer-oriented thinking style that the marketing approach provides to the businesses and in this context, the marketing tools it offers to the managers are extremely important in realizing customer satisfaction. Businesses should be able to follow the market closely in order to produce products and services that can meet the needs and requests of customers, and all processes within the business should be activated in line with this purpose with the feedback system. In fact, integrated or integrated marketing activities, which are the requirements of the marketing approach, express the harmony between the different parts of the business and its necessity.
Marketing is actually a prerequisite for the success of TQM.
Market-oriented thinking is a prerequisite for the quality of products and services offered by businesses to meet the quality expectations of customers. As quality products and services will mean customer loyalty and increased market share, the profitability of the enterprise will also be positively affected. In the short term, although the profitability will decrease due to the initial or additional investment costs, the profitability will be positively affected in the medium and long term.
It can be said that marketing has become the responsibility of everyone in the business. Everyone working in the business should be able to put himself in the customer's place and think and act like him. Only in this way will it be possible to ensure that customers are satisfied.
Planning is only one of the company's roles, but the most vital. A company's legal personality and business plan lead it to move forward.
The marketing plan is the most important part of this comprehensive plan. Therefore, the marketing plan process needs to be carried out as part of the company planning and budgeting process.
The marketing plan sets out the company's marketing goals and proposes strategies to achieve them. Alternately, the marketing plan can be broken down into smaller marketing plans for individual production and plans that can be drawn up as needed.
In enterprises, from the budget to the multi-year budget, from there to the plan, from the planning to the strategic planning and then to the strategic management phase. As the level of responsibility of managers increases, the time they devote to planning also increases. Strategic marketing planning is a conscious and organizational decision and selection process that envisages the allocation of marketing resources (physical, human and financial) to marketing opportunities in line with marketing objectives and targets for a specific and future period. An appropriate organization and management style and an effective information system are needed for the success of marketing activities.
Planning in marketing, taken in a broad sense, can be thought of as analysis and forecasting to increase the effectiveness of marketing activities. For this reason, planning is necessarily related to the goals that the business wants to achieve, the system of activities undertaken by the business to achieve these goals, the effort required for success and the business capacity to create this effort.
Marketing management is the process of planning, organization, implementation and control of marketing activities that will facilitate and accelerate the realization of changes/exchanges in an effective and efficient manner. The concept of effectiveness in the definition expresses the degree of contribution of the change in the subject of marketing to the achievement of the business objectives.
The marketing manager has to come face to face with two groups of variables while carrying out marketing activities. These are the marketing environment variables and the marketing mix variables. The marketing manager has to carry out marketing activities within the framework of certain strategies.
Come up with marketing strategyşThe breeding process consists of two general stages.
- The first tier is target market selection
- The second stage is the marketing mix suitable for the selected target market.
It is to create.
The target market is the consumer (customer) group that exhibits similar (homogeneous) characteristics to which a company wants to attract attention. Marketing managers will try to serve the consumers in this group by identifying consumer groups that are similar to each other in terms of wants and needs. The first thing the marketing manager will do is to divide the market into segments that exhibit homogeneous characteristics according to certain criteria. Following the segmentation process, the business will select as its target market one or more of the market segments it can best serve or provide customer satisfaction. After the target market is determined, the marketing manager has to create the appropriate marketing mix for the selected market or markets.
The marketing mix is a mix of variables that are under the control of the business in order to provide customer satisfaction in line with the wishes and needs of the consumers in the selected target market.
There are four elements of the marketing mix.
Some marketers suggest the concept of 4Ps, arguing that the 7P approach is insufficient to express today's modern marketing understanding.
In addition to the 4P, the proposed diğall three hash elements;
- Physical evidence is physical evidence.
The reason why the additional 3Ps are recommended is that the concept of 4Ps is insufficient, especially in the service sector, which has become extremely important today.
Marketing plansIt is not like inscriptions written on stone. As it is implemented, with the changing economic conditions, it will be seen that some strategies are not as effective as thought, and there may be delays in the implementation of action plans. Therefore, all marketing plans should be updated on a 1-year basis.
If we take a brief look at the Marketing Planning Phases; For marketing planning, it will be necessary to engage in financial, production and personnel planning based on marketing planning data, as well as information gathering and future sales forecasts.
In other words, these plans need to be melted into the marketing crucible. Marketing planning stages şu are foursIt is possible to sum up under:
- Mission and purpose
- Assumptions on environmental factors
- Developing marketing goals and strategies
- Action plan
An executive summary is also required at the beginning of the plan to be presented to senior management. This summary is prepared after the planning activity is finished.