- The ring, that is, ring and ring spinning, was discovered by John Thorp on November 20, 1828 and patented in the United States.
- Although it has been used in cotton spinning for many years, the British system of spinning started to be applied only after 1930.
- It was started to be used by European manufacturers with the French system 20 years ago in the 1910s.
- The first studies of wool spinning in combed wool spinning were made by Whitin Machine Works Whitinsville in the USA.
Whitin ring spinning machines are faster in the Bradford system than in the French system. In the current situation, it can be said that all worsted spinning mills use rings. It is possible to obtain bobbins of 3 inches in diameter, 11 inches in length and 350 grams with these.
It is possible to spin up to 10-70 Nm in the ring.
Ring Spinning System
- As a system, ring spinning machines are the same in wool spinning and cotton spinning.
- The difference is only in the dimensions of the machine elements, with minor exceptions.
- In wool spinning, the machine elements are larger than in cotton spinning.
In ring spinning machine
The fiber is fed in strip form, passing through the roller drafting zone, twisting and winding processes are carried out with the help of travelers and rings. After the yarn leaves the take-off rollers, it passes through a hook located in the center direction of the ring spindle and is wound onto the rotating bobbin. The main spinning element is the spindle.
It is a continuous system as the fiber strip is simultaneously thinned, bent and wound on bobbins. Twisting and winding are done together. The twist is given by the rotation of the bobbin. The fiber sliver enters the drafting apparatus, is fed through the drafting rollers and is brought to the desired final fineness. The spindle rotates the bobbin at a constant speed. The speed of the pre-drawing rollers is adjusted to give the desired amount of twist to the yarn. The cop slides freely around the collar. The tension created by the traveler pull ensures that the yarn is wound as quickly as it exits the bobbin.
The amount of twist given depends on the ratio of the spindle speed (traveller speed) to the peripheral speed of the production roller.
Advantages of ring spinning
In ring spinning, the fibers that are parallelized at the exit point from the front cot, which is at the starting point of the spinning, encounter quite a lot of tension when they are twisted. This is technologically advantageous in that the fibers come together very well and hold on to each other during twisting, and the high friction forces between the fibers provide very good yarn strength. On the other hand, it is seen as a disadvantageous point in terms of yarn breaks.
One of the very important advantages in ring spinning is the perfect compatibility of the fibers during spinning. In all ring spinning processes, the fibers are very well controlled under the pressure of high mechanical forces. In shooting areas, rollers and aprons, they keep all the fibers under control, regardless of their length, to be in harmony. For this reason, the fibers cannot take any shape that would disrupt the harmony, and as a result, high-strength yarn is produced. This is the most important key point of ring spinning.
The drafting systems in the spinning of medium and long fibers effectively control the speed of the fibers in the drafting zone. This makes it possible to produce extremely uniform yarn under certain conditions from fibers accelerated in a controlled manner in the drafting zone.
Short fibers in the fiber band given to the drafting zone are also drawn. However, the velocities of these fibers cannot be effectively controlled and they are called fibers floating in the fiber band in production. The inability of these fibers to keep up with the speed increases in the drafting region, in the regions between the grip points, together with other fibers, has a negative impact on yarn unevenness. The excellent fiber control in ring spinning allows this spinning system to be used in a very wide count range for all fiber types. For this reason, ring spinning gives an extremely excellent appearance in terms of operating flexibility. The harmony of fibers under high tension and excellent fiber control during spinning provide ring yarn with great advantages in terms of strength and smoothness. Yarn unevenness, on the other hand, decreases only if the amount of short fibers increases.
Disadvantages of ring spinning
Besides its advantages, the ring spinning machine also has some disadvantages. Breaks are high due to ring traveler and air-thread friction. There is a broken-end connection problem. There is a lot of time wasted in breaking and tying. The high speed of the traveler damages the yarn. The bobbin capacity is low, the energy cost is high.
Ring spinning takes up a large part of the total spinning cost. Therefore, the energy cost is very high.
Ring Spinning Machines
They are machines that produce yarn from fiber tape. These are the machines in which the roving or fiber band consisting of natural or synthetic staple fibers in its wider form is drawn to the desired fineness and the yarn obtained after twisting is wound on a bobbin or cop or another boss. The most common yarn spinning machines are ring spinning machines.
In wool spinning used ring spinning machines except minor accessory changes in cotton spinning are the same as used. There are some differences in strip feeding, drafting and winding systems.
- Almost all types of yarn are produced in ring spinning machines.
- Cotton, synthetic, hentai, semi-permanent and woolen yarn can be produced.
- This machine, which is more productive than the portable shaper, produces a stronger but less soft wool yarn.
There are various ring spinning machine constructions. These vary according to the quality of the yarn produced, the way of fiber feeding and other machine constructions.
Ring spinning machines are generally examined under the following headings::
- Kamgam ring spinning machine,
- semi-permanent ring spinning machine,
- Strayhgarn ring spinning machine,
- Roving feeding in ring spinning machine,
- The drafting device in the ring spinning machine,
- Spindles in ring spinning machine,
- Ring in ring spinning machine,
- Traveler in ring spinning machine,
- Ballooning and balloon separators (separators) in ring spinning machine,
- Pigtail (yarn guide) on the ring spinning machine,
- Bobbin and cop
Worsted Ring Spinning Machine
In the wool spinning system, it is possible to work with long fibers. The retraction distance (the length between the fiber holding notes of the front and rear drafting cylinders) is longer in the new drafting of long fibers. The ring spinning machine used in worsted spinning is the same as the classical ring spinning machine in general system principle. The roving is fed, thinned on the draft rollers, twisted and wound into cops.
High quality, fine homogeneous, smooth surface yarns can be produced in Kamgam ring spinning machine.
Semi Worsted Ring Spinning Machine
Semi-wieldy yarns; Kamgam is not as smooth, neat, shiny as threads. In general, the process flow is as in Kamgan. It's not just scanning. It is especially used in spinning wool type artificial fibers. There is no special ball-fed system as in the Strayhgarn. Roving and tape feeding is made to the semi-permanent ring spinning machine. Considering that shorter fibers are also used, drafting systems and gauge distances are arranged accordingly.
The roving-fed semi-serval ring spinning machine is similar to the machine used in roving-spinning. Although there is no obvious difference, there are some differences such as the shorter retraction distance (closer to the drafting cylinders), the coarser yarn obtained than the camgam yarns, and therefore the larger winding device.
Ring spinning machines produced by the French company NCS can be given as an example of belt feeding in a semi-permanent ring spinning machine. Yarns from Nm 24 to Nm XNUMX are produced in these machines. It is useful to examine some of these machines as an example.
Ring spinning machine CF 32 Suitable for the production of woven carpet, upholstery, knitwear and knitting yarns from 10 to 24 Nm It has the following technical qualities:
- Bracelet diameter of 75 mm.
- 105 mm gauge.
- 350 mm long bobbin.
- High quality.
- Speed up to 10500 rpm. There are single or independent double-sided models.
There are also ring spinning machines equipped with a two-stage high draft drafting zone. The high performance and high efficiency Cf 32 machine can be equipped with the following elements.
- Very well studied automatic doffing device.
- Automatic bobbin feeding with direct connection.
- A special data logger device
Ring spinning machine CF 43 It is used for knitwear, carpet, upholstery and decoration yarns between 3 and 14 Nm.
Bracelet diameter: 94 mm
Gauge: 120 mm
Bobbin length: 400 mm
High quality crown head spindle
A high speed of 9000 rpm.
The ring spinning machine CF 43 has the following features:
- Two-zone arm type drafting zone, equipped with a rupture tape stop that reduces material losses.
- central control,
- Twice the number of spindles compared to classical rings,
- Fully automatic tool change,
- Coiling machine connection with ring.
As a machine equipped with automatic and high performance equipment, it has the following effects:
- Increasing efficiency,
- cost reduction,
- Reducing labor cost,
- Producing quality yarn,
- Increasing the efficiency of the winding machine significantly,
- Reducing the cost of yarn kg.
All spinning machines also have linen workers.
Ring spinning machine CF 29 It is suitable for the manufacture of semi-permanent yarns from 8 to XNUMX Nm, especially tufting yarn.
It has the following features:
- High speeds up to 7500 rpm.
- Opportunity to choose according to the material to be used with three types of high-performance shrinkage zones
- quality yarn
Its main features are:
- Bracelet diameter: 120 mm
- Gauge: 160 mm
- Bobbin length: 600 mm
- Crown head spindles
Strayhgarn Ring Spinning Machine
Coarser yarns are produced in ring spinning machines where Strayhgarn yarn is produced. The common machine is the system in which yarn is produced by feeding from the roving ball. But there are different machines with belt feed.
Since roving balls are made directly from the card in the production of woolen yarn, these balls are placed in the ring spinning machine and roving feed is carried out.
Producing coarser yarn requires changes in the yarn winder. Larger bobbins are used in order to minimize the time loss arising from bobbin change as a result of the thick thread filling the bobbin quickly.
The suction device or vacuum foam collection system has become the standard equipment to be found on Strayhgarn spinning machines. This system prevents the broken rovings from collecting in the spinning zone and wrapping the yield rollers. Broken roving ends are sucked by the air drawn in by the short air suction tubes placed in a suitable part of the yarn trajectory, and collected at one end of the machine through the channels on both sides of the yarn machine and goes to the filter cell. The sucked air passes through the filters and is blown into the spinning mill. This device prevents double yarn formation, yarn breakage, fly accumulation and keeps the spinning machine clean.
Roving Feeding in the Ring Spinning Machine
In wool spinning, fiber is fed to wool spinning machines in three ways.
- In the form of a roving ball
- In the form of a roving cop
- In tape.
worsted ring in spinning machines roving in cops fed into the machine.
semi worsted in ring spinning machines roving cop as fed fiber tape is also fed.
Strayhgarn ring in spinning machines wicks ball in case of fed.
Drafting Device in Ring Spinning Machine
It is the part where the fiber group in the form of strips is thinned in the ring spinning machine.
Consists of various roller and drafting assemblies:
- feed rollers,
- Draft rollers (carrier rollers),
- cot (pressure rollers) and apron,
- Cleaning rollers.
They are the cylinders that provide the entry (feeding) of the material to the spinning machines. After passing through the feed roller, the roving has now entered the drafting zone.
Draft rollers (carrier rollers)
They are cylinders located in the part of the drafting zone. Positively driven flat metallic roller located primarily between the draw rollers on some camshaft drawing machines and some spinning machines to ensure fiber control during drafting. It is used together with a printing roller working together on this roller, one, two or three groups of carrier rollers can be used depending on the length of the fiber being processed.
These rollers are flat metallic carrier rollers that provide the control of the fiber with the printing roller and the drive by placing them between the drawing rollers. The fiber passes between the pressure roller and the carrier roller.
cot (pressure rollers) and apron
Print rollers are important for a smooth shot. They are smooth, wooden, synthetic rubber-coated or metal rollers, driven by friction, loaded by pressure, resting on the raw material being conveyed by the conveyor. Pressure rollers are used in some camshaft drawing and spinning machines to draw the fiber and keep it under control during drafting.
In drafting gear, drafting belts are called aprons. It is located at the top and bottom between the drafting and printing rollers.
They perform the cleaning process of the printing rollers. They directly affect the efficiency and precision of the print cylinders.
Spindles in Ring Spinning Machine
The spindle is the most important element of the ring machine, on which the yarn spool is attached, which moves the bobbin to rotate, thus performing the yarn winding. They are found bedded from the neck and base parts. In this way, the spindle speed, which increased to 7000 rpm (3000 rpm in the oldest types), could be increased to 25.000 rpm by the application of rolling bearings to the spindles. The higher speeds of the spindles are limited by the frictional strength of the traveler and ring.
As the spindle speed increases, the vibration of the whole system and the pressure on the bearings increase, and to prevent this, special self-adjusting bearings have been developed. The spindles have a knee-commanded brake assembly. Good lubrication of the spindle bearings should not be neglected for the smooth operation of the spindles.
Spindle movement is provided in two ways;
- Elastic principle; 2 spindles or 4 spindles can be turned on each face of the machine.
- Movement from direct gears.
Movement to the spindles is usually provided by spindle strips. In this respect, the machine system is divided. The motion received from several drums is transmitted by the endless spindle sliver to the spindles of the system (usually 4 spindles). The spindles are of different sizes and are divided into two as weft and warp spindles or plain and rolling bearings.
The amount of energy required to drive the spindles; It depends on the spindle speed, bedding type, lubrication, weight and shape of the spindle system. There are various devices that move and transmit the spindle and also guide the spindle. The main ones are:
- spindle sleeve,
- spindle pulley,
- Spindle strip.
The part of a spindle unit that carries the bearings on which the spindle rotates is called the spindle sleeve.
It is one of the elements that move the spindle. A pulley driven by tape, cord, belt or rope in a spindle or false-twist arrangement.
It is the motion transmission belt that drives the spindle to rotate, a narrow fabric woven with a high warp density, normally no more than 50 mm wide and designed for power transmission to small diameter pulleys, such as on spinning and twisting machines.
In the old type of spinning machines, spigot was used for spindle drive. In the new machines they have been replaced by spindle tapes due to speed, the width of spindle tapes is usually 8-10-12 mm. Each endless spindle sliver transfers the movement from the drums to the spindles. It is made of polyamide 6 or 6,6. Cotton strips have lost their importance. Ribbon tension is provided by the tensioner pulley. The tension in plain bearings is 1000-1200 gr, in rolling bearings 600 gr. is around. The seams of the strips should not be rough.
Bracelet on Ring Spinning Machine
It is a metal circle made of quality hard steel that forms the return path of the traveler around the spindle. The bracelet is subject to high friction. The surfaces of the bracelets are made harder than the clasp. It is very important for the traveler to be fully rounded and the surface smoothness for efficient movement. Single and double sided bracelets are available. Both sides of double-faced bracelets can be used.
Double-sided bracelets have the inconvenience of rusting on the unused side. With good care, the bracelet will last 5-6 years. Bracelet thicknesses; flange l = 3,2 mm flange 1,5 = 3,7 mm flange 2 = 4 - 4,1 mm.
The collar width (inner diameter) varies between 40-60 mm depending on the spindle spacing. The bracelets were mounted on bracelet stands, which were previously made of cast iron and now made of pressed steel sheet due to weight.
Ring rail (hook hook)
In ring spinning machines, it is a stand on which the bracelets are mounted, which was previously made of cast iron and now made of pressed steel sheet due to weight.
Traveler in Ring Spinning Machine
In ring spinning, it is the metallic or plastic part that the yarn passes through while it is wound on the bobbin, which gives tension to the thread, provides twisting with the spindle, moves attached to the collar and takes its motion from the thread. The traveler moves by dragging on the ring and delivers the twisted yarn to the bobbin to be wound by the spindle.
There are different types of travelers such as double-sided, single-sided, C, N, ellipse, oval travelers. a good hook; It is desirable that it be suitable for the bracelet form, have a smooth surface, be made of good material and be of appropriate weight.
The fasteners are numbered according to their weight. Travelers are changed according to the thread number.
Honey in the Ring Spinning MachineOnion and Balloon Separators (Separator)
It is a curved view of the yarns in motion when they are pulled out of the balloon guide during yarn spinning, folding and winding operations.
Uncontrolled excessive ballooning can disrupt spinning.
The yarn, which is in motion with sufficient yarn winding speed, is seen as a balloon as it rotates on the bobbin where it is unwound from the boss. The bobbin from which the yarn is unwound can be fixed or rotated in the opposite direction of the original winding direction.
The bobbin can be fixed or rotated in the opposite direction of the original winding direction. The shape of the balloon depends on the following factors:
- Air resistance acting on the passage of yarn spinning around a pattern,
- Centrifugal force acting on the spinning yarn,
- Thread number and type,
- Winding speed of the yarn,
- Bobbin length.
Do in Ring Spinning MachineBanana Tail (Spinning Guide)
The last element that guides the yarn is the yarn guide, also known as the ballooning eye. The yarn guide forms the upper point of the yarn balloon, which is aligned with the axis of the yarn wrapper and at a suitable distance above it, during the spinning, folding, winding operations.
Bobbin and Cops
After the fiber is spun into yarn, it is wrapped around various objects. All elements on which yarn is wound are called yarn boss. On the yarn spun on the ring spinning machine bobbin to the yarn boss, on which it is wound a wound bobbin is also called a cop. Moreover; simplenot yarn, for example; The bobbins on which the wicks are wound are called cops.
The cops have a vertically perforated center, usually consisting of a paper tube. In spinning machines, the basis of the bobbin can be a plastic or paper tube threaded into the spindle. Cops, which can be in various sizes and types, are produced in accordance with various requirements in fabric production in yarn spinning. The empty bobbin length is 20-21-23-24 cm in cotton spinning. Depending on the ring diameter, the empty tube weight is between 50-80 gr. In the wool system, the length of the empty bobbin is 35-40-60 cm. Cops have the shape to be used for a specific purpose, for example; the weft cop is in such a way that it enters the shuttle.