The intensity of business life required women to start working life, ready-made clothing and mass production. In order to carry out mass production, people were divided into groups, body measurement standards were established and production was carried out first in workshops and then in factories. It is inevitable that all processes are important at the stage of production in factories.
Ready-to-wear (apparel) in general;
Etc. includes stages.
The issue of laying is one of the factors affecting the increase in productivity in production.
Tools used in the series are given below.
Pastry Head Cutting Machine
Cloth Hanger (Ball Hanger Tool)
Intermediate Support Tables
Multi-Deck Opening Table
Underlay Paper: It is laid under the spread fabrics. Its purpose is a paper used for easy transport of the fabric on the table to other areas if necessary.
It is divided into two. Perforated marker paper is used on air and vacuum tables. In addition, if additional fabric is to be used during laying, these papers are used.
Pastry Head Cutting Machine: In manual laying, it ensures that the marker head is cut without wastage while laying on top of each other. The fabric is advanced empty, the holders of the machine hold the fabric, the fabric is laid, when it comes to the starting point of the laying, the cutting apparatus of the machine works and cuts the fabric, it is held with the gripper, and the laying is continued in this period. It is a machine used to align the fabric heads thrown for the marker and to reduce the waste loss.
It is a laying aid that allows the fabric ball to be laid to be opened easily by rotating inside it, can be mounted on the laying table or used in combination with the table. The use of a fabric trough saves the layers from pulling the fabric by forcing it. It reduces the time of the paving process and provides more effective use of the paving table. The fabric ball opens easily by rotating in the boat.
Cloth Hanger (Ball Hanger Tool)
It is a simple arrangement consisting of forks mounted on the head of the table and a round iron rod passed through the fabric ball, according to the laying direction of the fabric. After the iron bar is passed through the fabric ball, it is used by two people by placing it on the forks. Thus, the flow ease of the fabric is provided. In this process, face-to-face laying is not possible. With the help of this mechanism, the laying process Also called laying with a fork.
It is the tool placed on the table edges that helps to overlap one edge of the laid fabric folds. Also called sidebar. It prevents laying errors that may occur especially when laying slippery fabrics. With this device placed on the edge of the table, overlapping of one edge of the fabrics can be easily achieved.
It is a tool that has a rotary motion to enable easy opening of large fabric balls. Since it is mobile and has wheels on its feet, it provides the opportunity to be used both for carrying the fabric ball and on the desired cutting table. Putting large fabric balls on the table eliminates the problems caused by the weight and the space it will occupy on the table. It is mostly used in businesses producing home textiles.
Intermediate Support Tables
These are the tables with wheels, which are used to take the laid fabric layers (Pastalin) or the cut tapes from the table to the table or sawmill. When open width paving machines are desired to be used on more than one table, transfer tables are used to transfer them from one table to another. The transfer table is adjusted according to the width of the table, wheels are added to its feet.
Multi-Deck Opening Table
It is a paving aid that consists of fixed sidebars, removable intermediate ball mounting rods and four wheels and is used to open many fabric balls. Multi-level opening stands have various functions such as conveying the fabrics from the warehouse to the slaughterhouse, using it as a buffer warehouse and using it as an opening apparatus. It can be used on fabric balls of different sizes as the hanger intervals can be changed according to demand.
Fabric Laying Tables and Usage Areas
Fabrics or other materials to be cut are packaged in various ways. It is not suitable for cutting with these shapes. They must be opened and laid properly so that they can be cut. Spreading tables can be in different sizes depending on the size of the business. However, the table surface must be smooth, smooth and resistant to temperature changes. Table widths should match the width of the fabric (100cm -250cm). Table length (between 15 and 30 meters) should be kept as long as possible according to the size of the workshop. The height of the table should be adjustable and screwed, and it should be adjustable according to the height of the person to work. Table legs can be sectional or round.
These tables are in pieces and can be used by being assembled according to the desired size. The parts that make up the table must be interlocking, there must be no height difference between the opening and the part. The point to be considered in the manufacture of these tables is that the width of the table is 20 cm wider than the width of the fabric that can be used. The surface material of the tables should be manufactured in such a way as to allow easy control of the fabrics. The height of the table should be between 80-90 cm for the convenience of the cutter, and the parallelism of the table surface to the ground should be adjusted with a spirit level.
The vacuum table is used to facilitate the cutting process after the laying process is completed, to prevent the fabric from slipping and to reduce the cutting height in bulky fabrics. Covering the top layer of the fabric block with nylon gives good results in practice.
It is used in hand laying to fix plaid and striped fabrics. Is divided into two:
Fixed needle fabric laying table: It is like fixed tables, and there are needles in the sieve on its upper table. The control is done by hand or foot control. Checkered and striped fabrics are used to prevent the folds from slipping when placed on the table.
Moving needle fabric laying table: The principles of use of this type of tables are the same as those of fixed needle tables, and they are used for laying slippery and multi-layered materials such as lining.
The top table of the table is connected to the chassis of the table with movable joints from one side and allows the table to stand upright to the chassis. When the table is in an upright position, the material is passed to the needles on the upper part and the process is performed. When the laying process is finished, the table is brought to the horizontal position. This way of laying provides great convenience for employees. It is used for laying and cutting of patterned, striped and plaid fabrics. It is modular and can be added to the front and back of existing desks. It is easy to use and the needle lengths are adjustable. In this way, it can also be used as a flat table when necessary.
Tables with Suspenders
It is used for laying slippery fabrics. Hangers to hold fabrics are placed on one of the long sides of these tables. Before laying the fabric, the hanging table is brought to the vertical position. Movable hooks are adjusted on the wall according to the length of the marker. The fabrics are placed on the hooks at the edge of the table. After the fabric is placed, cutting can be done by turning the table horizontally. In fabric laying and cutting tables with hangers, the durability of the table legs should be increased where they meet the table. These tables are modular. Additions and deletions can be made according to the needs of the business.
Air Blown Tables
These tables are like fixed tables, and there are holes on the upper table that blow air just like the sieve. These holes are connected to an extractor hood located under the table. The air produced by the aspirator comes out of these holes. This system allows heavy fabrics to be moved with a slight pushing force. The rough cut fabrics are shifted to the fine cutting table by opening the air mechanism of the table.
It is used to slide the cake thrown on it without getting spoiled. Thus, cutting and laying works are done at the same time, saving time and labor. It is designed to easily carry the weight of the spreading machine and fabric on the tables. It is mostly required for companies using automatic fabric cutting machines. Apart from this, companies that want to apply more than one laying and cutting process on the same table at the same time prefer an air table. Working equipment of vacuum tables and air blowing tables is the same. Vacuum tables work with a system opposite to the working system of air blown tables.
Infinite Moving Tables
The upper table of such fabric laying and cutting tables is made of plastic and is in the form of an endless band. The top table is moved in the desired direction with the rollers at the beginning and end of the table. The operation is done with the help of a control button. It is a system where all slaughterhouse operations are performed together. These tables consist of five main parts. The first tabletop is used for fabric laying. After the marker thrown on this table is ready for cutting, the table table is moved forward with the control button and transferred to the second table. After rough cutting is done on the second table, it is moved forward again and transferred to the third table for fine cutting. Fabric laying and rough cutting can be done on empty trays. Thus, the transfer of the marker can be done easily and properly, and the efficiency of the slaughterhouse is increased.
Fabric Laying Methods
The fabrics are laid by paying attention to the direction of weaving, pattern, color and feather. This diversity in fabric properties has led to the development of different laying methods.
Fabric laying methods
Full-width and half-width laying
Tube fabric laying
It is divided into two.
Full-width and Half-width Laying
The full width spread is a spread that includes all the templates (right and left pieces) of the garment to be cut.
It is a widely used layout. A half-width spread is one that covers only one half of the templates of the garment to be cut. It is not a preferred way of laying in apparel. Since the fabric layers can rotate and slide inwards, multi-layer laying cannot be done.
One Way Laying
Laying process in pile fabrics; One-way laying, one-way laying face-up, one-way laying face-down, face-to-face laying.
If the fabric is directional like velvet or flush, it needs to be laid on one side so that the pile direction can then be in the same direction on the garment. For this reason, it is always thrown with the fabric face upside down.
This method is generally used for laying double width or circular knitted fabrics. It is the process of laying the fabric on top of each other as a zigzag, not cutting it at the marker heads.
A block of fabric layers, which are stacked on top of each other for mass production and at least one edge is overlapped, is called a marker. In other words, the fabrics are laid in layers on the cutting table in various ways according to the patterns, feathers, pile and the characteristics of the model to be applied, in accordance with the cutting order. marker called.)
There is no empty transition in the zigzag laying method, which can be applied to both open-width and half-width fabrics. Because when I go to the starting place, the laying takes place. The face side of a fold is always on the face of the previous fold or the reverse side is on the reverse side of the previous fold each time. In the zigzag laying method, the fabric layers are not cut at the end of the pattern, but are attached and continued to be laid. With this method, a higher work efficiency is achieved in the laying of non-directional fabrics with the same reverse side. The disadvantage of the zigzag laying method is that the fabric direction changes from layer to layer. Therefore, it is not used for laying pile and directional fabrics.
Double Layer Laying in Feather Direction
It is the laying method made by considering the feather direction in fabrics with feather direction.Laying in the direction of the feather requires additional equipment on the machines. With this equipment, the fabric layer is cut and turned before laying the fabric layer.
Fabric laying can also be done in stages.
Different number of fabric layers and different pave lengths can be created on the same marker. This method provides the opportunity to cut in varying numbers from different sizes. For example, if 6 cuts from 2 sizes, 200 from 2 sizes, and 100 cuts from 2 sizes in a 50-size graphic, 50 layers of fabric are first laid across the entire marker. Then, 50 layers of fabric are laid along the total length of the first and second sizes. Finally, 100 layers of fabric are laid along the first body. The disadvantage of this series is that it does not allow nesting templates of different sizes in the pastel painting.
It is a form of laying made with individual laying and intertwining techniques made from different fabrics. It is used in cases where a small number of cuts will be made from the same fabric. Each fabric to be used in the series is laid according to its own characteristics.
Pattern Feature Layout
It is used in fabrics that have pattern features and will affect the pattern form when the direction of the fabric changes.
Layouts made for checkered, striped or asymmetrical patterned fabrics. It gives better results if it is done on needle tables. In the placement of the patterns, they should be placed by considering the pattern feature in the direction of the fabric's yarn. Since the direction of the pattern is important in the laying made with patterned fabric, one-way marker is thrown. In this type of fabrics, laying is applied in one direction.
Tube Fabric Laying
It is the laying of circular knitted fabrics.
Both sides of the fabric are closed. Suspended laying tables are suitable for laying tubular fabrics. Laying can be done by using tube fabric spreading machines or by hand. Care should be taken to avoid both stretching and stretching of the fabrics.
Laying is a process to prepare bulky materials and fabrics in the form of balls used in ready-made clothing and garment-related products for cutting. On the other hand, laying is the process of laying the fabrics in layers on the cutting table (depending on the pattern, feather, pile and the characteristics of the model to be applied) in accordance with the cutting order.
It is made by using various methods and techniques according to the fabric, material, model feature, production and equipment capacity of the enterprise.
The basic categories of the cutting process are:
Cut layout (label plan)
Marking of floors (metting)
They are transactions.
Hand laying is a system that is widely used in small workshops. Hand laying is the process that consists of two people pulling the fabric opposite each other on a cutting table, laying the fabric in layers and cutting the head of the marker with scissors. In this system, which is tiring and has a low marker throwing speed, there may be fabric losses (losses) of up to 1-12 cm at the beginning and end of the marker.
In the lay plan, the lines where the patterns end flush are marked on the cutting table. If the fabric ball ends up in the marker, the laying process is continued, starting from the back of the line at least 10 cm, taking these lines into account. These marks on the table eliminate the need to return to the marker picture at the end of the fabric ball.
Manual Spreader (Manual)
The user provides the movement of the machine on the table. The machine is moved by holding the handle on the machine by the user. Therefore, the spreading speed is equal to the walking speed of the user. These are modular. With the same machine tool changes, zigzag laying, overlapping, tube fabric laying can be done.
Spreader: The person who uses the machine is the person who makes the laying.
Front Holder: It is the holder placed on the table at the end of the marker according to the length of the marker.
Rear Holder: It is the holder placed at the laying starting point of the marker.
Cutting Apparatus: It is the apparatus that cuts the marker head in the laying according to the overlapping method. Zigzag Apparatus: It is the apparatus placed on the machine in laying according to the zigzag laying method.
Tube Cloth Apparatus: It is the apparatus that allows the pulley systems of different widths to be mounted on the machine according to the width of the tube fabric.
Cutting apparatus, zigzag apparatus or one of the tube apparatus is attached to the machine according to the fabric and laying shapes. The movement start and end points of the machine are set by the user depending on the marker length. The number of fabric layers laid in the fabric laying process is monitored from the counter on the machine. In order for the cutter to work in overlapping, the user presses the relevant key.
Considerations in Laying Fabrics by Hand
The maximum, that is, the maximum paving height, should be taken into account.
Each layer should be laid without tension. Otherwise, the sizes will get smaller after laying and cutting.
Laying should be done by paying attention to the surface feature of the fabric.
Weft deviations need to be corrected. This is important for straight length yarn.
It should be noted that the final ends are 90 degrees.
The overlapping of at least one edge of the fabric folds, that is, being smooth
Laying by Machine In machine laying, the fabric is placed on the machine and the machine, which moves back and forth on the table, lays the fabric on the table.
Fabric Spreading Machines
The fabric spreading machine is a machine developed to speed up the marker spreading process. The purpose of using fabric laying machines is that the fabric layers are smooth in laying, fabric, time and personnel gain. Fabric laying machines are divided into three sections.
Semi-Automatic Spreading Machine
These machines are equipped with a motor that manages the movement, and the speed of the machine can be adjusted by the person using the machine with the speed adjustment lever. These machines can be equipped with fabric edge control.
Fully Automatic Fabric Spreading Machine
In these machines, the features such as placing the ball in the machine during fabric laying, edge control, speed settings, setting of the laying start and end points, and stopping of the machine when the laying is finished are set by the computer in the machine.
The movement of the machine on the table is realized by the machine. Thanks to the operator carrier placed on the machine, the machine moves with the user while moving on the table. The duty of the user is to follow the fabric and to ensure smooth laying through the control panel of the machine in case of any intervention requirement. There is a "touch screen" touch control panel on the machine. Thanks to the program on this panel, the machine is put into manual or automatic use. The number of layers to be laid, the laying length, the laying shape (zigzag / overlapping) are programmed from the panel on the machine. The spreader has a modular structure. The same machine can make zigzag or unidirectional spreading with the changes in the apparatus.
In the modular structure, there are spreader, front holder, rear holder, cutting apparatus, zigzag apparatus. This type of machine is mostly recommended for woven fabrics, it can also be used for knitted fabrics used in outerwear. In the pavers, the tension settings of the machine are determined in accordance with the characteristics of the fabric, with the trial made before the laying starts, and the tension settings suitable for the fabric are loaded into the program. Movement start and end points of the machine are entered into the program depending on the marker length. The number of fabric layers laid in the fabric laying process is monitored from the panel on the machine.
For the working health of the machine on the table, the electrical system coming to the machine must be good. Therefore, the Busbar system is recommended.
It is located on the opposite side of the user side of the machine. It provides uninterrupted and regular transmission of electricity to the machine along the table.
Computer Systemed Fabric Spreading and Cutting Machine
These machines, which spread and cut fabric with computer system, are also known as cutters in the sector. Although this system is expensive, it is very functional because it both lays and cuts.
In this method, the operations are done using a computer. The computer reader navigates around the template, scanning the templates and transferring them to its memory. The imported templates are displayed. The fabric width is determined on the screen by drawing with the tip. The templates are placed in the most economical way and the layout plan is prepared.
Points to Consider in Laying with Machine
Layout of Fabric Ply: In laying the fabric plies on top of each other; Care should be taken to ensure that one edge of the fabric folds is always aligned and that the fabric folds are equal at the beginning and end of the marker.
Laying of Fabric Ply
Care should be taken that the fabric layers are not stretched or loose when laying the pastel fabric layers.
It means that the fabric stretches as a result of applying a force on the fabric and that it is laid in this way. The stretchy fabric layer will return to its original position at the end of laying and there will be shortenings in the length of the marker. The greater the tension on the fabric layers during laying, the greater will be the difference in size due to shortening between the pieces of clothing in the layout and the pieces of clothing that have been cut.
A loose set
It is manifested by fluctuations and elevations on the fabric floor surface. As a result of loose laying, fabric consumption increases. In order to make a laying at the desired tension; especially in stamp type fabrics, the fabric balls to be laid should be laid out and rested on an empty laying table at least one day in advance. Thus, it should be ensured that the fabric reaches normal tension. In the laying of knitted elastic fabrics, marker throwing machines designed for laying knitted fabrics should be used instead of hand-spreading. In other fabric types, a laying at the desired tension should be ensured by using marker spreading automats.
It means overlapping of two fabric ends in a marker fold. This is a special case when the faulty part of the fabric needs to be cut out or a fabric ball ends up in the middle of the marker. The overlaps at each joint need to be precisely adjusted. Excessive or short overlap will cause excessive fabric consumption.
Before proceeding to the laying, the cutting sheet from the planning or cutting chief should be examined and the feather, pattern and pile direction of the fabric to be cut should be determined, the cutting order and the number of laying layers should be checked.
by %AM, 29% 399% 2020 11%:%May in confection Read 5350 times