Composition is the planning and implementation of parts in accordance with the purpose, harmonious, balanced, pleasing to the eye and aesthetic.
Composition is one of the most important elements in all branches of plastic arts. While perceiving a work of art, be it a painting, sculpture or architectural structure, the eye grasps a meaningful whole, and only then we get pleasure from that work of art. It is also an indispensable part of fabric design. Because putting the thought on paper, doing it and realizing it is the principle of design. All kinds of objects are a source of inspiration for the designer. If there is no harmony and balance in the arrangement of the parts that make up the whole by combining the pieces of thought on the paper, we will have difficulty in comprehending that whole. For example, in painting, a meaningful whole is achieved by combining light and dark values, lines and surfaces in a balanced and harmonious manner. By making such a design even from an apple slice, we can derive excellent pictures and eventually patterns. Of course it is important to see this. Here, too, it is very important to have basic knowledge in people.
The photo on the right above is a design. The Clothing Production Technology Field Teacher, who did this, created a pattern by adding his own imagination by making use of some objects within the framework of his master's thesis. She wore this design on the dress as seen in the photo on the left. If this dress is the realization of this design, a dress is also made with the printing technique, drapery on Jacquard looms, women's dress in fabrics and non-woven surfaces (such as tissue paper).
While creating the composition, it must first be prepared and created in the mind in order to realize a thought or a movement, taking into account the material in accordance with the subject. The design created in the mind is transformed into a design by adding personal creativity with various sketches and researches on paper. The basis of the design concept is creativity.
Going beyond existing patterns and habits, stepping into the unknown, breaking the imposed line of thought, putting forward a new line of thought and suggesting different solutions are the basis of creativity.
It is the delimitation of one surface and its separation from the other. The general appearance, which carries all the characteristic features of a whole, is the form. Every object and being in nature has a geometric form. In geometry, surfaces and bodies are arranged between two opposite extremes. These two opposite extremes are; triangle and circle. All shapes follow a harmonious sequence between these two opposite extremes.
Elements that do not have a third dimension consisting of width and length are called.
Composition is realized by using many elements and principles together. Composition elements; line, direction, form, size, spacing, texture, color, value, movement, light-shadow. These elements were encountered with new concepts that should be taken into account while making an arrangement by using composition principles.
Important elements in arranging the composition:
>>> Soil Shape Relation
Lines or three-dimensional objects show some directions with their positions. There are directions in many intermediate positions between horizontal and vertical directions. Lines and shapes that cross each other and are perpendicular are considered opposite and contradictory. Those that are in close conformity and parallel to each other are considered to be in suitable condition. Changing the directions while preparing a composition creates different and beautiful images, while also adding dynamism and movement to the composition.
Movement usually occurs depending on the direction. The elements that make up the composition can create different movement effects in the order of contrast.
Measure and proportion is a concept that is widely used in visual arts. People generally measure everything according to themselves. Proportions that go beyond their own value and measure consciousness disturb people. According to this measure; We can say that it is the unitary relationship between two quantities. The important thing in design is that the forms reveal a harmonious and balanced and aesthetic order in accordance with the purpose. Small dimensions create the effect of distance in visual perception. Large sizes mean closeness.
Spacings close to each other in the design are suitable, while those that are far from each other cause disconnection and do not show unity. If the adjacent intervals are repeated, it can bring monotony. For this reason, the use of different sized intervals between forms and spaces brings movement and dynamism to the composition.
It is the third dimension of the expression of forms and spaces. In the picture, the effect of volume is gained with light-dark values.
Soil Shape Relation
A ground (surface: Any area that allows two-dimensional work on it.) is required for placing forms in the composition. In the closely spaced and continuous arrangement of forms on the surface, the eye perceives the forms by grouping them. Care should be taken when placing the shapes on the ground, as the eye tends to complete the missing shapes. Forms used in light colors on dark-effect floors appear more prominent even if they are small in size.
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Using an item as the same or close value more than once creates repetition.
The principle of repetition is of three kinds.
It is the fact that the size, shape, color, value and texture of the objects or shapes are exactly the same and they are used in the same direction at equal intervals.
It is the fact that the size, shape, color, value and texture of objects or shapes are exactly the same, but their spacing or directions are used differently.
Intermittent repetition occurs when more than one motif, form or object is used one after the other at certain intervals.
Finding common or approximate similarities between two or three-dimensional objects is called fitness. Conformity can be defined as form, size, colour, value, texture, etc. consists of aspects. It may be one or more of them together. Conformity can be in the physical structures of objects, as well as in their character, the meaning they are inspired, and service associations.
Eligibility is grouped into four groups.
Compliance in the external structure: The similarity of the elements that make up the design in terms of size, shape, value, texture, direction and spacing creates physical fitness.
Suitability according to the service it provides: The forms used for the same purpose in the design are interconnected. Although they are different in terms of form, they are suitable because they are combined for the same service. For example; such as soap dispenser, toothbrush holder.
Conformity according to the form it has: Although some forms are not related to each other, they may show similarity in terms of form.
Conformity according to the styles they have: The closeness and unity between the elements in the design, and the harmony between the parts and the whole are provided by the stylistic suitability. For example; geometric forms in design
If there are no common or close qualities between the objects in any respect, it becomes difficult to establish a relationship between them. Each remains alien and indifferent to the other. Thus, when a unity is not established between the bodies, inconsistency and confusion come to the fore. Undoubtedly, there is a well-resolved contrast balance in every work that is considered valuable from an artistic point of view. Contrasts are always in the foreground in the evaluation of something. Balancing the opposite will resolve many things. Contrast; form, color, texture, value, size, direction, spacing, etc. It could be maintenance.
The bridge connecting the two opposite ends at appropriate levels is called a hierarchy. With the help of this arrangement, which provides an orderly transition between the two extremes, a meaningful and beautiful series emerges. If there is a difference in size between the two ends, the shapes should be arranged from one end to the other in order from largest to smallest.
Conditions that never change in Hierarchy
-The contrast between the two extremes
-A regular gradation (ordering) between the ends
There are two kinds of koram in the bill
It is formed by arranging the shapes on a straight or curved axis (arranging the coffee pots from large to small).
When many shapes combine to form a hierarchy, if a center is formed in the middle, it becomes a central hierarchy. (An opened rose flower)
It is the superiority of one or a group of elements used in a composition over other elements. The most understood and most used form of sovereignty is measure sovereignty. Also, value, texture, color, etc. elements can also be dominated. There is a contrast in all dominance, whether in size, texture, value, or color. Thus, one form or group of forms can dominate the other.
It manifests itself in form, colour, movement, light-darkness. When the colors, values, textures, directions, spacing and dimensions of the objects in an arrangement are compared with each other, it is desired and sought to feel a balance by weighing these features with each other. parts, color, size, value, range, direction, etc. It is ensured that the balance is established by examining the maintenance. If the imbalance in an arrangement is unobtrusive, the balance has been achieved. Generally, the balance is of two types:
It consists of the exact repetition of elements on a vertical or inclined axis. It does not arouse much interest in the design.
It is created by free-style placement of elements of different visual weights in the design. It increases the attractiveness, mobility and dynamism of the design.
Unity arises when various bodies or forms come together to form a balanced whole. It should be in harmony and order while creating unity with the parts that are opposite to each other. Even if the elements used in a design are very different, unity is achieved if they have similarities in terms of texture. For unity to occur, balance is necessary first. The human body is a very good example of unity. Many organs with different characteristics work together in harmony to form the human body.
Generating New Forms
Starting from basic geometric forms, creating new personal forms different from the existing ones with different methods improves one's creativity side. These studies will form the basis for you later when creating different designs.
İGenerating New Forms from Two Basic Forms
While creating new forms, three different methods were used instead of using a single method.
It is the subtraction of a geometric form from the basic geometric form.
Subtracting a geometric form from the basic geometric form is adding the subtracted form or another geometric form.
Divide by line
Drawing the form you want to create the basic geometric form with free hand or with the help of a ruler is to remove the other parts.