Single-Ply Yarn Calculations
• Single-ply Yarn Calculations

Determining the number in spinning plays an important role in determining the quality of the yarn made. It is not desired that the finished and semi-finished products are not in the expected number or deviations in the number.

Number control in spinning ensures that the errors related to the process are determined and the necessary adjustments are made on the machine. In order for the yarn to be formed at the desired values, the number control of the semi-finished product and the product is carried out at all production stages up to the yarn. The physical controls of the yarn are made in the physical tests laboratory of the enterprises. Certain conditions are necessary for the tests to be performed in the laboratory to be reliable.

Just as every garment has a size according to the human body (such as small, medium, large) or (X, M, L, XL), just as the shoes, slippers, etc. we wear on our feet have a number according to whether our feet are small or large;

We determine by number whether the card band, draw frame band, roving band and yarn are thin or thick. Here we call this number Card band number, Drawer band number, Roving strip number and yarn number. It should not be forgotten that it is a reality that is desired that the yarn be of the desired number and quality. For this reason, the stage of yarn production; During the production in the carding machine, the carding band,

While producing on the draw frame machine, the draw frame band,

In the roving frame, the roving sliver,

While the ring spinning machine is running, the yarn

And when the rotor spinning machine is running,

It is obligatory to check the numbers at periodic intervals by the laboratories working in the yarn laboratory in the yarn mill. If it is not at the desired number, the relevant machine is stopped and production continues after the adjustments are made. These checks are done continuously. Apart from this, when the fabric is analyzed, the type of warp and weft yarn, whether it is single-ply or double-ply, twist direction and number, as well as its number should be determined. There are thread numbers.

In addition, we use the same method when we want to learn the number of yarn in any bobbin. Number Testing

In order to find the number, we need to know the length and weight of the material (fiber, filament, tape, roving, yarn and plied yarn). Precision scales and spinning wheels are used for this process. Weight; With the help of a precision balance (1/1000 precision), length; It is fixed with the help of tape, roving and yarn reels.

A sufficient number of tests (eg, one 10-meter or 100-yard skein from 120 bobbins is weighed) and the average number is found.

Instead of precision scales, electronic and mechanical number scales that give the number directly are also used. (ISO 2060, DIN 58 830 references are used to determine the yarn number.

YARN NUMBERING SYSTEMS

In order to indicate the fineness of the yarn, the term number, symbolized by N, is used, which is the result of the proportioning of certain length (U) and certain weight (A) units according to various systems. Yarn numbering systems are divided into two main groups as Length Numbering Systems and Weight Numbering Systems.

A-LENGTH NUMBERING SYSTEMS In Length Numbering Systems (in Grams, Kilograms or Pounds), the number of length units (Meter, Kilometer or Hank=Hank) corresponding to weight units determines the number.

Hank, one of the English length measures, takes different values ​​in every numbering system it is used, and it becomes 840 Yards for numbering silk threads made of cotton or fiber, 300 Yards for linen yarns, 560 Yards for worsted wool yarns, and 256 Yards for streichgarm yarns. In this numbering system, it is found by dividing the units of length by units of weight.

For this reason, as the thread gets thinner, that is, the number of length units corresponding to the unit weight increases, the number value becomes higher. As it gets thicker, that is, as its length per unit weight decreases, the number value gets smaller. The main ones of the length number group are Metric system, French system, English wool (worsted, streichgarn), Cotton and Linen systems. 1-METRIC NUMBERING SYSTEM

The yarn, 1000 grams of which is 1000 grams, is Number 1 Metric.

Metric numbering system is generally used in the numbering of yarns made of cotton, linen, viscose (viscose), polyester, acrylic and their mixtures and produced from fibers, especially worsted and streichgarn wool yarns. In the metric system, the unit of length is the meter or kilometer, as opposed to the unit of weight, which is one gram or one kilogram.

If the unit of weight is grams, the length is meters, if it is kilograms, it is kilometers. In this system, the number is indicated by the symbol ''Nm''.

According to this;

1 Nm = Weight 1 g or kg, Length 1 m or km

10 Nm = Weight 1 g or kg, Length 10 m or 10 km

100 Nm = Weight 1 gr or kg, Length 100 m or 100 km means yarn.

Sample; What is the metric system number (ie fineness) of the yarn with a weight of 2.000 g or 2 kg and a length of 80.000 m or 80 km.

From the formula N=U/A,

Since Nm=km/kg, Nm= 80.000/2.000 or 80/2 = 40. 2-FRENCH NUMBERING SYSTEM

The yarn that comes in 1000 grams per 500 meters is Number 1 French.

In northern France and Belgium it is generally used for numbering cotton threads, except for its limited use in linen and hemp threads.

In the French System, the unit of length is 1 m or 1 km, and the unit of weight is 0,5 g or 0,5 kg. In this system symbolized by ''Nf'';

1 Nf = Weight 0,5 g or 0,5 kg, Length 1 m or 1 km

10 Nf = Weight 0,5 g or 0,5 kg, Length 10 m or 10 km

100 Nf = Yarn with a weight of 0,5 g or 0,5 kg, a length of 100 m or 100 km.

Sample; What is the French system number for a yarn with a weight of 2.000 g or 2 kg, a length of 80.000 meters or 80 km?

Nf=Length x Weight Unit / Weight x Length Unit

Nf = UxAB / AxUB = 80000x500 / 2000x1000 = 20

3-BRITISH WOOL WORLD NUMBERING SYSTEM

5Yarn weighing 12 Grams per 453,6 meters is Number 1 British Worsted Yarn or yarn weighing 560 pound for 1 Yards is British Number 1 Worsted Yarn.

Although they were used much more commonly than the Metric Numbering System in the past, the validity of the English Numbering Systems other than cotton has decreased considerably today. The number is symbolized as “NeK” or “NIK” in the British Wool Worsted Numbering System, where the weight unit is a Pound and the length unit Hank is 560 Yards.

1NeK = Weight 1 Pound (453,6 gr), Length 1 Hank ( 1 Hank = 560 Yards = 512 m )

10 NeK = Weight 1 Pound ( 453,6 gr ), Length 10 Hank (5600 Yards = 5.120 m )

100 NeK = Weight 1 Liter (453,6 gr), Length 100 Hank (56.000 Yards = 51.200 m) means yarn.

Sample; Take the yarn with a weight of 2.000 grams and a length of 80.000 meters and find how many NeK it is?

NeK=Length x Weight Unit / Weight x Length Unit

NeK = 80000x453,6 / 2000x512 = 35,4

4-BRITISH WOOL STREICHGARN NUMBERING SYSTEM

Yarn weighing 234 meters 453,6 Grams is British No. 1 Strayhgarn, or 256 yards of yarn weighing 1 Pound is British No. 1 Strayhgarn.

Like other British Numbering Systems, it has become little used today. It is symbolized as 'NeW' or Nisht. 1 Liter is used as a unit of weight and Hank is used as a unit of length. In this numbering system, 1 Hank is 256 Yards. In this system;

1 NeW = Weight 1 Pound (453,6 g), Length 1 Hank (1 Hank=256 Yards=234 m)

10 NeW = Weight 1 Pound (453,6 g), Length 10 Hank (2.560 Yards = 2.340 m)

100 NeW = Weight 1 Pound ( 453,6 g ) means yarn with a length of 100 Hanks (25.600 Yards = 23.400 m).

Sample; What is the length of the wool streichgarn yarn with a weight of 2.000 g and a length of 80.000 m in the numbering system?

Nish=Length x Weight Unit / Weight x Length Unit

Nish = 80000 x 453,6 / 2000 x 234 = 77,5

5-BRITISH COTTON NUMBERING SYSTEM

The yarn weighing 768 Grams to 453,6 Meters is Number 1 British Cotton or the yarn weighing 840 Pound to 1 yards is Number 1 British Cotton.

This system, which developed in England for the numbering of cotton yarns, spread all over the world due to the superiority of the British in textile at the beginning. Despite the inconsistency in measurement units, it continues to dominate today. In the British cotton numbering system, the unit of weight is 1 Pound (453,6 g) as usual, and the unit of length is 1 Hank (1 Hank = 840 Yards = 768 meters in the British Cotton System).

Its symbol is denoted by "NeB" or "NIP".

1NeB =Weight 1 Pound (453,6 g), Length 1 Hank (840 Yards=768 m)

10 NeB = Weight 1 Pound (453,6 g), Length 10 Hank (8.400 Yards = 7.680 m)

100 NeB = 1 Pound (453,6 g) in Weight, 100 Hank (84.000 Yards = 76.800 m) in Length.

Sample; What is the British Cotton Numbering System number of cotton yarn with a weight of 2.000 g and a length of 80.000 m?

Nip=Length x Weight Unit / Weight x Length Unit

Nip=80000 x 453,6 / 2000 x 768 = 23,6

6-ENGLISH LINEN NUMBERING SYSTEM

The yarn weighing 274 Meters, Weight 453,6 Grams is British Linen or the length 300 Yards weighing 1 Pound is British Linen..

Despite years of efforts for metric numbering and the mandatory implementation of the tex system since 1958, the English system in linen yarn numbering could not be abolished in all countries except France. In this system, which is the only one applied in this field today, the unit of weight is 1 pound, as in the whole English numbering system, and the hank, which is the unit of length, is 300 yards, or 274 meters, and is symbolized by "NeL" or Nike.

1 NeL = Weight 1 Pound (453,6 g), Length 1 Hank (300 Yards = 274 m)

10 NeL = Weight 1 Pound (453,6 g), Length 10 Hank (3.000 Yards = 2.740 m)

100 NeL = 1 Pound (453,6 g) in Weight, 100 Hank (30.000 Yards = 27.400 m) in Length.

Sample; What is the British Linen Number of linen yarn weighing 2.000 g and length 80.000 meters?

Nike=Length x Weight Unit / Weight x Length Unit

Nike = 80000 x 453,6 / 2000 x 274 = 66,2

In summary;

In Length Unit System

1- Length is variable, Weight is constant.

2-Number = Length x Weight Unit / Weight x Length Unit

4-The yarn gets thinner as the yarn number moves away from 0.

5-For example, when we compare 40 Number Metric and 60 Number Metric Yarn, 40 Number Metric yarn is thicker than 60 Nm yarn.

6- If the length is meters, the weight is grams.

7-Length is Kilometers and Weight is Kilograms.

8-Length is Yards and Weight is in Pounds.

9-Number formula;

N=Length x Weight Unit / Weight x Length Unit

B- WEIGHT NUMBERING SYSTEMS Unlike Length Numbering Systems, in this system the number is determined by the number of weight units corresponding to certain length units.

With the ''tex'' system, which emerged as a result of the efforts to place metric measurement units and decimal numbering systems by standardization in textiles, the '' Denier '' system of this numbering group, based on the numbering used in sericulture in France and one fiber of which is 9.600 old French cubits. They are the surviving representatives today. SCOTT SYSTEM with Hank weighing 1 Pound and length 14.400 yards it is now used very rarely and only for the numbering of jute yarns.

N=Weight x Length Unit / Length x Weight Unit

For this reason, as the yarn becomes thinner, its weight in a certain length will decrease and its number will decrease, and as the weight increases, the yarn will become thicker and its number will increase.

1-DENIE (DENIER) SYSTEM

The yarn from 9000 meters of 1 gram is Number 1 Denier.

While it has been used in silk threads since its inception, after the emergence of the first artificial substances, polyamide, polyester, etc., produced from continuous fibers. It is also used as a single system for numbering all plain and textured yarns. It is symbolized as ''Nd''.

1 Nd = 9.000 meters in length and 1 gram in weight

10 Nd = 9.000 meters in length and 10 gram in weight

100 Nd = yarn with a length of 9.000 meters and a weight of 100 grams.

Sample; What denier (Nd) is a yarn weighing 900 grams and a length of 81.000 meters?

Nd=Weight x Length Unit / Length x Weight Unit

Nd= 900 x 9000 / 81000.1 = 100

2-TEX NUMBERING SYSTEM

The yarn that comes in 1000 gram per 1 meters is Number 1 Tex.( Ntex )

As it is clearly seen in the numbering systems examined so far, both a wide variety and very complex measurement units are used in the textile industry. The need and efforts to simplify these measurement units, which cause many mistakes and disagreements in practice, and to develop a decimal-level numbering system based on metric measures that will include all textile branches, dates back to the Vienna Conference. As a result of the long-lasting efforts of the International Textile Standardization Organization, the ''tex'' numbering system, which has a length measurement unit of 1.000 meters and a weight unit of 1 gram, has been developed and it has been mandatory to apply it in the entire textile industry.

However, despite all these well-intentioned efforts, today it is used to define the fineness of artificial fibers and to number yarns consisting of artificial continuous fibers.

Except for decitex, only in some commercial agreements in yarn purchases, it is also mandatory.

It is used for. In an international numbering system symbolized as "Ntex", the numbering digits are in the metric system and in decimal order;

1 tex '' tex '' = 1.000 meters in length and 1 gram in Weight

1 decatex '' datex '' = (10 tex ) = 1.000 meters in length and 10 grams in weight

1 Hektotex ''htex'' = (100 tex) = 1.000 meters in length and 100 grams in weight

1 kilotex '' ktex '' = (1.000 tex) = It grows as a yarn with a length of 1.000 meters and a weight of 1.000 grams

1 decitex '' dtex '' = (0,1 tex) = 1.000 meters in length and 0,1 grams in weight

1 centitex ''ctex'' = (0,01 tex) = 1.000 meters in length and 0.01 grams in weight

1 miltex '' mtex '' = (0.001 tex) = Shrinks in the form of yarn with a length of 1.000 meters and a weight of 0.001 grams.

As it can be understood from this definition, in this system, the number value will increase as the yarn gets thicker, and the yarn gets smaller as it gets thinner.

1 Ntex = yarn with a length of 1.000 meters and a weight of 1 gram

10 Ntex = yarn with a length of 1.000 meters and a weight of 10 gram

100 Ntex = yarn with a length of 1.000 meters and a weight of 100 grams.

Sample; How many Ntex is a yarn with a length of 81.000 meters and a weight of 900 grams?

Ntex=Weight x Length Unit / Length x Weight Unit

Ntex=900 x 1000 / 81000.1 = 11,11

Metric Numbering System in wool and wool blended yarns, woolen systems, all yarns spun from natural and artificial fibers, British Cotton System in numbering of yarns produced from cotton and cotton blended yarns and all artificial fibers in cotton systems (short fiber), Continuous fiber from silk and artificial first materials Denier system is also used in the yarns produced as

Since flax yarn is produced very little in our country, metric or English Linen Number System is used here depending on the technology of the manufacturer. The Tex system has not been able to hold up in our country as well as in all other countries.

3-SKOÇ NUMBERING SYSTEM

14400 yards means yarn weighing 1 lb. The Scotch system, which was previously used in cotton kasam and jute yarns, weighed 1 lb and was 14.400 yards in length, is now used very rarely and only for numbering jute yarns.

In summary;

Weight Unit System

1- Weight is variable, length is fixed.

2-Number = Weight x Length Unit / Length x Weight Unit

3- As the yarn number approaches 0, the yarn gets thinner.

4-The farther the Thread Number is from 0, the thicker the thread.

5-For example, when we compare Number 40 Denier and Number 60 Denier Yarn, 40 Number Denier yarn is thinner than 60 Denier yarn.

6- If the length is meters, the weight is grams.

7-Length is Kilometers and Weight is Kilograms.

8-Length is Yards and Weight is in Pounds.

9-Number formula;

N=Weight x Length Unit / Length x Weight Unit

Posted by %AM, 11% 457% 2016 11%:%Mar in Yarn