Products used for care and hygiene:
- medical clothing (aprons, headgear, masks, socks, gloves, uniforms, protective clothing),
- Surgical veneers (drapes, fabrics, curtains),
- Bed sheets (sheets, pillowcases, blankets, cushions, duvets),
- Urine retention pads (baby diapers/ mattress pads), nappies, women's sanitary pads, fabrics/sanitary napkins and surgical socks.
Apart from these four classes, textile products have also started to be used in the field of telemedicine, where electronic information and communication technologies are used, in order to provide health care services when patients and doctors are in separate places.
Importance of medical textiles in telemedicine: Based on the acquisition and monitoring of the patient's medical indicators via sensors and communication systems integrated into the suit and their reporting to the doctor, hospital or emergency room.
However, according to medical instructions, it is also possible to administer drugs to the patient by means of integrated electronic systems and special textiles that can administer drugs.
These technologies enable continuous medical monitoring and optimal medical care, especially for the elderly and chronic patients, without wasting time and without the cost of hospital and doctor visits.
2-Transportation Technical Textiles (MOBILTECH)
Mobiltech is technical textiles used in land, sea, air transportation vehicles and space industry..
The technical textiles used in this group constitute the most important group of technical textiles with their share of approximately 20% in value and provide comfort in vehicles as well as functions such as security, decoration, isolation and filtering.
In addition, textile materials are used extensively in armored coatings of vehicles.
BMain products entering this field:
- Seat belts,
- interior surface coating materials,
- Seat upholstery and automobile covers,
- cord cloths,
They are structures.
Technical textiles, mostly in land vehicles;
- In upholstery,
- In seat covers,
- in seat belts,
- in automobile covers
- In the cord glands of tires
They find a wide range of uses.
Heat resistant and soundproof textile products can be used for the insulation of various parts of the vehicle. Oil and gasoline filters also play an important role in the construction of filters used to clean the air.
in cars Another of the most used textile products is airbags.
Approximately 20 kg of textile material is used in the production of an automobile. Especially since the amount of textile materials used in automobile production is high, it is important to choose these materials from recyclable ones in terms of protecting the environment.
in watercraft which will strengthen the structure used, but light;
- Composite materials,
- sail cloths,
- Ropes to tie ships and boats,
- Interior decoration materials,
- life jackets,
- rescue boats
Technical textiles. The functionality of the textile materials used in this field is very important.
in aircraft On the other hand, technical textile materials are mainly:
- In interior decoration,
- In fiber reinforced composite materials that will strengthen the structure,
- in parachutes,
- in seat belts,
- In life jackets,
- in tires
They are used and must be of a feature that will reduce weight and not threaten safety. In order to increase the maneuverability of aircraft, the proportion of textile materials is increasing in new models due to their lightness and functionality.
For example, in the new models of Airbus 310 aircraft, 10% of the total weight of the aircraft consists of textile materials.
In general, high strength in the production of various safety belts and tires found in transport vehicles. polyester fibers and high wear resistance polyamide fibers It is used.
It is desired that seat belts have high abrasion and heat resistance and be light.
In the production of upholstery fabrics, Fibers that do not emit toxic gases when burned and have a high ignition temperature are preferred. This feature is important in all vehicles, and even becomes a necessity depending on the type of vehicle.
The properties of the textile material to be used with legal restrictions in maritime and aviation have been determined, and as the number of passengers that can be loaded on land vehicles increases, the restrictions on this subject also increase.
The fireproof feature In addition, properties such as UV resistance, resistance to mold and rot, and high friction resistance are the determining factors in fiber selection.
3-Protective Technical Textiles (PROTECH)
Protective technical textiles;
- Clothing for protection against harmful substances and bad environmental conditions that threaten human life
- Tents and equipment
They are forming.
Purposes of use of these products:
- Protection against knives
- Protection against low speed impacts
- Flame protection, waste protection
- Protection from nuclear effects
- Protection from biological and chemical pests,
- High voltage protection
- It is protection against static electricity.
Types of work and activity for which protective clothing and other products are made are:
- security guards
- Aircraft personnel (military and civilian), soldiers
- Foundry and glass workers
- Water sports
- Winter sports
- Commercial fishing, mountaineering, seabed oil and gas equipment workers
- health care
- racing drivers
- Coal mining and health warehouse workers.
Protective clothing should be comfortable, light, compact and robust. In the production of ballistic and camouflage clothing aramid (Kevlar®, Twaron®), polyester, polyamide and high-strength polyethylene (Dyneema®) fibers are used.
In the production of flame protection clothing High performance fibers such as carbon, aramid, Polybenzimidazole (PBI), polyether ether ketone (PEEK) are preferred.
On the surfaces of protective clothing and tents from nuclear-biological-chemical substances, mainly active carbon.
In many workplaces around the world, international and local legal regulations that require the use of protective clothing have been tightened due to the endangerment of the health and safety of employees.
In sectors that require the use of protective clothing, awareness of the use of protective clothing is increasing.
4-Building and Construction Technical Textiles (BUILDTECH)
Building and construction technical textiles are textile materials used in above-ground applications of civil engineering.
The rate of use of these materials has increased with the development of synthetic fibers. Building and construction technical textiles are used in the construction of a new building, strengthening and restoration of worn and/or weak buildings.
While constructing a new building, textile surfaces are mostly preferred as roof, exterior and concrete reinforcement materials. Today, the usage area of technical textiles is not limited to standard buildings such as homes, schools, hospitals, public and workplaces, hotels. At the same time, textile materials are used quite frequently in structures that require more advanced engineering, such as industrial facilities, airports, stadiums, sports halls, fair and show halls, skyscrapers, bridges, ports, private military buildings.
Studies on the use of building and construction technical textiles as an alternative to existing classical building materials have also gained importance in recent years. In fact, there is a view that in the future all building materials will consist entirely of textiles, and as an example of this view, a skyscraper named “Carbon Tower” was designed in the United States.
technical textile materials The biggest advantages it offers in the construction industry:
They are light, functional, cost less and require less reinforcement.
For example, the average weight of the textile material used in a standard building; It is expressed as 1/30 of the weight of brick, steel or concrete.
Technical textiles in the Buildtech field:
- Temporary structures such as prefabs
- roofing materials
- Sound and heat insulation products
- Composite building elements
- Protective net structures
They can be used as
In addition, the use of technical textiles is common in products such as tents, awnings and sunshades. Synthetic fibers are increasingly used for the production of building and construction technical textiles. Glass and Teflon fibers are used in heat and sound insulation and roof coverings. lightweight in the construction of temporary dwellings polyamide and polyolefin fibers Various composite structures used in the construction of constructions: Glass, carbon, acrylic, polypropylene and polyamide fibers they contain. Composites have a bright future in the field of construction. Current glass reinforced material applications include wall panels, septic tanks. Glass, polypropylene and acrylic fibers and textiles are all used to prevent deformation of concrete, plasters and other building materials. The use of glass fibers in bridge construction is an important innovation. Carbon fiber is of great interest as a reinforcement material for earthquake resistant buildings in Japan. However, the price of this material is still a disadvantage for wide-ranging use.
With the “architectural membrane”, which is considered a fairly new category; It has begun to stand out in the construction of translucent structures such as stadiums, exhibition centers and other modern buildings. The potential uses for textiles in the construction industry are almost limitless.
5-Industrial Technical Textiles (INDUTECH)
Indutech includes textiles used in products for industrial purposes. Previously, the definition of industrial textiles was used for all technical textiles.
Textile products that perform a specific function and increase performance:
Industrial textiles have begun to be seen as a sub-branch of technical textiles.
Technical textiles used for industrial purposes have an important share in all technical textiles.
- Industrial textiles have a wide range of applications.
- generally to this group:
- conveyor belts
- etching tapes
- sealing elements
- Electrical and electronic components and other related industrial products are included.
The filtration process ensures the separation of one substance from another. Filters made of textiles are used in purification of industrial pollutants as well as helping to purify products for general use in daily life. Different textile structures are used in filters used for different purposes. Woven or nonwoven fabrics can be used in HEPA filters. The use of nonwoven fabrics is more common in dust, liquid and smoke filters.
Textile structures in industrial cleaning materials;
- In dusting brushes
- Knitted or nonwoven wipe
They are used in their materials.
In electrical materials;
- in cables
- in composite structures
- In accumulator separators
- Textile materials
It can be used.
The use of nonwoven products has surpassed the use of woven and knitted products in this field, as in some other technical textiles fields. Li is used in textile structures used for industrial purposes.tensile strength and breaking strength must be to a certain degree. In the field of industrial textiles, polyamide fiber has a wide range of applications. polyamide fiber, It is used in many applications from filters to conveyor belts to gaskets. Moreover polyester fiber It has also found a wide area of use in filters and cord fabrics used in automobiles. Polypropylene and polyethylene fibers It is especially used in air filters. Apart from these fibers, high performance fibers are also used in industrial textiles. aramid fibers, due to its resistance to high temperature and chemicals;
- In filters (especially in hot gas filtration),
- On woven belts
- In ropes and cables
- High performance nonwoven
It is used in fabrics.
- In nonwoven filters
- In water treatment devices
It is used.
Polyether ether ketone (PEEK) fibers,
- On conveyor belts
- In high pressure filters
- In filters used for hot gases
It can be used.
aromatic polyester fibers,
- It is used in corrosion resistant filters.
Polybenzimidazole (PBI) fiber,
- in filtration
- In structures that require non-flammability and resistance to high temperatures and chemicals
It can be used.
Geotextiles are textile materials used in underground applications in civil and geotechnical engineering. Textile structures produced from both natural and synthetic fibers can be used in this field. Geotextiles are materials that have the ability to filter, support and strengthen and separate, and are used for combinations of these functions. Geotextiles have the highest growth rate among all technical textiles. Although the terms "Geotextile" and "Geosynthetics" are used interchangeably from time to time, it has not been determined precisely which of these concepts covers the other. geosynthetics, They can be defined as surfaces made of a polymeric material used in conjunction with soil, rock or other geotechnical engineering-related materials, integrated into a project, structure or system.
Subgroups of geosynthetics:
- geogrids (geogrids),
- Erosion control blankets and pads,
- geosynthetic mud linings,
- Geocomposite drainage materials
It can be sorted as
However, geotextiles produced only from synthetic fibers are included in the subgroup of Geosynthetics, while geotextiles produced from natural fibers should be considered as a separate group.
It must have at least one of five different functions.
The product to be used as geotextile;
- Tensile and tear strength,
- a certain hardness,
- Resistance to elongation under load,
- Air and water permeability,
- Resistance to chemicals
- UV resistance
General usage areas of geotextiles:
- road constructions,
- parking areas,
- Base concretes,
- floor applications,
- Underground pipes and channels,
- storage areas,
- Underground systems of ports and sports fields,
- Drainage and filtration systems,
- drainage pipes,
- drainage channels,
- surface drainage,
- building drains,
- hydraulic structures,
- coastal protection structures,
- Protection of river beds and channels,
- artificial ponds,
- water reservoirs
- Garbage and waste storage
They can be listed as fields.
Geotextiles in general, weaving, knitting and nonwoven technology can be produced with Woven geotextiles have a wide range of applications. Woven fabrics do not show much mechanical elongation due to the warp and weft threads in their structure and therefore are advantageous in soil support. In the field of geotextiles, thermobonded nonwoven textiles are combined with needle-fixed nonwovens and knitted (especially warp knitted) fabrics. fiber/soil mixtures are also used. Nonwoven products make up 80% of geotextile applications.
In the field of geotextiles, nonwoven structures are generally:
- under the road,
- On underground drainage surfaces,
- in river beds,
- under airports
- Under the athletic fields
They are used. At the same time;
- On the bottom surface of the sewers,
- In the separation of soil layers,
- In continuous erosion control and land
- Geomembrane coating agent in filling
They function as well.
Non-biodegradation of synthetic fibers is the main reason why they are preferred in permanent applications. In the production of geotextiles, mostly polypropylene, polyethylene, polyester, polyamide and polyvinylchloride are used as synthetic fibers. The two most commonly used synthetic fibers in the production of geotextiles, especially due to their chemical resistance. polypropylene and polyethylene.
At the same time, polypropylene fibers;
- Lower costs,
- Low specific gravity
- Strength properties
Therefore, it is the most important raw material. Polyester is used for high strength requirements. Other high-strength polymers can also be used in the field of geotextiles. However, they are not preferred much due to their high cost and not being able to be supplied in very large quantities. Natural fibers can also be used in the production of geotextiles. In applications where geotextiles are expected to perform their functions for a limited period of time:
The use of natural fibers such as
The second reason to use the of coconut fibers Due to its resistance to rot, mud and moisture, porous nonwoven surfaces produced from them can be used to prevent soil erosion and to condition the soil.
7-Agricultural Technical Textiles (AGROTECH)
Agrotech; It includes textiles used in agriculture, horticulture and fishing. In order to minimize the effect of adverse natural conditions in the production of agricultural products, agricultural technical textiles have been started to be used for the protection, collection and storage of products.
The main functions required from agricultural technical textiles are:
- It is packaging.
For this reason, geotech, packtech, indutech, protech and buildtech technical textile materials used for agricultural purposes are also included in the field of agrotech.
Agricultural technical textiles:
- Packaging of agricultural products
- Accelerating the growth process of plants
- Protection of products from UV rays
- Spraying of agricultural fields
- Prevention of weed growth
- Agricultural drainage and erosion control
- Protection of animals from weather conditions in fattening
It is used in many applications such as Technical textiles in these applications:
- in networks,
- in ropes,
- in sacks,
- Shades for the protection of plants from the sun,
- In greenhouses,
- In heat insulation,
- In protection from weeds,
- In protection from wind and hail,
- In seed sprouting for the protection of seeds,
- In supporting the soil,
- In protective clothing,
- in hoses,
- In conveyor belts,
- in filters
They are preferred. Special nets used in sea fishing are also included in the field of agricultural technical textiles and constitute a growing market.
Geotextiles in agricultural technical textiles,
- In the protection of soil and people working with protective textiles, sprays and harmful substances in drainage and soil improvement;
- Transport technical textiles, in tractors and trucks;
- Industrial textiles, hoses, filters and reinforcement of silo tanks and pipelines
They are used.
Woven, knitted and nonwoven structures can be used in Agrotech products. Nonwoven surfaces It is used as canopy, thermal insulation material and weed inhibitor. Heavyweight woven, knitted and nonwoven fabrics are used for protection from wind and hail.
Netting replaces traditional bale twine for wrapping modern round bales. Nonwoven mats with capillary structure are used in horticulture to distribute moisture to growing plants. Instead of small jute, paper or plastic bags used for the transport of fertilizers and agricultural products, woven polypropylene bags (big bags) that can carry products up to several tons are used today.
Technical textiles have been used in agriculture for many years. In these products, natural fibers (jute, sisal, kenaf, etc.) provide an advantage over synthetic fibers. Polypropylene It is a mostly preferred fiber in agriculture and horticulture. In addition, polyethylene films are used especially for the purpose of protection from weeds and rapid growth of plants. Polyethylene and polypropylene nonwoven surfaces are used to protect plants from the cold.
can be used.
Polyamide and polyester Nets are used to protect from harmful insects. In fruit growing, for protection against hail from polyethylene Knitted structures produced have found use. Windproof structures can be used to protect animal shelters. These structures are usually of polyester or polyethylene is produced.
In addition, the use of high-strength polyethylene (HMPE (Dyneema® and Spectra®)) fibers in high-strength fishing nets has increased in recent years. Another method used in fishing, especially in net making. fiber is polyamide.
8-Sports and Leisure Technical Textiles (SPORTECH)
Sportech is the application area of technical textiles covering sports and leisure clothing, tools and tools.
Market growth rates are above average and unit values are generally high.
- tennis rackets
- hockey sticks
- Snow and water skis
- Race cars
- fishing rods
- canoe hulls
- Yacht and boat hulls
- Sports shoes in risky sports
- grass pitches
- Flags and pennants
- sleeping bags
- Bows of musical instruments
Technical textiles are the most prominent applications in this field.
The demand for sportswear and materials, which provide high performance, keep body temperature in balance in all weather conditions and are designed according to the needs of the sports branch, has increased greatly in recent years. Although cotton clothes are generally preferred in daily life, the moisture formed on the fabric as a result of sweating makes the clothes heavier. For this reason, special synthetic fibers that keep the skin dry by transferring the sweat to the outer surface as quickly as possible are preferred in active sportswear.
Important features desired in sportswear today:
- Protection from water and weather conditions,
- Thermal insulation,
- Vapor permeability
Sportswear, which absorbs body sweat and allows it to dry quickly, has gained importance recently. Breathing membranes also find application here. In addition, sportswear should have both functionality and hygiene features. Because
- Antimicrobial finishes can be applied to reduce odor and prevent bacterial growth.
Protection from ultraviolet rays has gained importance in recent years due to the depletion of the ozone layer. Therefore, ultraviolet protective chemicals are widely used in sportswear.
Carbon fibers are low weight, high strength, low deformation under temperature differences and have good impact resistance. Thanks to these features, they are preferred in sports and leisure equipment that require lightness and impact resistance.
For example; For skis, race cars and bicycles, lightness is a speed-enhancing factor. Aramids are especially used in places that require impact resistance such as risky sports shoes and cars.
Aromatic polyester fibers are used in ropes, yacht and boat hulls and canoes due to their water resistance and high wear and fatigue resistance. HMPE, PBO and PEEK are other fibers known to be used in this field. The use of textile composites in sports equipment is increasing. For example, textile composites are used in many places such as bicycle wheels, tennis rackets, golf clubs, ski and surfing equipment, football and baseballs…
9-Home Technical Textiles (HOMETECH)
Hometech is a subclass of technical textiles covering application areas such as furniture, mattresses, pads, insulation materials. The use of textile products at home is no longer limited to furnishings, and home technical textiles are used in places where textiles were not used in the past. In this area, hollow fibers are used especially to increase the insulation properties of mattresses and sleeping bags, while fibers with antimicrobial and flame retardant properties replace foams in furniture. Evidence of this is the use of elasticized narrow webbing bands instead of springs, and flame-retardant filling and lining fabrics instead of dangerous foams that emit toxic gases.
Woven fabrics are still used in carpet and furniture underlays and in more specialized and smaller areas such as curtain tapes. However "spunbond” nonwoven products have replaced conventional cloths for household cleaning applications.
In addition, nonwovens are now used for filtering in many household items such as vacuum cleaners, kitchen aspirators, air conditioners.
Wall cloths that can be used instead of wallpapers in wall coverings are also included in the field of hometech.
On the curtains;
- curtain tapes
- Drawstrings of sun visors,
- Bands of roller blinds and blinds
- Coating strips on double-glazed windows
Technical textile products.
In addition to classical fibers, hollow fibers, flame retardant fibers, antibacterial fibers and metal fibers also find application in home technical textiles.
10-Clothing Technical Textiles (CLOTHTECH)
Clothing technical textiles used in ready-made clothing and footwear industries:
- sewing threads;
- Shoe uppers, linings, laces and insulating materials
They are forming.
The function of interlinings is to protect the shape of the fabric to which it is attached and to keep it stable, and to give an additional volume and shape to the clothes.
Nonwoven technology is an important production technique especially for insulation materials and interlinings. Interlinings are also produced as woven, raschel, flat and circular knitting. In shoelaces, the braiding technique comes to the fore. Artificial leather is often used in shoes. In addition, in recent years, especially in sports shoes, membrane technology has come to the fore. Fibers that are frequently preferred in this field are polyester and polyamide fibers.
11Packaging Technical Textiles (PACKTECH)
Packtech; It includes all textile structures used in the packaging and packaging industry for packaging, transport, storage and protection of industrial, agricultural and other goods. These products include everything from large packaging materials to small shopping bags. Packaging materials have historically been produced from textile structures. These products have the highest production share among all technical textiles in terms of quantity.
Textiles used in the packaging industry;
- FIBC (Flexible Intermediate Bulk Containers) packaging materials called “big bags”
- Laundry bags and other bulky product packaging
- Storage bags, bundle binding threads,
- Tea bags and coffee filters,
- Nonwoven and woven packaging materials (such as light mailing bags, durable envelopes), food,
- Storage, transportation and packaging of toys
It includes the materials used for. The use of textile surfaces in packaging started with the use of products obtained from natural fibers such as cotton, linen, jute in making bags and sacks. Later, the use of polypropylene products began to become widespread. Polypropylene fiber's strength, smooth structure and ability to work with new technologies have enabled the products made from these fibers to be used as packaging materials for more efficient transportation and distribution of powder and granular materials ranging from fertilizers, sand, cement and sugar to dyestuffs.
Especially in the food industry, light weight nonwoven and knitted surfaces, nonwoven products for tea and coffee bags are used in many wrapping and protection applications. Meats, vegetables and fruits are packed with nonwoven fabrics between them to absorb liquids. In the packaging of dried vegetables and fruits, knitted net products are preferred.
Special nonwoven products are used for courier envelopes. Woven hoops began to replace the metal bands used in cotton bales.
In FIBC (flexible intermediate bulk containers), sacks, nonwoven and woven packaging materials polypropylene fibers; in package yarns and light packaging materials polyamide fibers It is used.
In the packaging of foods, textile products are not preferred much because of their air and moisture permeability. However, woven jute sacks are generally used to transport grain, flour, sugar and salt. In addition, different fabric constructions made of cotton can be used for different applications (packaging of powdered or granular foods, meat packaging material, etc.).
Kenaf fiber is generally used as packaging yarn in the food industry, while net sacks made of sisal are mostly used for the transportation of hard fruits. In recent years, the demand for big bag products has been increasing gradually and the production is insufficient to meet the demand. Especially the use of big bags with very high capacity is becoming widespread and gaining importance. Densely woven bigbags made of polypropylene strips can be used for the packaging of cereals. In order to keep the added nitrogen in the big bag in order to ensure the long-term durability of the grain during packaging, an aluminum film layer is placed inside the outer packaging material as the inner surface.
12Environmental and Ecology Protection Technical Textiles (OEKOTECH)
Technical textiles in this class are environment and ecological protection textiles.
- industrial textiles,
- Construction textiles and agricultural textiles
It covers many areas of technical textiles such as Textiles used for filtration materials, protection from erosion and closure of toxic wastes, minimizing water loss from the soil and reducing the use of herbicides by covering plant roots, and construction textiles used for thermal insulation are included in this field. In addition, textiles that save energy by reducing weight in transport and construction can indirectly contribute to the environment.