P.101. Picture shows litmus paper and PH values. Show the NEUTRAL, ACID and BASE (Alkaline) areas in the picture?
P.102. Explain What is Litmus Paper?
C.102. It is a kind of mixture containing dyestuffs, that is, coloring agents. The litmus mixture can be formed in the form of a liquid solution or litmus paper. It can be blue or red in color. It is mostly used by chemists in the chemical industry to understand whether a substance is an acid or a base. Litmus changes color by reacting with some chemicals. According to the color formed, it shows that the substance it comes into contact with is an acid or a base. If the litmus turns red, the substance is acidic., even if it turns blue, the base of the substance shows that. If it does not change color, it indicates that the substance is not acid or base, and these substances are considered “neutral”.
P.103. How to use litmus paper?
Blue litmus paper; If immersed in a strong acid such as nitric, sulfuric or hydrochloric acid, its color changes to dark red. If it is dipped in weak acids such as vinegar or soda, its color changes to wine red.
Red litmus paper; It turns blue if dipped in bases such as ammonia or sodium hydroxide..
P.104. How is litmus paper obtained?
C.104. Litmus is obtained by processing some lichen species. Lichen plants are crushed into mush, mixed with ammonia and other substances, and then left to ferment. Litmus begins to form as blue particles. These litmus are separated and turned into solutions or tablets. After absorbing liquid litmus on a paper and drying it, litmus paper is obtained. Litmus, which is turned into tablets, is also converted into a liquid solution by mixing with purified water when used.
Q. How to measure solution with 105.PH?
C.105. A small magnetic fish is thrown into the solution whose pH will be measured and mixed slowly in a magnetic stirrer. The pH paper is carefully dipped into the solution and waited for a while until the color change is completed on the paper. Color removed from solution The colors on the changed pH paper are compared with the colors on the box containing the pH papers. The result is determined by the resulting color values.
Q.106. In the PH paper below, indicate the areas of strongly acidic, weakly acidic, neutral, weakly basic and strongly basic?
P.107. What is a pH Meter?
C.107. They are devices that measure the pH of solutions on the basis of electrochemical change.
P.108. What should the pH meter do first before checking the pH of any solution?
C.108. Before checking the pH of any solution, the pH meter must first be calibrated.
P.109. with pH meter If working in acidic and basic regions, which pumps are used to calibrate the device?
C.109. The device is calibrated by using pH 4 and pH 7 buffers if it is to be worked in the acidic region, and using pH 7 and pH 10 buffers if working in the basic region.
P.110. How to calibrate the pH meter?
C.110. For the calibration of the device, the electrode is first cleaned with pure water. The electrode is immersed in the buffer solution. The pH value is read from the digital display. The pH of the buffer solution is read from the pH meter. The same procedure is done with the second buffer solution. If the pH values found and the pH of the buffer solution are the same, pH measurement is performed.
P.111. Explain how the pH of the solution is measured with a pH meter?
C.111. The electrode of the calibrated pH meter is thoroughly washed with distilled water and dried. The solution to be measured pH is placed in a beaker. A small magnetic fish is thrown into the solution whose pH will be measured and mixed slowly in a magnetic stirrer. The electrode is carefully immersed in the solution and it is waited for a while for the pH reading to be stable. If any acid or base solution is to be added to the solution, the solution is allowed to mix for a while after the addition, and while mixing, the electrode is immersed and waited until a constant value is read. Care should be taken that the tip of the electrode does not touch the bottom of the solution. The pH of the solution should be measured at least three times. The first measured value is ignored. The arithmetic mean of the other two values becomes the pH of the solution.
P.112. What do surface tension and interface (inter-surface) tension mean?
C.112. The surfaces of a gas and a liquid, or two immiscible liquids, are like a stretched flexible membrane. If this tension belongs to the free surface of the liquid, it is called surface tension. If it belongs to the surface of two liquids, it is called interfacial tension.
P.113. What does anion mean?
C.113. Anion: It means an ion or radical that carries a negative electrical charge. For example, chlorine (Cl-) is a negative anion.
P.114. What does cation mean?
C.114. Cation: It means an ion or radical that carries a positive electrical charge. For example, sodium (Na+) is a positive cation.
P.115. What does catalyst mean?
C.115. Catalyst: Substances that increase the rate of any chemical reaction they participate in, but do not undergo any change at the end of the reaction. Some catalysts are consumed in one step of the reaction and regenerated in the other. Although it is not a chemical substance, light accelerates some reactions. This is why light qualifies as a catalyst.
P.116. What does stabilizer mean?
C.116. Stabilizer: Substances that slow down the rate of any chemical reaction they participate in, but do not undergo any change at the end of the reaction.
P.117. What does sublimation mean?
C.117. Sublimation: Solids with a certain degree of vapor pressure below the melting point temperature bypass the liquid state and turn directly into gaseous state when heated. When some substances in solid state are energized, they bypass the liquid state and turn directly into gaseous state, which is called sublimation. For example, “ernet” used as a deodorizer in toilets is in solid form. This substance disappears over time without ever becoming a liquid. The naphthalene, which we use to protect our woolen clothes from moth pests, also disappears over time without leaving a trace. These substances undergo sublimation by going from solid state to gas state.
P.118. What is viscosity?
C.118. Viscosity: It is the resistance of fluids (liquid, gas) to flow. In other words, it is the fluency value. For example, the viscosity of honey is much higher than the viscosity of water. Viscosities of liquids are closely related to their molecular structures and intermolecular interactions. The viscosity of a fluid is the resistance of the internal friction force to flow. Temperature is an important variable in viscosity measurements. Therefore, all viscosity measurements are made at constant temperature (20± 0,1 °C).
P.119. What is a boume (bome)?
C.119. Boume (bome): Indicated by °Be'. Density is the concentration value. Density of a substance is the mass in grams of unit volume of that substance. The density of liquids is usually determined by weighing a certain volume of liquid or by using the buoyancy of an object immersed in the liquid. Density can also be measured with hydrometers. Hydrometers are marked in g/ml (density) bome grade from bottom to top.
P.120. What does aggregation mean?
C.120. Aggregation: The combination of atoms or molecules by intermolecular attraction (cohesion) is called aggregation. The larger molecules formed are called aggregates. Assocates are also special aggregates.
P.121. What does associate mean?
C.121. Associativity: The joining of molecules with the help of intermolecular attraction forces and forming molecular ensembles is called associative.
P.122. What does indicator mean?
C.122. Indicator: The word meaning is an indicator. There are many substances used to monitor the progress of acid and base reactions. These substances, which have different colors in acidic and basic environments, are weak organic acids and bases, are called indicators. Important indicators are methyl orange, methyl red, phenol phthalein and litmus paper.
Q.123. What does my concentration mean?
C.123. Concentration: It is the amount of solute in unit volume of solution.
S.124. What does atom mean?
C.124. Atom: The smallest unit of an element that has all its chemical properties.
S.125. What does compound mean?
C.125. Compound: Pure substances that contain two or more elements and whose elements are chemically bonded to each other in definite proportions. In the water (H2O) compound, hydrogen and oxygen atoms are bonded to each other in a ratio of 2:1.
S.126. What are the properties of the properties of the compounds, write them in clauses?
C.126. Properties of compounds:
Compounds do not show the properties of the elements that make them up.
They are pure substances. It has specific melting and boiling points.
The smallest building block that shows the properties of compounds is called a molecule.
Compounds are made up of different kinds of atoms.
It can be separated into its constituent atoms by chemical means.
There are fixed mass ratios between the atoms that make up the compound.
Compounds are represented by formulas
P.127. What does hygroscopic mean?
C.127. Hygroscopic: It is the property of attracting water from the air. Desiccants are known as hygroscopic substances.
S.128. What does colloid mean?
C.128. Colloid: A solution-like mixture in which particles of one substance are evenly dispersed in another substance.
P.129. What does mix mean?
C.129. Mixture: It is the combination of two or more pure substances (elements or compounds) by simply mixing them, without combining them chemically.
P.130. What are the properties of mixtures?
C.130. Properties of mixtures
The chemical properties of the substances that make up the mixture do not change.
It is not pure.
It is separated by physical means.
Melting and boiling points are not fixed.
Density of mixtures is not constant. Depending on the amount of substances that make up the mixture, the density of the mixture changes.
There are different kinds of atoms or molecules in the structure of the mixture.
There is no definite, fixed ratio between the amount of substances in the mixture.