• Textile Terms A


    It is a form of clothing generally used in women's clothing. Although used with different types of sleeves, raglan sleeves are often used in silhouette. Since the belt is not used, the clothes expand towards the hem. The shape of the clothes is similar to the letter A.


    Aba (fabric)


    Its touch is hard and rough; heavyweight, durable wool fabric. It has a thick twill weave structure.

    island canvas; Java canvas

    Fine, hard medium-weight cotton fabric made of coarsely spun yarns; It is in plain or Panama weave, even with gaps between the threads. It is used for hand embroidery.

    Adria (wool weave)

    It is a soft-touch, medium-weight wool fabric. This lightly felted fabric can be distinguished from other fabrics by its fine angled spacing. Some varieties (a., granite or angled rips) derived from satin weave are used in men's formal suits and women's dresses and suits. It is also known as a natural silk fabric.

    Adria satin

    Based on a satin weave, it is a satin-derived weave obtained by reinforcing several attachment points. Its structure is similar to angled rips patterns. It is mostly used in wool fabrics.

    step twill

    Derived from twill weave; They are twill surfaces that are reinforced and rearranged by the Yarn method, obtained by arranging the weaving structure to form two, three or four-step twill with angled and reinforced rows. This weaving is used in cotton, silk and wool fabrics. The most well-known corduroy and gabardine.

    Aerobics Clothing, Gymnastics leotard

    It is a type of clothing originally tried in resistance training for astronauts and pilots and later used in disco, music, dance, gymnastics and exercises. It is designed with tight weaving like socks, elastic and flexible to facilitate body movements. This garment was mostly used in physical training in the 1980s.


    It is a light to medium weight, soft wool fabric. characteristically it has thin, longitudinal lines that are shaded as a result of light reflection obtained by alternating S-twist and Z-twist warp and weft yarn. It is plain woven and predominantly painted in one piece. It is produced from worsted and woolen yarn, sometimes a mixture of both yarns. This fabric is used in women's clothing. Its name is derived from the Afghan wool that was originally produced.


    Colorability; The uptake capacity of dyestuffs or auxiliary chemicals by a particular textile raw material, the way they are taken and the ability of the material to attract the dyestuff. Affinity is the value that gives an idea about the affinity of the dyestuff or textile auxiliaries to the fibers, the attractive forces between them and the bonding energy.

    agave fiber

    It is a textile fiber obtained from tropical plants, belonging to the Amaryllidaceae family (American origin), with soft-liquid leaves 1 to 1,8 m long, older than one year. The most important of these sisal, It has waterproof, glossy, white leaves. It is used in the production of rope and cord.


    It is the original name of the fastener used to hold pieces of clothing together. The use of this expression was later expanded to include other accessories used in clothing.

    openwork (1)

    Lace, perforated patterned single jersey knit created using the hooks of neighboring needles. A mesh pattern is created by the transfer of hook eyelets; when the eyelets are pulled together, an embossed pattern is created.

    openwork (2)

    It is a monochromatic linen fabric with a jacquard hole pattern.

    accordion pattern

    A single-sided weft knitted fabric with a row of stitches in two or more colors. The reverse consists of wide fill loops of the same color. It is used in sportswear and accessories.


    They are the elements that are shaped according to personal tastes and fashion, compatible with the clothes, and complement the clothes. It is used to make a difference in clothes and to provide unity in harmony. The most important accessories are hats, caps, shawls, foulards/scarves, gloves, short socks and long sock etc. can be listed as


    mottled pattern; marbling pattern


    It is a pattern created by the weaving of printed warp threads and single color weft threads, in the form of shadows falling on the ground. Such a pattern is mostly used in silk and decorative fabrics. Ebruli weaving is generally imitated in the form of printing on ready-made (confection) fabrics.

    flamed fancy yarn

    It is a fancy yarn with short or long reinforcement areas that sometimes change colors in flame form. It can also be obtained in dubbing so that the roving (or yarn of a certain length) can be woven with two yarns.




    It is a synthetic velor fabric with a trade name of Japanese origin. It is air permeable, light and washable. In addition to being used for decorative purposes, velor is also used in the production of clothes. It can be dyed and printed in one color.


    Rash, low value yarn from half-wool residue (rare).

    Alpaca (1)

    It is a thick, shiny, medium weight fabric woven from plain or Panama weave, with fine pile silk on the surface. This fabric, which uses rayon in the warp and fine cotton or wool yarn in the weft, is generally used in women's dresses and jackets.

    Alpaca (2)

    It is a woolen fabric with a sandy touch and shine. Its warp has mohair or shiny wool threads, and its weft usually has black twisted cotton threads. In the past, this fabric was used very often in aprons and men's suits.


    Alpaca (3)


    It is the wool of the South American camel. Alpaca wool is distinguished from other wools by being thin, soft, shiny and slightly wavy. It is used in the production of valuable yarns.

    Alpaca taffeta

    AlpacaIt is a silk type fabric that is a rhythm of . Touch It is made of a slightly stiff plain weave, with slightly glossy and fine ribs. Its warp is cotton yarn and its weft is rayon. It is used in women's dresses.

    Alpaca wool

    Fine, soft, shiny, alpaca hair of a ruminant from a camel family living in the South American Andes, usually at an altitude of around 6000 m. The fur on the skin of the animal is the result of the adaptation it provides to its environment. Trimming is done only once every two years to protect against harsh conditions; the resulting product is between 2kg and 4kg. It is used in the production of high quality and glazed fabrics from combed yarns from camel wool. Fabrics made from alpaca wool also bear the same name.

    alpine jacket

    Sports jacket that takes its shape from Bavarian and Austrian ceremonial wear. The waist-length jacket is distinguished by its metal buttons, different colors of striped edges and pockets. It usually has a single button (mono) closure, has no lapels and has a stand-up collar.

    lower thread

    It is a three times crimped, waxed, twisted yarn. It is used as a lower thread in machine sewing.

    High Fashion


    Italian style tailoring brought together fashion houses and leading designers in Rome and Florence. Its models, especially men's clothing models, determine the world's fashion and have had a great influence on the clothing industry in the following period.

    american college


    Tapered (tapered) armhole towards the neck opening. It is mostly used in blouses and women's summer clothes. This detail became a fashion trend in women's clothing in the late 1980s.

    Empire robe dress, emperor style dress

    It is a dress that fits the bust clearly and becomes looser with drawstrings under the bust line. The shape of this dress is inspired by the Imperial period (1804-15).

    Empire style clothing, Emperor style clothing

    It is a style of clothing from the Napoleonic era (1804-15). It quickly took over the whole of Europe. It has become popular with its straight, unpretentious, classic line and small collar form. Very light weight fabrics have been replaced by warmer velvets, brocades and plain fabrics. In women's clothing, skirts with tails disappeared, the waistline was higher, and skirts with a shirt-like cut that did not exceed the wrists became fashionable. Natural colors and the whiteness of the clothes came to the fore again, and the clothes were generally complemented by a cashmere shawl and jewellery. It is seen that men's clothing has become simpler and more simplified. Although the trousers have undergone minor changes in shape, they have lengthened and were used first by being inserted into the boots and then released at the ankle level. To be used with trousers, tuxedo jackets with a high and turn-down collar and wide lapels at the waist began to be used. This garment is completed with a vest and a short coat or coat is worn over the jacket when necessary in cold weather.


    It is the name given to medium-weight wool, which is soft to the touch and even slippery like soap. Lightly fluffy fabric in a plain, twill or satin weave. It is produced from the feathers of Angora rabbits in different sizes; It differs from other wool fibers with its touch and longer fibers. It is used in women's clothes and costumes. Its name is derived from the fur of the Angora rabbit.

    Angora Wool

    It is obtained from Angora rabbit by clipping or hair removal. Its main areas of cultivation are Europe and East Asia. Its natural habitat is Turkey and the Black Sea Region. Angora rabbits were transported from France to Central Europe in the second half of the 19th century. Angora wool is one of the best textile fibers among all wool types, with its soft, light and relatively long (over 60 mm) fibers. Yields are between 0,9 kg and 1,1 kg per year. In the production of fabrics and knitted products, it is generally used with blends of 100% wool and other fibers. Products made from Agora are known for their lightness, softness and warmth. It is largely used in the production of bedding for hospitals.

    anorak (1)

    Short, Nordic-style sports jacket with a sewn-on hood. Their models are usually unlined, flowing and straight-cut. It is mostly made of cotton or synthetic fabrics.

    anorak (2)

    The short ergonomic feature is the sports jacket in the foreground. It has closure types. The length of the anorak is determined by its function; sewn at waist and lower length. It is produced from various fabrics, knitted fabrics, furs, synthetic leathers or leathers.

    Antistatic finishing

    It is used to remove the electrostatic charge from unwanted effects during the wearing and production of synthetic yarns, woven and knitted fabrics. The electrostatic charge creates an undesirable adhesive force and therefore a bad appearance. Antistatic finishing is applied through an antistatic chemical treatment, the effect of which can be temporary or permanent.


    The name given to the stylish dark gray color used in clothing fabrics.

    Wrapped blouse;tie double-breasted blouse

    An open front blouse that can be rolled up after wearing and pinned at the front or back. It is usually fixed in front with a rolled-up look and is worn over the head.

    Wrap skirt (1)

    The skirt that wraps and protects the figure with the buttoned wrap skirt and wrapover skirt types; It is usually designed with a simple cut.

    Wrap skirt (2)

    Its width and vertically enveloping the figure is its distinguishing feature. It is attached only at the waist.


    Decorative addition to a fabric by basting or gluing a separate, usually shiny, or substantially distinctive piece of woven fabric, knit, or leather cut. It is used to create a wide variety of simple and more complex graphic motifs. Embroidery can be added to the appliqué. Applique was particularly popular in Renaissance clothing, and was used even earlier in Coptic clothing.

    applique pocket

    The four-sided appliqué pocket (cornered appliqué pocket) is sewn on three sides and one side is left open for use. There are many different applique pockets used for decorative purposes. It can be sewn from the inside or the face of the garment, depending on the garment model and application technique.

    Epaulette; shoulder scarf

    Byour clothes in the arm tool line decorative piece added per shoulder. It is an integral part of the uniforms with its rank descriptor function. It is also used for decoration in sportswear.

    Finishing-Skis (Apraska)-After-ski clothes

    Young, comfortable and casual wear from the components of sportswear. It is worn in the afternoons and evenings, during relaxation in winter sports centers.

    Intermediate support material; interlining

    Intermediate support material placed between the lining and fabric of a garment. Its properties are determined in accordance with the purpose of use and fabric properties. Supporting material, if used to support part of the garment; As an interlining, if it is used as a filling material to keep the garment warm and better formed, it is called wadding.

    coachman-carrier fabric

    It is made of fine carded yarns that are brightened with special finishing processes. twill weave or a satin weaving techniqueIt is produced with cotton wool, covered with short shiny pile, thin, medium weight, matted. wool fabric. It is used in women's jackets and formal wear. This type of fabric, which got its name from English, was actually used in phaeton jackets.


    Arake fabric


    It is a voluminous, densely woven long pile (fleece) worsted fabric. The piles of this fabric are not flat, and twill or satin weave is hidden in a scattered surface form. It is produced from Strayhgarn yarn and is used in women's jackets. The name comes from French, meaning long pile woolen cloth.

    Arachne ; Loop-jointed fabric

    Textile fabric produced in arachne machine. The fiber fabric is formed along the fabric with warp knitting, for example, with the chain stitch placement technique of trichot knitting. It only allows for a limited variety of models. This production technique is widely used in technical textiles.

    Continuous pattern; plaster pattern


    A fabric pattern that covers the entire surface of the fabric, attracts attention with its smallness, and mostly consists of very simple motifs. This pattern style is very common in printed textiles and is used in dresses, blouses, underwear and ties.

    consecutive number

    They are numbers that indicate how many warp threads have one attachment point and are also used to describe the satin composition. Six-piece satin is not included in sequential numbers.

    Back collar opening; cleavage

    The area created by widening the collar opening on the back of a garment. It is especially used in formal and summer wear. It is not widely used in men's clothing.

    Dobby (fabric) (1)

    It is a silk fabric with small, often geometric patterns, and is usually obtained from a twill weave. It is made of natural or synthetic silk, used in neckties and women's clothing. The name comes from French – a twill weave term.

    Dobby ( fabric )(2)

    Generally, it is a monochromatic silk fabric with a small geometric weave shape and a dull sheen.

    dobby taffeta

    It is a slightly hard, burnished silk fabric. It has thin dark ribs. It is produced in a plain weave small, typically geometric pattern, sometimes with a satin weave and jacquard pattern. It is used in women's dresses.


    It is the abbreviated title of the International Decorative Arts and Modern Industry Exhibition held in Paris in 1925, where the leading fashion designers of the time held their exhibitions. The exhibition was a great success, but also received great criticism. The clarity and impact of the drawings in their simplicity inspired inspiration, the Gobelin colors were used on models in the clothing industry in the early 1920s. It experienced a revival in the 1970s and was reused.

    Asymmetric neckline

    It means that the front and back collar grooves do not form symmetry from a midpoint. The right and left edges of the collar groove are different from each other and are rather shaped on the sides. It is mainly used as a fashion element and in formal wear, in many different styles.

    army cap

    Lentil-shaped cap with a decoratively curved front and foldable side, straight sides.

    Military appearance (male)

    Men's casual sportswear in khaki or olive green with appliqué pockets.

    Military appearance (female)

    Military style women's wear with epaulets, wide, straight shoulders, a stand-up collar and double-breasted closure.

    Hanger loop pattern

    It is a single sided or double sided weft knitted fabric in which the hanger loops are arranged to form a pattern. It is characterized by embossed parts on the knit surface and this pattern is used in outerwear suitable for today's fashion.

    Intermediate ironing

    Ironing operations such as ironing seam allowances, opening in half, collar, pocket, patting and interlining.

    Main Material

    The basic material used in the preparation of a product.

    mouth opening

    According to the knitting report, the process of creating a space between the lower part of the warp threads by bringing the lower part of the warp thread to the upper position so that the weft thread can be thrown.

    weft yarn

    Threads placed in the width direction of the fabric.


    Sewn pat to clean arm slit.

    Weft/Warp direction

    The horizontal/longitudinal (in the direction of production and perpendicular to it) placement direction of the yarn in woven fabric.

    Open width painting system

    Broad dyeing of the fabric used in ready-made clothing.

    hanger loop

    A weaving element that is not threaded through the loop of the previous row, connected only to the stitches of the following row by the previous row and only the loop of the following row is attached by a needle head. Suspension loops have tie-down points in the following order.

    Strap blouse (shroud)

    It is the oldest known dress of the Slavs. It is the previous state of the shirt. It's long, loose, and has one or two straps to keep it over the shoulders. It also forms part of the folk costume as a sleeveless shirt.

    Liner; lining fabric

    It is the established and frequently used term for light weight, smooth, shiny and usually satin weave, cotton or silk fabrics. A single color is produced from cotton or chemical silk threads. It is used as a garment lining. As sleeve lining, light colored linings with dark line groups are used.

    lining fabric; fine calico

    It is a lighter cotton fabric than mityle fabric. Its touch is soft, flowing and cooling. It has recently been used as a fashion item for quilted coats and sportswear. Sometimes, a polished chintz effect is obtained when a surface is treated with a finishing process, or finishing processes such as sanding and gazelle can be applied.

    lined garment

    A garment consisting of at least two layers, consisting of the face of the garment and the lined interior. Lined clothes are suitable for embroidery.

    Lined knit fabric

    The knitted fabric is single plate warp knitted and the extra yarns are used to create the fabric feature and pattern on the fabric.


    It means an unlined surface consisting of only one layer of textile. Unlined garments include skirts, trousers, women's trousers and dresses, raincoats and summer underwear.

    Astrakhan; crimmer fabric

    Produced as a drawn or cut pile velvet fabric, it is an imitation of sheep's long pile wool with a highly pleated, shiny surface. The crimp is formed by a pile warp of mohair or sheviot wool. The first warp and weft are of cotton yarn, typically in a warp velvet weave. Krimmer is used in women's coats, scarves and hats.

    Astrakhan (imitation)

    It is a woolen fabric with a soft, even loose touch, with a crepe surface hidden by a curved surface created by a weaving or a fancy loop yarn produced by double-faced fabric production technology. It is produced from light and heavy worsted yarns. The heavy ones are used in coats or jackets and the light ones are used in fashionable women's suits. The term is a noun derived from the German word "krollen" (= to curl).

    Astro look clothing trend

    It is a style of clothing inspired by the first flights into space. It stands out with the use of glued pile textile fabrics with a flamboyant, shiny, polished surface and silver-gray and silver-blue plates. In the applied designs (as in the style of pilot coats), multi-pocket top, zipper closures, metal decorations and buttons are used.


    Long, elastic, usually fine hair from the ponytail and mane. The size of the horsehair can be 88cm from the ponytail and 45cm from the horse's mane. They are used as weft in the production of auxiliary materials (interlining), sieve and string reeds (reed wire).


    Transverse thread system in a woven fabric; more wavy than warp thread.

    Scarf; unite

    A sewn or woven piece used for a garment closure. Holes are created for buttoning the garment pieces at the edge of each piece, or one side is sewn securely and the other is buttoned. It is used for the closure of certain upper garments. It is especially used on the collars of uniform coats.

    weft tape

    It is a weft band that continues along the fabric due to a different setting or feature of the weft, with a different color, different structure or different composition.

    Scarf satin (1)

    It is an atlas/satin textured, medium weight cotton fabric with a soft and slippery surface. It is used in women's clothing.

    Scarf satin (2)

    Weaving in which weft attachment points dominate the fabric surface.

    Weftfaced twill; weft twill

    Weaving in which the weft-top attachment points dominate the weaving repetition.

    weft faced weaving

    Woven repeating fabric in which weft attachment points dominate over the warp.

    weft faced fabric

    Generic term for a fabric thus formed which enables the use of a weft face weave at the face attachment points of the weft.

    Weft closure; shepherd cover

    Cloth of clothes using scarf button or shepherd button. It is used as fashion in the inside of the chest pocket, uniforms, sportswear.

    Knitted plush with scarf; knitted velvet

    It is a single sided weft knit. A yarn is added to each row and tied with the ground, forming long loops (extended, hook-like arcs) on the surface of the knitting.

    Atlas; satin (1)


    It is a basic weave whose attachment points do not touch but are placed neatly on the weaving surface. Each warp thread and each weft thread is displaced once in the weaving, otherwise the repetition of the pattern will be the same in the warp and weft direction. Atlas/satin weaves are numbered according to the weave. Among its most important derivatives are broken satin, Embossed tip satin weave structure, two-pitch scarf satin, shaded scarf satin and reinforced satin.

    Atlas; satin (2)


    It is a silky, medium weight satin weave. The fabric is slightly stiff, soft and very shiny. It is used in women's clothing and as a lining. The name is derived from the use of satin weaves.

    athletic silhouette

    It is a style that directs men's clothing, which stands out with its wide, smooth shoulders and the use of pads on the shoulders. There is either no arch or it is not prominent. The closure is placed in the lower part of the garment and the hips are narrow.

    hunting clothing linen

    It is produced from rough, embossed surface, very hard touch, linen fabric, coarse yarn plain weave. Coat, hunting tackle, backpack etc. It is used in construction.

    shoelace, shoelaces

    With or without filling yarn, it is a crossover single system yarn and twisted with a width between 3 mm and 10 mm. It is produced in monochrome and bright color variants, with metal or other material tips. It is used for lacing in foot wear.

    Adjustable strip

    The tape slot is formed by placing one or two folded textile fabrics on the face or reverse of the fabric.

    open plaid

    It is a simple patterned fabric consisting of repetitions of clear squares formed by two or more colored threads on plain or ground-indeterminate patterns. It is used in women's dresses, blouses and often in men's suits and sports jackets.

    open collar

    The use of unbuttoning at certain points to relieve the neck circumference of a garment. It is used in jackets, dresses and similar types of clothing.

    Open collar shirt; front closure shirt

    Open-collar sports-style shirt. It has cuffed sleeves, which can be long or short. A part or all of the front body may be closed from the neck. It can be used by tucking the waist into the trousers or by taking them off. Collar and cuffs are supported with interlining.

    Network thread

    It is a square section yarn made by cutting.

    net fabric

    It is a textile fabric formed by two threads or other long textile materials passing through each other. Where two threads cross, loops of various sizes form, securing the fabric.

    Weft Direction Cross Twill Weave

    The given twill knitting pattern is divided into two equal parts in the weft direction. In the first area, it is embroidered in half in accordance with the twill weave technique. In the second area, the twill weave report is processed from the end to the beginning and the knitting is completed.

    Weft Direction Cut Twill Weave

    The given twill weave pattern is formed by arranging the weft yarn groups that repeat side by side in the weft direction. In the first area, it is processed in accordance with the twill knitting pattern technique. In the second field, the filled ones are marked as empty and the empty ones as full, and according to this report, the twill weave is processed. It is continued until the following groups repeat the report and knitting is completed.

    Weft Side Broken Twill Weave

    These are the weaves formed by enlarging the twill weave pattern in the weft direction of the given twill pattern. After the knitting pattern given to the first area is drawn in accordance with the technique, it is drawn in the second area to form a path in the opposite direction of the twill path of the first knitting pattern.

    atkı in the direction of Honeyıksırtı Twill Weave

    In the drawing of herringbone twill weave in the weft direction, the main weave is drawn. After the last scarf, empty is written against the full ones in the last scarf, and full is written against the empty ones. If the main weave is right-handed, the second part is drawn left-handed, and if the main weave is left-handed, the second part is drawn right-handed. In herringbone twill weaves in the weft direction, the number of warps in the report is as much as the warp number of the main weave, and the number of wefts is twice the number of wefts in the twill pattern.

    atkı Direction Diagonal Twill Weave

    Basic twill weaves are used to obtain diagonal twill weaves in the weft direction. After the twill weave is drawn, the first weft yarn movement of the weave is marked as the first weft yarn in the report area of ​​the weave to be created. Knitting is created by shifting the connection points in the direction of the weft yarn according to the number of jumps.

    atkı Direction Shaded Twill Weave

    Shaded twill weave in the weft direction is obtained in two ways as full shaded and half shaded. Half shaded twill weave is obtained by converting the given weft twill pattern to warp twill. The full shaded twill weave is formed by continuing the weft twill weave pattern until it turns into a warp twill weave pattern and then again into a weft twill weave pattern.

    atkı Reinforced in the Directionş Satin Weave

    In any weft satin weave to be strengthened in the weft direction, one or more attachment points are added to each attachment point where the warp yarn is on top. In warp satin knitting, on the other hand, a reinforced satin weave is created by adding one or more connection points to each connection point where the warp thread is at the bottom.

    atkı in the direction of Snowheatk Satin Weave

    The mixed satin weave in the weft direction is obtained by changing the weft yarn sequences of any satin weave. Although the change of weft thread rows is not dependent on a rule, it is specified which threads will be replaced in the knitting to be drawn.

    atkı Direction Shaded Satin Weave

    Shaded satin weave in the weft direction is obtained in two ways as full shade and half shade. Half shaded satin weave, for example, is obtained by transforming the given weft satin weave pattern into warp satin. On the other hand, full shade satin weave is formed by continuing the weft satin weave pattern until the warp satin weave pattern turns into a weft satin weave pattern again.


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Textile Terms A