Textile Terms
  • Textile Terms


    They are combed fiber bands.

    Tops/coil carrier

    It is the tool used to carry the coils/tops to the machines.


    It is the process of forming a cheesecloth at the end by making the fiber cluster into a single fiber.


    It is the material that emerges as a result of production or faulty production.


    It is the fiber layer at the exit of the doffer roller in the carding machine.

    Single filament ( monofilament)

    It is a single filament yarn with a thickness of more than 0,1mm (monofilament yarn up to 0,1mm).

    Single filament yarn ( monofilament yarn)

    It is filament yarn with a thickness of up to 0,1 mm and consisting of a single filament (above 0,1 mm = monofilament).


    It is a term related to the stages that the fiber goes through until it becomes a material (yarn, woven fabric, knitted fabric and non-woven surfaces) with the properties desired by the consumer.


    The process of gaining permanent crimping in order to make the straight and wrinkled artificial filament yarns look like natural fibers is called texturing.

    Seed index

    It is the weight of 100 seeds in grams.


    It is a collection of filaments over 30000 dtex composed of many filaments (under 30000 tex = multifilament).


    It is the potential for harm or damage that exists in the workplace or may come from outside, which may affect the employee or the workplace.


    Unwanted fiber or non-fiber debris.

    Type overlay

    It is the loading of a different material into the machine.

    Waste material

    It is the area where the yarn/fiber from the ring machine accumulates as a result of suction.

    Type change card

    It is a written document containing the working information that will be required for the production of the semi-finished product or product to be produced.

    Dust mask

    It is used so that fiber fly does not cause respiratory diseases.

    Textile surfaces

    It is a variety of surfaces produced from yarns, fibers or combinations of yarns and fibers used in the production of apparel. These surfaces are Woven fabrics, Knitted fabrics and Non-Woven surfaces.


    It is an intermediate layer that is attached with different methods in order to achieve the expected appearance, quality and effect of the garment, which adds volume and resistance to the processed fabric, contributes to the shape to be given to the garment, and plays a supporting role in the works that the fabric may encounter such as sewing, washing, ironing.


    It is a temporary sewing process for joining on the fabric.


    It is the removal of the excess on the surface of the textile product by cutting and making the surface smooth.


    It is the process of passing the warp threads through the strength wires in the frames according to the knitting report, through the lamellas that stop the weaving loom, that is, the machine, in case the warp thread breaks, and through the comb teeth in the comb that push the discarded weft thread to the fabric surface.


    It is the apparatus through which the warp threads are passed, that determines the width of the fabric, the warp density and positions each weft thread.

    Comb number

    Number of comb teeth per 10 cm in Cotton and Wool sector. ( Number of comb teeth per 1 cm in silk sector)


    It is the waste thread and debris released during production.


    weaving machine


    The machine part that ensures that the yarns are properly guided into the knitting process in the warp knitting machine


    It is the technique of giving natural yarn appearance and properties to synthetic yarns through thermal and/or mechanical processes. With this technique, continuous synthetic yarns gain a much more voluminous structure that will expand their usage areas.


    It is a triangular cross-section made to give light transmittance and reflectivity to the filaments.


    It is the softness of the fabric.


    It is the uncut state of the fabric after knitting.

    Pilling resistance

    It is the resistance of the fabric to pilling due to abrasion on its surface.


    It is a kind of hard silk fabric.


    Unlike the pile or surface of the carpet, they are the yarns and fabrics that make up the back part of the carpet.


    It is a type of carpet produced by passing the added yarn clusters through the fabric weave on the back of the carpet, creating a cut or loop-tipped pile surface.


    It is a long jacket or blouse that is knee-length or slightly above the knee.

    trans interlining

    It is an interlining that is attached to the hem and armholes of jackets and coats.


    They are pieces of fiber that blow up during production.

    Production recipe

    It is a short written information that defines the names and quantities of the materials to be used in production, as well as the production methods and conditions.

    blowing air

    It is the air given to the yarn at 20± 2 C and at the adjusted speed to ensure that the yarn flowing from the nozzle is cooled and given a permanent shape.

    Production Booth

    It is the cabinet equipped with blowing air and lubricating systems, where cooling and lubrication processes are carried out after the yarn comes out of the flat.

    Production plan

    It is a written statement that specifies the materials, machinery and related parameters and methods to be used in production.

    Production sample

    It is a trial product used as a reference for the pattern/product to be produced.

    ironing block/chock/stabilizer

    In flat knitted product, shaping, fixing etc. during ironing. tool used for the purpose.

    ironing phone

    It is the apparatus used to prevent glare during ironing and damage that may occur on sensitive fabrics due to heat. 

    Carpet woven with Wilton technique

    It is a multi-colored carpet with a hairy surface, woven with the jacquard weaving technique.


    It is a diagonal cut of the fabric.


    It is a piece prepared by giving abundance with circular movements.


    It is an expanding part.


    The decoration technique applied to the clothes is the garnish.

    X silhouette

    It is a women's clothing fashion style that draws attention with its broad and straight shoulders, skirt form that reveals the waistline and widens towards the hem.

    Auxiliary material

    It is the material used in the preparation of a product other than the basic material.

    Circular knit/combed fabric

    İthe threadsğformed by being made into loops by means of whatşflexible, elastic, plump and softşwhite textile surface.

    Age end process

    It is a chemical finishing process performed in an aqueous environment.

    false twist texturing

    It is a texturing method in which the partially drawn yarn (POY) is given a high volume, flexible structure by turning it first in one direction and then in the other direction, with the contribution of thermal and mechanical processes.

    aging machine

    It is a machine that cuts wet tube fabric.

    High Capacity Fiber Analyzer (HVI):

    A device that can simultaneously measure properties such as color, length, fineness, breaking strength, length compatibility, foreign matter ratio in cotton fiber,

    Semi products

    It is the application of some of the process steps required to create yarn to the textile raw material.

    Y silhouette

    It is a distinctive garment fashion style with a straight, broad shoulder accent, tapered, regular waistline and straight skirt (or straight trousers for menswear).


    A part of men's and women's clothing on the upper body. It is more decorative than functional. Although it is made of leather or other materials for functional reasons or for decorative purposes, it is usually made from the same fabric of clothing.

    Collar; collar line; collar circumference

    It is the area of ​​neck opening that widens at the front, back or shoulders of the garment. The shape and size of the collar is determined by the type of garment and the fashion of the day. Collar is an important decorative element of women's clothing. There are square neckline, boat neckline, rectangular neckline, open neckline, oval neckline, Submarine collar, front cut-out collar, U-collar, V-neck and back collar.

    collar opening; collar line; collar cutout

    It is the opening that ends at the top of a garment and wraps around the neck. A collar is added to the collar opening. In collarless garments, the collar opening is fashionably shaped in different ways.

    iridescent fabric

    light weight cotton, silk or wool. It is a woven fabric by using weft and warp threads in different colors to create a bright color change that can be distinguished when the fabric is viewed from different directions. It is used in women's and men's tops. It got its name from the "chameleon", a type of lizard that can take on the color of its location.

    Non-flammability finishing process; incombustibility

    It is applied to fabrics used in the production of work clothes worn in high risk environments and textile materials produced for the home. It is produced with ammonia and uric hydrogen orthophosphate. When the fabrics with non-flammability finishing process are in direct contact with the fire, they become carbonized but do not cause the fire to spread.

    Reflective Tapes

    Well-visible bands in bright colors. They are used as safety-warning tapes on work clothes produced for policemen, firefighters, road workers and children's wear. They allow the garment to look good even on roads with poor visibility.

    artificial thread

    It is a straight sewing thread produced by twisting three layers of combed yarn. Due to the bleaching and mercerization processes applied, this yarn has the brightness and strength required for underwear.

    Structure; structure

    Plain (smooth), grained, embossed, pile, etc. It is the term used for the appearance of the textile fabric surface that can be The type of construction is given by the structure of the fabric and is influenced by fashion trends.

    Structural woven fabric

    It is a typically rough-handled cotton fabric, silk fabric, or wool fabric with a grainy, porous surface, woven or formed with a fancy yarn.

    Structural mesh; structural knit fabric

    It is the general term for zone relief surface knitting, which can include a wide variety of elements in a fabric, such as carrying stitches, catching loops.

    adhesive narrow tape

    It is a narrow but sticky fabric tape.

    adhesive hemming tape

    In order to ensure that the edges of the clothes are cleaned by curling, the clothes are glued on the margins. It is machine applied or sewn to the hems of skirts, dresses and coats.

    adhesive interlining; paper interlining

    It is an adhesive interlining produced with fabric technology.

    Adhesive Patch

    It is a fabric in geometric shapes such as triangle, square, with thermoplastic layers for pressing, applied to the damaged points of a garment.

    gluing stitch

    It is called joining both fabric surfaces or other materials by using an adhesive substance, pressure and heat. There are two types as point adhesive and plaster adhesive.

    Conjoined fiber fabric

    It is the fastening of more than one fiber cheesecloth on top of each other with auxiliary materials.

    Bat Sleeve

    A kimono sleeve with the armpit well below its normal place, the armhole distinctly deep, and the upper part very loose. It is used in fashion in women's clothing.

    Semi-manufactured (sewing) clothing

    It is the absence of some assembly and finishing work so that the garment can adapt to personal body contours (shortening, lengthening, widening, etc.), so that it can be adjusted and completed after trying on. Otherwise, it becomes ready-to-wear clothing.

    semi-dull yarn

    It is generally 60-120 mm long, 56/58's and 58/60's fine hybrid (/crushed/mixed) wool and 50-100 fineness, semi-bluntly spun tex wool made from long coars. It consists of wool that is tight, long enough, but containing only a small amount of short fibers. Other fibers in this style are also buff yarn, cashmere, mohair wool, etc. may be spun. You can even use polyacronitrile, polyamide, viscose, etc. to make it semi-opaque. Synthetic fibers with a thickness of 5,6-13 dtex can also be used. Semi-matte fibers are generally used for hand knitting (sueter, cardigan, lady's coat), upholstery fabric, rug and decorative fabric cover, etc. can be used for

    slit pocket; slit pocket; slit pocket

    It is a pocket with a slit opening that can be in various places and directions on the dress. There are several types; flap pocket (taped / welt pocket), studded pockets and embellished flap pockets.

    Half cardigan (knitted cardigan)

    It is a double-sided scarf knitting formed by a two-sided row that changes with only one hanger row. Large loops - also called beads - are formed on the face where there is no suspension row. It is used in sports and winter clothing.

    half belt

     It is a short belt used for decoration purposes. It is placed on the waist line in the back part of the pir coat. It may consist of one or more parts. Besides its decorative function, it allows to adjust the waist width of the garment. It can be applied in two ways in terms of half arch planting technique. First, the belt, which is prepared separately from the garment, can be applied to the entire waist circumference of the garment by passing through the lacings on the side seams, or it can be used only by attaching it to the back body. Secondly, the prepared belt can be placed between the side seams and used permanently around the entire waist or only on the back body.

    Half kimono Sleeve

    Only forearm kimono; The rear arm has the upper arm.

    half arm; short arm

    The arm is up to the elbow.

    half pike

    It is a full-touch cotton or silk fabric with vertical or diagonal rips formed by two warps and a weft. It is used in women's dresses or blouses.

    Half raglan Sleeve

    forearmraglan sleeve and the rear arm is the post arm with the arm top or vice versa (can be front or rear arm raglan). Fashionably used in women's clothing

    half apron

    waist tie; It is a skirt-like garment used to protect the lower part of the clothes by being tied with a belt.

    Half Socks

    It is a clothing accessory worn on the legs. It is tubular and the tip is foot-shaped; The upper edge is finished by knitting or threading elastic yarn. It is knitted from wool, cotton and synthetic silk.

    Bobbin lace; bobbin lace

    It is a textile fabric product produced by winding the yarn with intermediate transitions in very wide row yarn groups. Lace, which is made by wrapping threads around the bobbin on a pillow, is applied especially from unwound bobbin threads in accordance with its intended use.

    bed clothes

    Clothing designed to be worn while sleeping. They have been used in Europe since the late middle ages. Although the first bed clothes were ordinary shirts, they were also worn. In the 19th century, when pajamas were slowly becoming popular, nightgowns were often used. The bed clothes of today's women can be complemented by a dressing gown. Baby sleeping baskets are designed for babies and toddlers.

    Horizontal (rug) weaving

    It is a technique that does not use knots during the production of rug-like mats. The warp rows are used as the ground and the weft rows are used for both the ground and the pattern making. Weaving was carried out by simply passing the weft rows between the warps.

    Summer Clothes

    Typically made from breathable, lightweight, open textile fabrics. It is either semi-lined or unlined. It is designed to be worn in summer.

    summer jacket Especially produced from light colored, porous, light weight fabrics; It is a thin jacket that is usually unlined and lightly worked.

    summer tuxedo jacket

    It is a white summer jacket generally worn in mild weather.

    Oil stain

    It is an undesirable different shine on the fabric.

    Raincoat, Trench Coat

    It is an outer garment used by men and women to protect themselves from rain in rainy weather in spring and autumn. It is produced from embossed silk ripps or cotton ripps and is water-repellent. Single row closure at first, concealed fly, raglan sleeves with tapered sleeves fillet pockets The raincoat shape remained unchanged for a long time. However, nowadays it can have different forms according to the fashion of the time.

    Raincoat (Mackintosh)

    It is a raincoat-especially rubberized coat of British origin. It is named after Charles Mackintosh, who patented the fabric with a water-repellent finishing treatment in 1980.

    Vest (1)

    It is a short, sleeveless or sleeveless garment that covers the body narrowly or loosely, with a front closure, at or below the waist. The front closure can be single or double-breasted. The body-covering vest is sleeveless, lacking a lapel collar is typical and a part of men's suits. The back part is made of lining and the front part is made of the fabric of the suit. The sleeve vest usually has a lapel collar; It is a part of sportswear and is worn instead of a jacket. During the war years of the 1930s, the origin of the vest was sleeves. In the 18th century, it took its present form without a tail and without arms. It is made of richly embroidered luxury fabrics.

    Vest (2)

    It is a body-fitting garment with a collar, sometimes with a special front fit, which can be single or double-row button closure. Generally, the front part is cut from the same fabric as the suit, and the back part is cut from the lining. The origin of the vest XIV. It is dated to the time of Louis. The vest, which is the same in shape but with sleeves, was extremely ornate and shiny on the front and was worn at home as a dressing gown. In the 18th century, the sleeves became wider, the length became shorter, and during the biedermeier period, the color became the dominant element of men's clothing. It became an integral part of men's teams just after the middle of the 20th century. It has been observed that the public wears less after a sufficient heat environment is created in living spaces and offices.

    Sailing cloth

    Thick, medium weight cotton fabric made of semi-quality yarn in twill and satin weave, which creates a vertical line by changing the weaving in warp and weft. Typically used in men's underwear. We distinguish between types of ducks depending on their use (eg for mattresses, for blinds, for linens and bedspreads).

    New Zealand linen

    It is the fiber of the known flax leaves native to the Marshland Islands off the coast of New Zealand. Technically fiber; bright, white, thin and 1-1,5 m. is long. It is mainly used in the production of canvas and rope.


    Unlike the classical fabrics and knits used in women's and men's clothing, fashionable colors, textures and patterns in fabrics and knitting.


     They are decorative lace clusters that have been filled in the fabric and given a lace pattern in precisely defined parts of the fabric. In the application of this technique, ivory for decorative purposes or inlays of stones, beads, jewels are inspired.

    soft membrane; soft coating

    It is the common name given to modern outerwear that is water resistant but breathable and warm. There are membrane and non-membrane fabrics. It has high mechanical resistance and light weight.

    Greek style clothing

    Before the time of Homer, the Hellenic Dorians created a rectangular woolen cloth that was wrapped over the skin and fastened with pins at the shoulder. This dress was the same for men and women. Thanks to the Ionians, the Greeks adopted the chiton (a type of woolen tunic), a tunic that is now pinned together and sewn together and then folded. The men's chiton was shorter than the women's. There was the himation (cloak) for cold weather, a piece of cloth about 1,5 m wide and 3 m long, worn over the shoulder by men and as a head covering by women.

    high waistline

    The waistline above the basic waistline. It is the opposite of the low waistline.

    high volume yarn

    Yarn of spun fibers that are lighter than the material from which it is taken. The yarn volume (bulk) is given a special finish - a coating that provides ready-made products (knitted tops, underwear) with qualities such as high usability, porosity and aesthetic appearance, making them plump and soft to the touch.

    High technology

    It is the common term for superior quality and high technology in all areas of industry. It is an indicator of product innovation and development. High technology in clothing is associated with new chemical fibers, which include new technologies for the production of clothes and textiles and fashion accessories. Clothing styles gain a more technical, simple and serious look. Its name is derived from the abbreviation of the English phrase "High-Style and Technology".


    Natural animal fiber obtained by cutting, sorting or epilating the hair or fur of animals (such as sheep, goat, camel, rabbit). Sheep wool has the widest use in the textile industry; Camel and goat's wool is also popular, although not as much. Hair is a keratinous fiber that grows outside of the skin. (Keratin is made up of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and a small amount of sulfur.)

    wool scarf; comforter

    One side measure is at least 70 cm. A square garment accessory. It is woven from a woolen frame thread; it is felted and the edges are decorated with fringes. It acts as a protection against cold weather. It was once a popular accessory worn in the countryside, especially by older women.

    Wool plush (wool fiber)

    A new type of knitting from 100% merino wool, with a thick, fine pile surface and giving softness, smoothness, bulkiness and natural flexibility; soft touch. Wool plush is typically used in sportswear, anoraks, jackets, new style coats and cold-proof shirts, all of which are machine washable.

    wool flannel

    It is a soft-touch fabric type with long and combed flat pile that covers the entire surface on the face and reverse of the woolen flannel fabric, covering the weaving completely or partially. It is produced by weaving from worsted and woolen yarn (two by two twill). It can be made in various weights. It is used in women's and men's tops and women's dresses. The name was changed from the Welsh word "gwlamen", meaning woolen clothing, to "flannen" and "flannel".

    wool fabric

    It is produced from wool or chemically spun fibers, textile residues of these raw materials or other blends and fibers to give the wool fabric feature and appearance. The quality of its touch, texture and weight is varied; it has good insulating properties and its elasticity means it is resistant to wrinkling and deformation and is easily formable. Cleaning and washing depends on chemical fiber content. It is widely used for women's, men's and children's wear.


    It is a technical term used for warp and weft threads that pass freely through many connection points throughout the fabric. They lie on the surface and create many touted weaving patterns.

    swimming suit;swimwear

    It is a sports-style clothing worn by men and women while swimming. It hugs the body, is worn over the skin, and is usually made of elastic knit fabric. Women's and girls' swimwear is a one-piece (swimsuit) or two-piece (bikini) garment consisting of a bra and panties/shorts that covers the body and hips. Men's swimming suit is one-piece. The swimsuit originated in the late 19th century and was fashionably modernized in the 20th century in terms of cut and textile fabric.

    Wash and wear; practical clothing

    It is a general term for items of clothing that dry quickly after washing and do not need to be ironed or lightly ironed. The prerequisite for such products is that not only their textile fabrics, but also their lining, the substance and the yarn are wrinkle-resistant and keep their shape.


    It is the process for cleaning textile fabrics in a water bath. Washing includes all or some of the following operations in the respective combinations:

    - soaking, prewash and main wash - usually carried out by heating and mechanical treatment in the presence of detergents or other products - and quenching;

    - drawing water, ie turning or twisting performed during or after the above-mentioned operations.

    These operations are carried out by machine or by hand.

    The numbers on the wash tube indicate the maximum temperature value in °C, which should not be exceeded. The bar at the bottom of the wash tube characterizes soft processes with low mechanical action, especially for easy-care materials. The double bar indicates very light processing, especially for wool items.

    Washed appearance; faded appearance

    It is the name given to the old and faded appearance obtained by washing of textile fabrics (woven fabrics and knits) and fashionable forms of clothing. This finishing process was used for the first time in denim, but later it was applied to woolen fabrics, knitting and especially youth clothing. This type of very soft (touched) cotton and wool fabrics, which were artificially aged and faded as a result of this finishing, were a sought-after feature, especially in trousers that were fashionable in the late 1980s. The term is derived from English.

    washed wool

    Wool fat is shredded wool containing sweat, sand, dust. These contaminants are separated from wool in various ways. The most common style is to wash in a water bath (called emulsifying) in kerosene or petroleum. The amount of wool that is washed with plenty of water (cleaning) obtained from oily wool is called rendement, which means wool yield after washing. This value varies between 35 and 80% depending on the type of sheep and the amount of dirt. Fine wool (merino) yields less than coarse wool. The fleece color is usually white, yellowish, yellow, greenish yellow, brownish, reddish, grayish, bluish, etc. It is possible. Wool usually gets its color from sweat, oil and dust captured by the greasy fleece. A healthy wool retains its own color tone even after washing. Australian merino wool is usually white. The wool of the hybrid breed is usually yellowish or yellow, etc. It is possible.

    Worn-looking fabric; washed fabric; faded fabric

    It is the description of a fabric, more specifically denim fabric, which has the appearance of being washed many times with special dyeing techniques or printing techniques. It is a popular image in sportswear. It is also used for the worn look.


    It is the garment opening that allows the garment to be put on and facilitates movements. It can also have a decorative function or be influenced by fashion trends.

    Slit fastening; flash

    Completion of buttonholes, slits or openings or pockets; made by hand or machine, it is usually a decorative finishing piece in various shapes (triangle, circle, etc.). It is divided into flat closure, formed by short, neat rows of stitches, and wedge-shaped closure, which is used to decorate slits, openings, folds or pleats.

    Semi Worsted Shaper

     It is scanned in dyed or ecru bamboo preparation machines. It is connected to a shaper with a roving feed from the bucket and turned into a single ply yarn.

     artificial staple fiber

     Fiber obtained by shaping and cutting to a certain length in order to process artificial fiber together with cotton and wool fiber,"artificial staple fiber" It called. What are impacted teeth? When one or more teeth fails to grow in the correct position and is therefore held below the normal gum line, it is called an impaction. This can be complete, such as completely unerrupted (buried) third molars (wisdom teeth) or partial when just part of the tooth is visible in the mouth. Why are impactions important? For best function and appearance the teeth should grow in a healthy alignment. When one or more teeth is impacted, this can affect the function of that tooth but also the function and appearance of other teeth. Whether all impactions should be treated is still controversial and your dentist and oral and maxillofacial team can explain the advantages and disadvantages or treatment for you, which is usually surgical.

     false twist texture

    In this method; The yarn taken by the delivery rollers is sent into the spindle. The inner part of the spindle is empty and there is a pin on which the thread is wound, which is perpendicular to the movement of the thread. The pin is located between the lead and the receiving cylinder. By turning the stationary filament yarn spindle, an equal amount of twist in the opposite direction is created on both sides of the yarn. ''S'' twist on one side of the yarn and ''Z'' twist on the other side. The first operation in the false twist method is the fixation process. The reason for applying the fixation process is to ensure the permanence of the given twist.


    It is a light fluffing process of the textile product surface.

    Chain program/pattern base

    It is the socks production program prepared by considering the functionality, form and production techniques of the models specified in the product design/order.


    Wire system that prevents the jalousie curtains from swinging on the movable wings.


    The twist definition of vertically placed yarn, its fibers forming a right-hand diagonal helix, resembling the center of the letter "Z". The fold is indicated as the right side and is denoted by the letter “Z”.


    A long, shiny, soft pile, fluffy woolen fabric of white, mohair-like fibers or a mixture of other shiny fibers. The pile surface completely covers the floor formed by plain, twill or satin technique. For ladies' coats and cloaks; Used for men's sports jackets. It takes its name from the French word “zibeline” meaning “sable” (because the fabric surface has a similar appearance to this fur).

    Zibelin thread

    It is spun from dyed wool obtained from a mixture of long, colorless mohair, reindeer, rabbit and silk fiber scraps.

    zigzag strip

    It is a double-sided tape with a loop-tied, polyester, viscose or even cotton thread, single thread system with oblique net structure, colored soft surface. Both edges form regular waves. The width of the zigzag strip generally varies between 6mm and 12mm. Used in folkloric clothing, underwear and other clothing

    Chain stitch; lock stitch

    The distinction between hand and machine chain stitching is as follows. Hand chain stitching is performed when one loop picks up the loop of the next stitch, creating a chain-type shape on the outer edge; this is used in embroidery. Chain stitching on the machine is performed when one loop picks up the loop of the next stitch or the loop of another thread; this stitch has the appearance of a knit

    chain loop

    It is the basic element of weaving in the warp, which does not form a connected weave. Each chain is formed by a single yarn and is independent. It is used as the basis for a wide variety of knitting patterns, where it is combined with complementary yarns or used with other weaves to form a connected whole.


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Textile Terms