All of the physical and chemical processes that the raw cloth undergoes before it is ready for sale, which comes out of the weaving factory or business, is called "Finishing processes".
Textile finishing processes can simply be classified as follows:
3. Finishing operations
The finishing processes of textile products are divided into two according to the application method:
1. Age Finishing Operations
2. Dry Finishing Processes
Dry finishing processes are generally related to finishing processes.
Wet finishing processes cover many different processes from bleaching to anti-crease and non-flammability treatment.
Wet finishing processes consist of three basic processes.;
1. Transfer of Finishing Agent to Textile Material (Application, preparation)
Various finishing processes selected in accordance with durability, waterproofing, non-flammability, non-shrinkage properties and appearance requirements are applied, giving the fabric the necessary properties and ensuring their permanence through finishing processes.
Washing, mercerization, resting, raising, calendering, steaming, etc. processes are effective on fabric dimensions. Processes such as boiling, decaturation and heat-fixing ensure the permanence of the properties gained to the fabric up to that stage by being fixed. The fabric should be woven at the most appropriate frequencies, taking into account the size changes that occur after the finishing processes.
In general, at the beginning of textile finishing, all of the foreign matter removal processes in the fabric in order to prepare for other finishing processes.'Pre-Treatment Operations' is called. Not all textile products need to undergo all pretreatment processes. The main properties obtained in fibers as a result of a good pretreatment can be listed as follows:
• Removal of foreign materials such as sizing, trash, pectin, oil, wax, catalytic substances
• Percentage of hygroscopic moisture
• Constant PH
• Degree of whiteness
• Swelling of the fiber
Coloring in textile:
1. In fibrous form
2. While tops(band) during yarn formation
4. They can be applied together, as is done in four stages after the fabric is made.
Basically, because the light reflections will be different due to the opacity-brightness brought by the raw materials used, the shortness-length of the fibers, thinness-thickness, rough or smooth surfaces, the dyed colors can be perceived as more matte, brighter or paler and more vivid. These basic attributes are the most used keys to coloring.
The effects of raw material properties on coloring are most evident in fiber coloring. Depending on the types of raw materials, for example; wool appears more matte than silk, artificial and synthetic fibers appear brighter than natural fibres. In addition, thin, short and highly crimped fibers give a duller and paler appearance compared to long and low crimped or wavy fibers.
Coloring in Tops:
Tops coloring is done especially in the woolen sector. Tops can be painted in one color or in separate colors according to their mixing status. In addition, some of the raw materials of the mixtures in the tops may be dyed and some may not. Another application of coloring as tops is "vigoureux" printing. This application was previously done as a single color, but nowadays it reaches up to 4 colors.
In this coloring, the yarns can be dyed in a single color as well as in different colors (space dyed) section by section with the partial dyeing method. The production method and the amount of twist affect the yarn colors. Since the fibers are parallel in combed yarns, they appear brighter and more vivid because they reflect light rays more than yarns with more entangled fibers.
As the amount of twist increases, the shine increases as it smoothes the yarn surface. When the twist direction changes, the light reflections change due to the different helices. The textured ones of synthetic-based yarns consisting of continuous fibers become dull compared to the others. In yarn coloring, the printing method on the warp creates a very different and characteristic appearance, but is rarely used. Here, the colors used are chosen more saturated, as the wefts that will pass between the warps due to knitting will disrupt the integrity of the color.
Coloring in Fabric:
Coloring in the form of fabric is done as top dyeing or printing. In this method, raw material and knitting are the most important features. As the connection increases, the appearance becomes dull and plain weave gives the most matte appearance, and satin weave gives the brightest image.
After the pre-treatment and coloring processes in order to improve the usage properties, attitude and appearance of the fabrics, the processes are applied. ''Finishing Operations'' is called. Instead of finishing processes in industry ''Finishing'' The main features gained to fabrics by finishing processes classified as “Temporary” or “Permanent” according to whether they are resistant to washing during use are as follows:
1. Appearance-related Smoothness, shine, firmness, opacity, etc.
2.Things related to attitude Hardness, vitality, fullness, softness, elasticity, toughness etc.
Finishing operations can be divided into two groups:
1.Chemical Finishing Processes
The basis of chemical finishing processes is based on contacting the finishing materials with the fabric by any application method and bonding them to the fibers at the same time. While pretreatment processes are extractive, chemical finishing processes are additive processes. In other words, there is an increase in fabric weight at the end of the process. The desired effects in mechanical finishing processes are achieved by mechanical (physical) means such as pressing, cutting, feathering, and heat treatments. No chemicals are applied. In some cases, water and auxiliary chemicals may be applied to the textile product during mechanical finishing processes. But generally, these types of finishes are dry treatments and are sometimes applied alone but often after chemical finishing treatments.
In mechanical finishing processes, the aim is generally to improve the handle and appearance of the fabric. Some processes, such as sanforization, to prevent shrinkage of cotton fabrics, are for improving usage properties.