Basic Elements and Knitting Structures
  • Basic Elements and Knitting Structures


    basic moves


    The basic movement to create a weft knitting structure is looping. Hanging and jumping are other important moves.




    It is obtained by the joint movement of the needle and the sinker. The needle moves up with the movement it takes from the steels and takes a thread and passes it through the previous loop to form a new loop.


    The head and body part of the loop form the needle loop, and the foot part forms the sinker loop. The loop forming the smallest structure of the knitted fabric may is called.


    The loop, which is a thread loop, is connected to the other loops by the connection point from the loop head and loop foot to gain strength. Each loop has two upper and two lower attachment points.







    straight and reverse There are two types of loop appearance.


    In the flat loop, only the body parts of the loops are on the knitting surface., in reverse stitch, the head and foot parts of the stitches are visible.

    The loops lined up side by side in the width of the knitting, The loops placed on top of each other in the direction of the knitting length form the loop bar (may). The vertical arrangement of the loops in knitting is also called a column.









    The loop rows and rods in the knitting structure should be perpendicular to each other. Unbalanced knitting structures formed by knitting rotation are faulty.


    Hanger loop;


    During the formation of hanger loops, the needle is brought to a suitable position for feeding the thread to the needle without being raised to its normal loop formation height. Knitting is formed by dropping the old loop and new thread on the needle hook together at the next loop formation stage. Suspension loops can be formed on the same needle along 4 needles on top of each other and 6 needles side by side.


    Hanger loops decrease the length and longitudinal elasticity of the fabric, while increasing the transverse elasticity of the fabric.











    jump loop;


    jump loops; It occurs when the needle does not rise at all during knitting formation and as a result, yarn cannot be fed to the needle. Therefore, while other needles form loops, only the old loop remains on the skipping needle. The number of skips to be made on the same needle is 4, and the number of skip stitches that can be made side by side is 6. These values ​​vary according to the machine structure, the dimensions of the machine needle head (beak), yarn count and fabric tension tension. Skipping loops reduce the transverse elasticity of the fabric.









    TAmal Knitting Structures


    In terms of structure, there are two main types of surface shapes, namely R and L surfaces, according to the way the loops appear on the face.These surfaces are hanger and jump It is enriched with processes and named as suspended, hopping, suspended-hopping surfaces. R tracks longitudinally on the surface due to the upper leg parts.


    On the L surface, there are transverse traces if a bubble forms due to the head and feet being aligned side by side. Below are the surface views of the loop surface R, loop surface L, the surface of the suspended knit, and the surface views of the skipped knit. The front side of the fabric shows the straight (R) loop structure, the back side shows the reverse (L) loop structure.


    Basic knitted surfaces are expressed as (RL), (RR) and (LL) surfaces according to the loop image of the knitted fabric face and reverse. These;


    1. RL Plain knitted surfaces, Single jersey knitted surfaces.


    2. RR knitting surfaces, Rib and Interlock knitting surfaces.


    3. LL knitted surfaces, Harosha knitted surfaces.











    Single Jersey Knit


    The knitted fabric face right loop (R) and reverse left loop (L) looking surfaces (RL) produced in a single plate, known as single-layer knitted fabrics, are called surfaces. These surfaces refer to the types of fabrics produced in flat knitting machines, single plate circular knitting machines and single plate single jersey machines.


    Single jersey knitting produced on single-plate knitting machines stands out as the most common basic knitting surface used. Because it has a very simple structure. The front surface image is completely different from the back surface image. Consisting entirely of loops, this knit is composed of a flexible and unstable surface. Therefore, the edge curls are open to rotation.


    Single jersey knit fabrics can be produced in various variations with single-ply yarns, additional yarns or double-ply yarns. There are varieties such as heavy jersey, lycra single jersey, melange jersey. However, it is obtained in different single jersey fabrics with the patterning method. These fabrics are unstable and tend to turn to the wrong side as they leave the machine. These turning tendencies can be prevented by finishing processes. These fabrics are widely used especially in underwear and summer sports outerwear.









    General properties of single jersey fabrics;


    1-Front and back faces are different,


    2-It is a fabric that can be produced in open width or tubular form,


    3-It is possible to obtain wider widths than other knitted fabrics,


    4-It stretches both longitudinally and transversely, but it has the lowest stretching feature compared to other fabrics,


    5-The knitting pattern consists of at least 1 needle and 1 yarn movement in a single needle plate (normal knitting pattern consists of two needles side by side and two rows of loops on top of each other),


    6- Since the fabric is formed on a single plate, the amount of yarn consumed is the least,


    7-Dimensional stability is low,


    8-It can be deformed when stretched,


    9- Its adaptability to body movements is low compared to other single yarn knitted fabrics due to its less flexibility,


    10-There is curling from the sides towards the back of the fabric, and from the top and bottom towards the front of the knitting,


    11It has the lowest patterning opportunity compared to other weaves,


    12- Since the structure of the single jersey fabric is voluminous, its absorbency is good due to its moisture absorption feature,


    13- In case of breaking of the thread, the broken loops cause the loop loops to slip, that is, to escape,


    14-The thickness of the knitted fabric is lower provided that the raw material used remains the same,


    15-They vary between thin, light open structure and heavy structures,


    16-Cutting and sewing process is problematic due to its stretching feature,


    17It has been used partly in underwear and widely in summer outerwear industry.


    18- They don't want too much ironing, they lose their wrinkles easily.


    Rib Knitting


    Rib knit has RR knit surface. RR knitted fabric face right stitch (R), reverse right stitch (R) look. Both sides of the fabric look the same. The longitudinal row of RR surfaces consists of one row of R loops and one row of L loops. L The rows of loops are not visible on the surface when the rows of R loops are compressed, but are visible when stretched out.








    The rib knit seen above is one of the two basic knit surfaces produced on double-plate machines. It gives the flexibility sought for the collar, skirt, sleeve ends and sweatpants of the top clothing items. Rib fabrics, which have been mainly used in the production of underwear until today, are also frequently used in upper clothing. When they are used as accessories, they are usually knitted with elastic yarn (lycra). This increases their flexibility even more. Rib fabrics generally do not have turning and edge curling. However, when they are knitted with elastic yarn, edge curling is seen. However, there are structures formed entirely in loops. They are thicker than single jersey fabric. The front surface images and the back surface images are the same.


    General properties of rib fabrics:


    1- If the number of reverse L and face R loops is equal, the same image is formed on the front and back of the fabric. So it's double faced


    2-Double plate knitwear (flat knitting), double layer knitted fabric produced in circular and warp knitting machines,


    3- The knitting pattern consists of at least 2 needles and 1 yarn movement in the double plate (normal, the main knitting pattern consists of 2 needles side by side and 2 rows of loops on top of each other).


    4-Since the knitting pattern is formed in double plate, the amount of yarn consumed is higher than single jersey fabrics,


    5- It has high elasticity and bounce feature,


    6-Longitudinal stretching feature is low. Flexibility in the transverse direction is high,


    7- Stretching in the transverse direction is more than plain weaves,


    8-Rib knit fabric adapts to the body due to its high stretching feature,


    9-If the number of loops on both sides of the knitted fabric is equal, the loops on the front and back will balance each other so that curling will not be seen on the edges. That is, it has the ability to lie flat on both ends and edges.


    10-Can only rotate from the last loop,


    11-There can only be escaping from the last stitch,


    12- It can have equal or different design, balanced or unbalanced ribs (longitudinal R loop arrangement),


    13Provided that the raw materials used remain the same, the thickness of the rib fabric is thicker than the single jersey fabric,


    14- It can be used in upper clothing knitting as plain or shaped,


    15It can be applied to the edge of woven or different types of fabrics,


    16-RR Rib knitted fabrics have good moisture absorbing properties with their bulky structure, thus absorbing properties are good.


    17-RL Higher weight fabrics can be obtained compared to single jersey fabrics,


    18- Circular positions are smooth due to the height of transverse elasticity,


    19- Since the air is kept between the two layers of knitting, it keeps the body warm,


    20- They have found a wide area of ​​use as a rubber knit in underwear and outerwear, especially in the sleeves, collars and waist parts of which elasticity is desired.


    Interlock Knitting


    Of the two basic mesh surfaces produced on double-plate machines, When two rib knits are knitted at the same time, it is called Interlock Knitting. This knitting consists of loops and jumps. On the other hand, Interlock mesh is the most stable of the basic mesh surfaces. Since it has a relatively voluminous and soft structure, it is preferred in all clothing items where a soft touch is demanded, especially baby clothing. However, its flexibility is less than that of rib, and its surface is smoother. In interlock knitting, edge curling and may turn are not seen. The front and back surface images are the same.










    RR interlock knitting is different from rib knitting because it is produced only on circular knitting machines. All needles of the two-bed machine are in working condition. Interlock fabrics are knitted surfaces formed by knitting two completely full rib knits on the same machine at the same time.


    Main features of interlock fabrics:


    1-They have the same appearance on the front and back, they are double-sided knitted fabrics.


    2- Pattern and surface design are limited,


    3-Can only be produced in double plate circular knitting machines,


    4- The front and back are smooth,


    5-It has a dense structure,


    6- Since the knitting pattern is in the double plate and creates a row from two systems, the amount of yarn spent is the highest,


    7- It can have a very fine or coarse machine fineness,


    8- It is the thickest single-thread knitted fabric produced on the condition that the knitting pattern is formed on the double plate and on the opposite needles and on the condition that it remains the same in the raw materials used. The knitting pattern consists of at least 2 needles at the back and front and 2 rows of loops on top of each other.


    9- It has a higher elasticity and flexibility in the vertical direction than in the horizontal direction,


    10- It has limited elasticity and flexibility in the horizontal direction,


    11-Dimensional stability and shape preservation feature is high,


    12- Compared to other single yarn knitted fabrics, the highest weight knitted fabrics can be obtained,


    13The loop tends to run off one edge when subjected to tension,


    14- As in rib knitted fabric, if the number of loops on the front and back are equal, the loops on both sides will balance each other and curling will not be seen on the edges as in single-layer fabrics. RR Interlock knitted fabrics can only turn from the last knitted end. Since the air is kept between the two knit layers, they have a warmer feature than other single yarn knitted fabrics,


    15-Due to its bulky structure, interlock knitted fabrics have a good moisture absorption feature, a striped pattern can be obtained by using different yarns or colors in successive shuttles,


    16-They have a wide range of use in underwear, summer and winter tops.



    Harosha Knitting


    Harosha knit has LL knit surface. If the face of the knitted fabric is left loop (L) and reverse left loop (L), these surfaces are called (LL) surfaces. Harosha knit fabrics are single-ply fabrics in which both straight and reverse loops are grooved in a single weave. The reverse side of a plain knitted fabric is dominant on both sides of the fabric. They consist of consecutive rows of straight loops and reverse loops on both sides of the fabric, knitted through each other, in the opposite direction from each other. In this context, Harosha comes to the forefront with its difference from rib knits consisting of plaid and reverse loop bars sequentially.


    The simplest harasho fabric is the one in which one row, known as 1*1 reverse, consists of completely straight loops and the next is completely reversed loops. Successive rows of straight and reverse loops combine to form horizontally oriented semi-circular loops on the front and back. Since the shrinkage of this type of knitting is high, the production amount is accordingly low. Length shrinkage rate is around 40-50%. Harasho knits can be produced on both flat and circular machines.. Two rows of needles are needed in the production of these fabrics, as the loops are sometimes pulled to the front and sometimes to the back. In Haraşo machines, instead of using two separate needle sets, one set of double-edged needles is used. These two-edged latch needles will pass from one bed to the other as they pass through each course of the fabric alternately. on the market lifado They are produced in machines with double-headed hook latch needles working in two needle slots and moved by the sinker. Jacquard patterning is possible in this weave. Haraşo knits do not spin like jersey knits. Haraşo fabrics are thicker than jersey fabrics. Another feature of these fabrics is that their maximum stretch is longitudinal. This is due to the widespread use of these fabrics in baby and children's clothing.






    Posted by %PM, 31% 469% 2017 13%:%January in Knitting Read 3501 times

Basic Elements and Knitting Structures