MICROSCOBIC PROPERTIES OF MORO GOAT FIBERS
When the mohair fibers are examined under the microscope, they are quite uniform in their lengthwise appearance. The number of medullary fibers is not high. The high number of medullary fibers in mohair indicates a quality disorder. In mohair, the scales are larger and less prominent than in wool. For this reason, the number of scales at a certain distance is less than wool. The fiber fineness of mohair varies according to its age. The cross-section of the mohair fibers is oval and round. A thick mohair fiber, normally formed; It consists of cuticle, cortex and medula layers. If the fibers that make up a shirt are reviewed, it is understood that among these normal fibers there are kemp hairs that look different. While the thickness of the cuticle layer is greater than 0.7 μm in wool fibers, it is less than 0.5 μm in mohair fibers. This tells us that, unlike wool, the flake layer is almost non-existent in mohair fibers, which is why mohair fibers do not become felted.
a) Cuticle layer:
As with other animal fibers, the upper part of the mohair fibers is covered with cover cells. They are thinner but wider than wool cover cells. The shapes of the covering cells vary more or less in fine, medium and thick fibers. The cuticle layer is responsible for the felting of the wool and mohair fibers as well as the shine of the mohair fibers. Although the mohair fibers have a similar appearance to wool under the microscope, the scale layer of the mohair fibers is very less prominent and the upper edges of the cover cells are not very raised. For this reason, the angle they make with the axis is not as large as in wool fibers. The edges of the mohair fibers do not fold over each other much. This makes the fibers look brighter and softer. The number of cover cells per 100 microns in mohair wool is about five; this number is around 10-11 in merino fibers. The length of the covering cells of the mohair fibers is between 18 and 22 microns. In this respect, the cover cells seen in the mohair fibers and the cover cells in the wool fibers are more or less separated from each other. This allows the fibers to be distinguished from each other.
b) Cortex Layer:
The part of the mohair fibers under the cuticle layer is the cortex layer. This layer, as in wool, consists of spindle or shuttle-shaped cells arranged side by side. The arrangement of these cells is also very similar to wool in terms of the flexibility and strength of the fibers. However, the flexibility of these fibers is slightly lower than wool, and the strength is slightly higher. Between the juxtaposed cortical cells of the mohair fibers are vacuoles of various lengths, in the form of pipes or cigarettes, filled with air. Their ratios in various fibers are quite different. As in wool fibers, there are two types of cells called orthocortex and para cortex in the cortex layer of mohair fibers. However, since the proportion of orthocortex cells in the fibers is very high, it is thought that these are composed of only these cells. The low number of folds in mohair fibers is also related to this.
c) Medula Layer:
Some of the thick mohair fibers have an air-filled space called the medula. The state of this gap can be seen in continuous, interrupted or fragmented forms as in wool. Continuous medula is more common in mohair. While the amount of medullary fiber normally does not exceed 1% in pure mohair flocks, it is considered normal for the medullary fiber ratio to rise up to 3-5%, since some thickening is observed in the fibers as the animals age.
d) Kemp Hairs:
As in wool fibers, Kemp hairs are hairs that can be separated by their coarse appearance, with their white or opaque colors and large medulla among normal fibers. they are dead, brittle and brittle. Their thickness decreases towards the fiber end and tapers. Since the number of cover cells in Kemp hairs is more than 100 with a length of 10 microns, there are two layers of cover cells compared to normal mohair fibers. In this state, Kemp hairs can be easily distinguished from normal fibers under the microscope. Kemp hairs in mohair fibers can be a source of problems for many areas of use, as they can be distinguished from other fibers in appearance. The main problems caused by kemp hairs in clothes are that they have a chalky white appearance, appear lighter after dyeing, and, although less so, their effects on the handle and stinging properties of the fabric.
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MORO GOAT FIBERS
The value of mohair fibers;
- fiber diameter,
- Kemp ratio,
- The amount of cleaning and
- It is determined by its color.
The most important physical properties that give mohair fibers their unique qualities are fineness, length, strength, brightness and corrugation. It shows a great similarity to wool fibers in terms of other physical properties.
The fineness of mohair fibers is considered one of the most important features as it affects the weavings made from them on a large scale. The fineness of these fibers is expressed in microns, as in wool, and the diameter of the fiber is taken into account. However, since the fineness of mohair fibers varies depending on whether the soldering iron is young or old, a standard classification cannot be made as in wool fibers. In mohair, fiber fineness requires three classes as kid, çepiç or adult according to age. The thinnest mohair fibers are in kids and vary between 10-40 microns. This limit is between 25-90 microns in the fibers of adult mohair, and between 25-60 microns in the fibers obtained from mohair. It is known that the fibers partially thicken as the animals age. However, this thickening is only in relation to the diameter width of the fibers. There is no decrease in quality in other physical properties of the fibers. If this thickening in the fibers is not due to the aging of the animals, then other reasons should be considered. Malnutrition, sudden climate change and some diseases can be among these reasons. In this case, deformation has occurred in the fibers. In such fibers, more heterotypy is manifested and their commercial value decreases. The average fineness of Turkish mohair is between 20,5-41,5 microns, while it is 33-36 microns in the world. This shows that Turkish mohair is generally superior to world mohair in terms of fineness, shine and curl shape. The fineness of wool fibers also varies between 20-40 microns, those with a fiber diameter of 22 microns or less are considered fine, those with a diameter of 22-31 microns are considered medium, those between 31-36 microns are considered coarse, and those with a fiber diameter above 36 are considered very coarse.
Fiber length is the growth state of the hairs between two shears, that is, in a 12-month period. In the production of mohair products, the value of the fiber length is as great as the fineness. Therefore, it plays an important role in the evaluation of lint. Fiber length is related to the age of the animal and the time between two shears. Although the fiber length can extend between 6-10 cm in a 15-month growth period, the fiber length can extend up to 20-30 cm in a one-year period. At the same time, the difference between the ages of the sheared kids is the reason why the lengths of the fiber loops that make up the tulips are different. The fiber length may differ from animal to animal, or it may vary according to various parts of the body on the same overalls. The fibers are longest at shoulder level and shorten from the front of the body to the back. In the mohair shirt, the length of the loop and the smooth and tightness of the curl formed by the fibers forming the loop are of great importance in terms of yield as well as other physical properties of the fibers. In addition, the fact that the fibers are crimped creates differences between their normal lengths and their actual lengths.
In general, the length of the fibers becomes shorter as the fibers become thinner. elongates as it thickens. According to the length of the mohair fibers;
Short fibers: Less than 6 inches or 15 cm.
Medium fibers: Less than 9 inches or 23 cm.
Long fibers: It can be classified as those longer than 9 inches or 23 cm.
Mohair fibers have a great advantage over wool fibers in terms of color and shine. Their white color is whiter than light cream. The gloss of the mohair was studied by Barmby and Townend (1967). Van Rensburg and Maasdorp (1985) studied the effect of fiber diameter and chemical treatment on gloss, but found no data on the mechanism of gloss. In general, it is thought that the brightness is related to the less protruding surface structure of the mohair..The brightness of the mohair fibers makes the fabrics made of mohair vibrantly colored, bright and It makes them look attractive. The brightness of the fibers is also related to the reflection of the light. Not only the arrangement of the cover cells, but also their size and the angles they form with the fiber axis affect the appearance of the fibers more or less. If the Turkish mohair is sorted according to the degree of gloss; primarily in Ankara, then Eskişehir, Bolu, Kastamonu and Yozgat.
Wool fibers have a crimped structure and this affects the yarn and fabric properties. Less crimped wool is softer, whereas highly crimped wool is resistant to pilling and felting. The corrugation in the mohair fibers resembles the folds of wool. Among the mohair fibers, the more crimped ones are considered acceptable. The shape and frequency of corrugation seen in fibers are closely related to the heritability of animals. In this respect, it is important in terms of breeding. As the number of undulation, that is, the number of folds, increases in mohair fibers, the fiber length also increases. At the same time, it allows the curls to be shaped into smooth waves. Among Turkish mohair, the best curling is seen in Ankara mohair. In this respect, Kastamonu mohairs follow Ankara mohairs. Corum, Çankırı and Yozgat mohairs are also known to have good corrugation status.
ELASTICITY AND STRENGTH
It is seen that mohair exhibits a different behavior than wool fiber, especially in terms of Young's Modulus. If we look at the absolute and relative strength and elasticity values given by age in mohair fibers, it is seen that the relative strength decreases as the fiber diameter increases. In parallel with the increasing fiber diameter with age, the absolute strength and elasticity values increased, whereas the relative strength values decreased.
Although the mohair fibers are generally white, the wool of some animals may be brown, black or reddish. The color of these undesirable wools comes from the colored pigments in the cortical cells that make up the cortex layer. There are two kinds of pigments in animal fibers, one of which is melanin (metalprotein complex) in the form of particles, and the other is melanoprotein.
Other features of mohair are similar to fleece, namely wool. Mohair is a glossy, elastic, moisture-wicking, heat-resistant, easily dyed and dirt-resistant fiber. The specific gravity is 1,305 g/cm3 in wool and 1,320 g/cm3 in mohair. Wool fiber has the highest ability to absorb moisture among known fiber types.. Wool fibers can absorb more than half their weight in moisture. The reason for this superior dehumidification ability is the multitude of amorphous regions in its structure. However, wool fiber can absorb water very slowly. Because the outer surface of the fiber consists of hydrophobic groups, while the hydrophilic groups are in the center. When the wool fibers are examined under the microscope, the cuticle layer is seen. This layer, which is covered with a thin lanolin (wool oil), gives the fibers a water-repellent feature. This is the factor that makes it difficult for the fibers to absorb water in the first place. Moisture exchange and heat-related properties are close to wool. However The commercial moisture value for mohair fiber is 13%.is relatively low compared to wool fiber. Mohair fibers are heat resistant and high sound insulation fibers. Therefore, they are ideal for use in textiles in public places (theatres, hotel lobbies, offices, etc.). In addition, it has effective insulation properties such as keeping the heat inside in cold weather and acting as a barrier against the penetration of hot air in summer. Also, the felting tendency of mohair fibers is very low. Yield is the expression in % of the clean lint amount that a certain amount of dirty lint will give after being washed and cleaned of all foreign matter, under accepted standard conditions. As in sheep, internal factors coming from the animal's own organism and external factors such as dust, soil, fertilizer and vegetable matter added to the mohair shirt from the outside during the growth of the mohair have an effect on the mohair yield in the Angora goat. The efficiency in mohair is at a very high level, especially in fine fleeces, and varies between 60-90%. The age of the animal does not have a significant effect on the mohair yield. Due to the similarities in the chemical structure and properties of wool and mohair fibers, chemical mothproofing treatments can also be applied to mohair when necessary (carpets and upholstery, etc.). 33 and 1.9% are 23% and 5.9% for knitted fabric.
CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF MORO GOAT FIBERS
In terms of chemical structure, mohair fiber is no different from fleece. Like wool and other epidermis-originated horns and nails, mohair is composed of a protein in the structure of keratin. In its composition;
There is 1% Ash (Mineral Material).
The sulfur contained in the mohair is in different proportions according to the conditions of the region where the Angora goat is raised. The high rate of cortex in mohair fibers causes these fibers to be more sensitive to some chemicals than wool. Therefore, it should not be forgotten that the temperature and time factor play an important role in mohair fibers treated with chemical substances. As a matter of fact, more care should be taken in processes performed with the help of chemical substances such as washing, dyeing, bleaching and carbonization. This feature of the cortex layer of the mohair also provides good dyeing and bright colors. While examining the chemical properties of mohair fibers, it should be noted that sun rays are harmful to these fibers. As in sheep, if the mohair is exposed to the sun's rays for a long time on the animal's back before shearing, the ability of dyeing of the mohair fibers is lost, and the strength and flexibility properties of the mohair fibers decrease. The spread of the oil on the cuticle layer of the fibers ensures that the fibers are in close contact with each other without matting. If the amount of oil in the mohair is less than normal, since the protection of the ringlets against external factors will decrease, important properties such as the colors, brightness and softness of the mohair fibers decrease and therefore the value of the mohair decreases. Compared to wool, mohair fibers contain less oil. amount is around 15-4%. On the other hand, since it is more difficult to remove 6 gram of oil from the lint during wool washing than wool, a larger amount of washing agent should be used when washing the mohair fibers. Also, it is recommended to use less (or no) soda during wool washing, since the mohair fibers are more sensitive to alkalis than wool. Features such as the shape and color of the amount of oil they contain play a major role in the classification and evaluation of Turkish mohair. Because this oil affects the coloration and cleaning of the lint at the same time. The oil, which is not easily cleaned during washing and remains on the fibers, reduces the value of the lint. According to the colors of the oils found in the mohair; It is called white, yellow, brown and reddish oil.
1. White grease is the most desirable because it can be easily removed by washing, as it shows the color of the lint white.
2. Yellow oil shows the color of the lint yellowish, but this is also considered acceptable as it can be washed easily.
3. Brown oil shows the color of the lint dirty brown and is not easy to wash. Therefore, it is not considered acceptable.
4. Reddish oil shows the color of the fibers as red. It is not acceptable because it is sticky, difficult to wash and clean.
Although mohair fibers, which are defined as luxury fibers, are similar in structure to wool fiber in general, they are different in that they are much finer and much less crimped. Therefore, they are brighter and softer than wool.
When considered as a cross-sectional shape, the mohair fiber is in a form closer to the circle than the wool. The flakes on the outer surface of the fiber are thinner and more flat and smooth. While there are 100-5 flakes in 6 microns on the surface of the mohair fiber, there are approximately 11 flakes in the wool. Therefore, the fiber surface has a smoother appearance in mohair. As a result, this feature causes the mohair fiber to reflect light better and gain a unique silky shine. In addition, the scales in mohair fiber are softer and smoother than the scales in wool fiber. As a result, this feature causes the fabric to be relatively open, as the mohair yarns do not intertwine as much as the wool yarns in weaving. For this reason, suiting fabrics containing mohair fiber are preferred more than woolen fabrics in humid climates, especially in Japan. In addition, mohair fibers are also known for being very durable due to the fact that the cortex layer occupies a lot of space due to the absence of core channels other than kemp hairs in these fibers.
USAGE AREAS OF MONOROW
1-In the production of fabric in the production of clothes
2- In the production of felt and fedora hats from short fiber wool
3-Weaving of gloves, socks, hats, shawls and head coverings
4- Carpets and blankets are made from yarns obtained from thick mohair.
5-Used in upholstery fabric and knitwear industry.
6- It is used in making souvenirs.
7-It is used in making shoes and slippers.
8- It is used in paint rollers and stamps.
9-Used in wigs and children's toys.