LENGTH UNITS
Standardized by the International System of Units (SI) in most of the world The metric system of measurement is used. British units of measurement, official in England in 1995 was replaced by the metric system. However, it is observed that the old measurement units are still used in daily life. British measurement units also formed the basis of the American measurement system. The metric system is used in Turkey.
It is one of the seven basic units defined by the International System of Units (SI). One unit of length is metre. It is denoted by the symbol "m". The names of the units of measurement derived by the SI are written in lower case. Unit symbols for unit names associated with individuals always start with a capital letter (eg, Watt symbol is W, while meter is denoted by m.) Liter (L) is excluded from this application. It is very important that symbols are written correctly. It can mean another unit when it is lowercase, and another unit when it is uppercase. For example, Megagram Symbol: Mg, Milligram Symbol: mg In the English system, there is no uppercase, lowercase rule.
Micron (µ)
Micron is one of the subsets of the meter. One millionth of a meter (1/1000000 m),
one thousandth of a millimeter (1/1000 mm) in size, also called micrometer It is a microscopic unit of length measurement. It is denoted by the symbol µm. It is used for very small and precise length measurements.
1 m = 1000000 µm (Micrometer)
Micron is used in many fields as well as in textile fiber diameter measurement. Many different methods and devices are used in these measurements. Especially wool fiber quality is expressed with ''s''. Micron (µ) equivalents of ''s'' values are given below;
S Values Average diameter in microns (µ)
80's 18.8 micron
70's 19,7 micron
64's 20,7 micron
60's 23,3 micron
58's 24,9 micron
56's 26,4 micron
50's 30,5 micron
48's 32,6 micron
46's 34,0 micron
44's 36,2 micron
40's 38,7 micron
36's 39,7 microns
The higher the 's' degree, the finer the fiber.
meters (m)
The basic unit of length measurement in the International System of Measurement (SI) is the metre. The meter is denoted as "m" for short. The first definition of the meter was made by the French National Assembly on May 8, 1790. On October 21, 1983, the Seventeenth General Conference on Weights and Measures defined the meter as the distance light travels in vacuum in 1/299.792.458 seconds..Length measurement tools are used to determine the length. Some of these are those;
Units of Measure for Length Multiples and Submultiples of the Meter
Kilometer (km): It is 1000 times longer than a meter. 1 km = 1000 meters
Hectometer (hm): 100 times the length of a meter. 1 m = 100 m
Dekameter (dam): It is 10 times the length of a meter. 1 roof = 10 meters
Meter(m): 1 meter = 0,1 dam = 0,01 hm = 0.001 km (multiples)
1 meter = 10 dm =100 cm = 1000 mm = 1000000 µm (increments)
Decimeter (dm): It is one tenth of a meter long. 1 dm = 0,1 m
Centimeter (cm): It is one hundredth of a meter long. 1 cm = 0,01 m
Millimeter (mm): It is one thousandth of a meter long. 1mm = 0,001m
Micron (micrometer) ( µm): It is one millionth of a meter long. 1 µm = 0,000001 m
We need measurement units in every aspect of our lives. Some of the professions using length measurements are as follows: In various fields of engineering, architects, carpenters, tailors, machinists, plumbers, draftsmen, etc., the work done by using standard length measurements becomes easier and these processes are trusted.
In the textile sector, the basic principles of the metric system, especially yarn count calculations, We use the meter as the unit.
For example; To find the number of a thread (in the metric system), its length in meters is required. The device used to obtain the specified length of yarn as a hank is the spinning wheel.
Length Measurement Unit (Metric System) Conversion Examples
When converting length measurement units (metric);
If the sought unit is one step askat, we multiply the known unit by 10.
If the sought unit is one level higher, we divide the known unit by 10.
Example 1: 3 kilometers (km), how many meters?
Solution:
According to 1 km 1000 m;
3 km x 1000 = 3000 m
Example 2: 400 hectometers (hm), how many meters?
Solution: Since 1 hm makes 100 m;
400 x 100 = 40000 m
Example 3: 60 dekameter(dam), how many meters?
Solution: Since 1 roof makes 10 m;
60 x 10 = 600 m
Example 4: 700 hm, how many km?
Solution: Since km is one digit higher than hm, we divide by 10.
700 / 10 = 70 km
Example 5: 80 hm, how many roofs?
Solution: Since decameter(dam) hm has a step substitution, we multiply it by 10.
80 x 10 = 800 dams
Example 6: How many cm is 1,5 m?
Solution: Since 1 m makes 100 cm;
1,5x100 = 150cm
Example 7: How many mm is 22 cm?
Solution: Since 1 cm makes 10 mm;
(or we multiply the known unit by 10 if the unit sought is a rank askat.)
22 x 10 = 220mm
Example 8: How many µm is 2 cm?
Solution: Since 100 cm makes 1000000 µm;
100 cm 1000000 µm
It makes 2 cm x µm.
2.1000000 / 100 = 20000 µm
Inch
'Inch' is the imperial unit of length measurement. inch in English usage, When plural, it is written as inches. Symbols (in) or (″) are used for inches. The common one is the double apostrophe (″).
1 inch = 25,4 mm = 2,54 cm = 0,0254 m.
In the traditional systems of the states affiliated to the USA and the British Commonwealth of Nations Although the unit of length is used, in some cases even in countries where the metric system is used inches are used. For example,
1-TV and computer screentheir frame rates,
2-Diameters of pipes,
3-Diameters of bicycle and automobile tires,
4-Gramophone records,
5-Width of floppy disks,
6-The diameter of cigars is expressed in inches in many countries.
Hank
It is a special unit of length measurement in the English measurement system. as a symbol h is used. In the textile industry, a certain length of a skein of helical yarn means. The hank is used as a unit of length in the Ne system. The value of 1 hank, When converting to other length units, different length values are obtained depending on the type of fiber.
For example;
In cotton fiber, 1 hank = 840 yards = 768 meters
In wool (Worsted) fiber, 1 hank = 560 yards = 512 meters
In wool (Strayhgarn) fiber, 1 hank = 256 yards = 234 meters
In flax fiber, 1 hank = 300 yards = 274,2 meters
Yard
Yard; It is a unit of length measurement in the imperial system. your yard The standard symbol is yd.
Length Measurement Units and Values in the English System
1 yard = 91,44 cm = 0,914 meters
1 foot(feet) = 12 inches
1 yard = 36 inches = 3 feet
1 mile = 1760 yards = 5280 feet
Conversion Examples of Length Measures in the English System
Example 1: How many inches is 25 yards (yd)?
Solution: Since 1 yd is 36 inches;
25 x 36 = 900″
Example 2: How many inches is 50 feet?
Solution: Since 1 foot is 12 inches;
50 x 12 = 600″
Example 3: 8 miles is how many yards?
Solution: Since 1 mile is 1760 yards;
8 x 1760 = 14080 yd
Example 4: How many yards does 720″ make?
Solution: Since 1 yard makes 36″;
720/36 = 20 yards
WEIGHT UNITS
Kilogram
The kilogram is the basic unit of measure of mass in the International System of Units (SI). Kilograms are abbreviated as “kg”. Kilogram is used for weight measurement. Before being accepted as a constant etalon mass in 1889, kg was defined as the mass of 4 dm³ of pure water at +1 °C. In the same year, the cylindrical etalon (legal measurement model) made of iridium and platinum, 39 mm in diameter and 39 mm in height, located in the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in Paris, the capital of France, was accepted as equal to the mass of the object..Weighing instruments are used to detect the weight. Some of these are those;
Weight Unit of Measure Multiples and Subfolders of Kilogram
Ton (t): It weighs 1000 times a kilogram. (= megagram) 1 ton = 1000 kg
Kental (q): It weighs 100 times a kilogram. 1 q = 100 kg
Kilogram(kg):
1 kg = 0,01 quintal = 0,001 tons
1 kg = 10 hg = 100 min = 1000 g = 10000 dg = 100000 cg = 1000000 mg
Hectogram (hg): It weighs one tenth of a kilogram. 1 hg = 0,1 kg
Decagram (min): One hundredth of a kilogram. 1 min = 0,01 kg
Gram (g): It weighs one thousandth of a kilogram. 1 g = 0,001 kg
Decigram(dg) It weighs one ten thousandth of a kilogram. 1 dg = 0,0001 kg
Centigram (cg): It weighs one hundred thousandth of a kilogram. 1 cg = 0,00001 kg
Milligram (mg): It weighs one millionth of a kilogram. 1 mg = 0,000001 kg
Weight Measurement Unit Conversion Examples
Example 1: How many kg is 6 tons (t)?
Solution: Since 1 ton makes 1000 kg;
6 tons x 1000 = 6000 kg
Example 2: How many kg does 35 quinal(q) make?
Solution: Since 1 q makes 100 kg;
35 x 100 = 3500 kg
Example 3: How many hectograms (hg) does 26 kg make?
Solution: Since 1 kg makes 10 hg;
26 x 10 = 260 hg
Example 4: 7,23 kg is how many grams?
Solution: Since 1 kg makes 1000 g;
7,23 x 1000 = 7230 g
Example 5: How many kg is 1654 g?
Solution: Since 1 kg makes 1000 g;
1654 / 1000 = 1,654 kg
Free
The unit of weight measurement in the English measurement systems is the pound. Also written in pounds. The standard symbol for the pound is the lb. The pound is also used to mean the British pound, that is, as a currency. It is especially used as a lb in textiles.
The basic unit of weight in textiles (in the Ne system) is the pound.
Weight Measurement Units and Values in the British System
1 Pound = 453,6 grams (g) 16 ounces = 7000 grains (gr)
1 ounce(symbol: oz) = 437,5 grains(symbol: gr) =28,35 grams (g)
(1 ounce= 480 grains used by jewelers)
Conversion Examples of Weight Measures in the British System
Example 1: How many pounds in 48 ounces?
Solution: Since 1 lb makes 16 ounces;
48 / 16 = 3 lbs.
Example 2: 28000 grains make how many pounds?
Solution: Since 1 lb makes 7000 grains;
28000 / 7000 = 4 lbs.
Example 3: 9 pounds is how many ounces?
Solution: Since 1 lb makes 16 ounces;
9 x 16 = 144 ounces
CONVERTING WEIGHT AND LENGTH UNITS
Values of the meter according to the English measures of length
1 meter = 1,0936 yards = 39,37 inches = 0,0013 hank (cotton)
Values of imperial measurements in metric units
1 yard = 0.914 m 91,4 cm
1 inch = 0,0254 m 2,54 cm 25,4 mm
Yard and metric values of Hank's unit of measure
1 hank (based on fiber type) =
Cotton : 840 yd 768 m
Wool - Worsted :560 yd 512 m
Wool – Strayhgarn: 256 yd 234 m
Linen :300 yd 274,2 m
Length Measurement Units Conversion Examples
Example 1: How many meters is 25 yards (yd)?
Solution: Since 1 yd makes 0,914 m;
25 x 0,914 = 22,85 m
Example 2: 40 meters is how many inches?
Solution: Since 1 meter is 39,37″ (inches);
40 x 39,37 = 1574,8″
Example 3: How many yards is 5 hank(cotton)?
Solution: Since 1 hank (cotton) has made 840 yards;
5 x 840 = 4200 yd
Example 4: 5 hank, how many meters?
Solution: Since 1 hank (cotton) makes 768 m;
5 x 768 = 3840 m
Converting Kilograms and Pounds
Values of kilograms and grams in English weight measurement units:
1 kg = 2,204 pounds 35,27 ounces 15432,35 g (grain)
1 g = 0,0022 lb 0,035 ounce 15,43 g
Values of British weight measures in kilograms and grams:
1 lb = 0,45359 kg 453,59 g
1 ounce = 0,02834 kg 28,349 g
Weight Measurement Units Conversion Examples
Note: We can use 1 pound = 453,59 grams = ~454 grams.
Example 1: 4 pounds is how many grams?
Solution: Since 1 lb makes 454 grams;
4 x 454 = 1816 g
Example 2: How many grams (grain) make 6 g(grams)?
Solution: Since 1 g makes 15,43 g;
6 x 15,43 = 92,58 g
Example 3: How many grams in 20 ounces?
Solution: Since 1 ounce makes 28,349 grams;
20 x 28,349 = 566,98 gr.